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structed by John Wolff (Wolff 1999).
[edit]Forms which can be reconstructed as monosyllables with a great deal of certainty
*baw 'up, above'
*bay 'woman'
*beg 'spool, wind'
*bit 'carry in fingers'
*buñ 'fontanelle'
*but 'pluck out'
*dem 'think, brood'
*gem 'first, hold in fist'
*ɣiq 'Imperata cylindrica'
*kan 'eat'
*si-kan 'fish, what is eaten with staple'
*pa-kan 'feed, weft'
*paN-kan 'eat, feed'
*kub
*kubkub 'cover over'
*takub 'cover over in a cupped way' (where *ta- is a fossilized prefix)
*lid
*belit 'wind'
*bilid 'wind, twist, or fold s.t. over'
*pulid 'turn round'
*luk 'concave bend'
*lum 'ripe'
*nem 'six'
*ñam 'taste'
*ñeŋ 'look, stare'
*ŋa 'agape (mouth)'
*kaŋa 'be open (as mouth)'
*baŋa 'gap, stand open'
*binaŋa (< -in- + baŋa) / *minaŋa 'mouth of river'
*beŋa 'be agape'
*búŋa 'flower'
*paŋa 'forking'
*ʃaŋa 'branch'
*pan 'bait'
*pat 'four'
*peʃ 'squeeze, deflate'
*pit
*kepit 'pinched together'
*pu 'grandparent/child'
*put 'blow'
*ʃaw 'wash, rinse off, dunk'
*ʃay 'who?'
*ʃek 'stuff, fill chock full'
*ʃeŋ 'stop up'
*ʃep 'suck'
*ʃuk 'go in, throuɣ'
*taw 'man'
*tay 'bridge'
*matay 'die'
*patay 'dead, kill'
*tuk 'strike, peck, beak'
[edit]Sequences which are likely (or nay have been) monosyllabic roots, but cannot be unequivocally reconstructed
*baŋ 'fly'
*bu 'fish trap'
*buʃ 'puff, blow out' (not well attested; most monosyllables occur in Oceanic languages)
*dañ 'old (of things)'
*daŋ 'heat near a fire'
*dem 'dark, cloudy'
*padem 'extinguish'
*diʃ 'cut, lance'
*ka 'elder sibling'
*kid 'file, rasp'
*lag 'spread out'
*belag 'spread out'
*pálag 'palm of hand'
*qelag 'wing'
*laŋ 'placed lengthwise'
*galaŋ 'wedge, s.t. placed underneath to support'
*halaŋ 'lie athwart, bar, be an obstacle'
*leb 'for water to come over s.t.'
*lem - reflexes variously mean 'night' or 'darkness'
*luñ
*luluñ 'roll up'
*baluñ 'fold over, wrap'
*muɣuɣ 'gargle, einse out mouth' (monosyllabic status is weak)
*pak 'make a sound of 'pak', wings (from the sound)'
*tan 'set trap'
*taʃ 'top'
*tuk 'top, summit'
*tun 'lead on a rope'
[edit]Reconstructed doubled monosyllables phonologically but which cannot be proven to be monosyllabic roots
*baba 'carry on back'
*bakbak 'remove outer layer of skin, bark'
*baqbaq 'mouth'
*bañbañ 'kind of reed used for mats, Donax canniformis'
*bekbek 'pulverize'
*biɣbiɣ 'lips (lip-like growth)'
*biŋbiŋ 'hold, guide'
*biʃbiʃ 'sprinkle'
*buɣ(buɣ) 'broken into small pieces'
*buñbuñ 'down, body hair' (only in Taiwan and the Philippines; probably not PAn)
*dabdab 'set fire to'
*dakdak 'slam s.t. down' (only in the Philippines)
*dasdas 'chest'
*debdeb 'chest'
*diŋdiŋ 'wall'
*diqdiq 'boil'
*gapgap 'feel, grope'
*ɣaʃɣaʃ 'scratched'
*idid 'move rapidly in small motions' (e.g., 'fan')
*jutjut 'pull at'
*kaŋkaŋ 'spread the legs' (only in the Philippines and western Indonesia)
*bakaŋ 'bow-legged'
*kaqkaq 'split, torn, with intestines'
*keŋkeŋ 'rigid, tight'
*kepkep 'clasp'
*dakep 'catch'
*ʃikep 'catch s.t. moving, tight'
*kiskis 'scrape off'
*kiʃkiʃ 'grate, file'
*kudkud 'grate, rasp, scratch out'
*kañuskus 'fingernail'
*kuʃkuʃ 'rub, scrape'
*laplap 'flapping, loose (like skin on newborn)' (only in Paiwan and Philippine languages)
*mekmek 'fragments'
*neknek 'gnat, fruit fly'
*nemnem 'think'
*palaqpaq 'frond'
*pejpej 'press together'
*ququ 'crab'
*sapsap 'grope'
*ʃaʃa 'collect palm leaves for thatching'
*ʃakʃak 'beat, chop'
*ʃelʃel 'regret'
*ʃelʃel 'insert, cram in'
*ʃiʃi 'kind of mollusk'
*ʃikʃik 'search through thoroughly (as for lice)'
*ʃuʃu 'breast, teat'
*ʃuɣʃuɣ 'follow behind'
*ʃuŋʃuŋ 'go against' (only in the Philippines and western Indonesia)
*taktak 'fall, drop'
*tamtam 'smack lips' or taste'
*taʃtaʃ 'rent, break thread'
*bútaʃ 'hole'
*ɣetaʃ 'break through, break open'
*teʃteʃ 'rip open'
*tutu 'strike'
*waqwaq 'channel'
*witwit 'swinging to and fro'
[edit]Sequences which occur as final syllables over a wide area but which cannot be reconstructed as a monosyllabic root
*buk
*dabuk 'ashes'
*dábuk 'beat to pulp'
*ɣabuk 'pulverized'
*qabuk 'dust'
*bun 'heap, stack'
*subun 'heap, pile'
*timbun / *tábun (?) 'heap'
*bun 'dew mist'
*ɣábun 'fog'
*buq 'add, increase'
*tubuq 'grow, shoot'
*duŋ 'protect, shelter'
*ket
*deket 'near'
*jeket 'stick'
*ñiket / ñaŋket 'sticky'
*ñiket 'sticky substance'
*siket 'tie'
*kuŋ
*bekuŋ 'arch'
*dekuŋ 'bent'
*leŋkuŋ 'bent'
*kup
*aŋkup 'put in cupped hands'
*tukup 'cover'
*kut
*dakut 'take in hand'
*ɣakut 'tie together'
*ʃaŋkut 'caught on a hook'
*laq
*telaq / *kelaq 'crack' or 'split'
*belaq 'cleft'
*liŋ
*baliŋ 'wind around, turn s.t. around'
*biliŋ 'turning round'
*giliŋ 'roll over s.t.'
*guliŋ 'roll up'
*paliŋ 'wind around' or 'turn body'
*liw
*baliw 'return, go back'
*ʃaliw 'give in exchange'
*luʃ 'slip' or 'slippery' or 'smooth'
*naw
*línaw 'calm, unroiled'
*tiqenaw 'clear'
*ŋaw
*baŋaw 'bedbug'
*láŋaw 'fly'
*tuŋaw 'kind of mite causing itch'
*ŋet
*qaŋet 'warm'
*ʃeŋet 'sharp, stinger'
*ʃeŋet 'acrid in smell'
*paɣ 'be flat'
*dampaɣ / *lampaɣ / *dapaɣ / *lapaɣ 'be flat'
*sampaɣ 'mat, spread out'
*puŋ 'cluster, bunch'
*taɣ
*dataɣ 'flat area'
[edit]Cohen (1999)

The monosyllabic Proto-Austronesian roots below are reconstructed by E.M. Kempler Cohen (Cohen 1999).
Cohen's Uniform-Root (UR) thesis states that "in the evolution from the primordial ancestor to and through early Austronesian, all wordbases and affixes were coined exclusively from CVC morphemes" (Cohen 1999:13, 53).
There are also four ancillary hypotheses to the Uniform-Root thesis (Cohen 1999:13):
Merging was a highly productive coining method
All canonical forms of etyma began and ended with a consonant, and consisted of consonant-vowel alternations except only where reduplication affected consecutive consonants.
Each pre-nasalized consonant was a unit phoneme.
Phonemic gradation was a highly productive coining method.
In Cohen's orthography (early Austronesian phoneme-circuits) (Cohen 1999:8):
K = back (velar, uvular, glottal, etc.) consonants
J = palatal and alveolar (except lateral) consonants
L = liquid consonants: /l, r, R/
P = labial consonants: /m, p, b, B, w/
V = vowels
Note that the roots given in the last four sections ("supposed roots" sections) are not supported by Cohen. Instead he rebuts them with alternative CVC roots.
[edit]Early Austronesian morphemes reconstructed under the Uniform-Root thesis
Note: Subscript numbers indicate that the roots may be identical. Underlining indicates that the morpheme may be identical with, rather than derived from, the other morpheme which it is nested under.
[edit]KVK
Onomatopoeic
**KVK 'reverberating sound, outcry'
**KaK 'to cry out'
**KiK 'to cry out (in a high pitch)'
**KVK 'scrape against'
**KVK 'to connect/fit with, fasten,, besides, and'
**KVK 'to hold fast, be firm'
**KVK 'to heat, burn'
**KVK 'to glow, be bright'
Visage-verbalized
**KVK 'act of opening the mouth/gaping/gasping'
**KVK 'open-mouthed, dumb, speechless, confused'
**KVK 'to open up, move apart, fissure'
**ni? 'act of showing the teeth'
[edit]KVJ
Onomatopoeic
**gis 'sound of tearing/breaking off'
**KVJ (?) 'to remove, open'
**nut 'sound of mumbling/grumbling'
**KVJ1 'sound of wheezing/sniffling/blowing the nose'
**KVJ2 'sound uttered due to constriction'
**KVJ 'to bind, enclose'
**keC 'adhesive, sticky'
**KVJ (?) 'obscured, overcast'
**KVJ3 'rhythymic/spasmodic sound, tapping, throbbing'
**KVJ 'to flicker, jerk, blink; startled'
Visage-verbalized
**nis
**ñut
**KVJ (?)
** KVJ
**KVJ (?)
**KVJ
**KVJ
**KVJ
**KVJ
**KVJ
**KVJ
[edit]KVL
Onomatopoeic
**KVL1
**KVL
**KVL2
**KVL
**KVL
**KVL
**KVL
**KVL3
**KVL
**KVL
**KVL
**KVL
[edit]KVP
Onomatopoeic
**(ñ,n)eP
**KVP
**ñaw
**Kaw
**KV(b,p)
**KVP
**gem 'to grasp'
**KV(b,p)
Visage-verbalized
**num 'ack of drinking'
**Ka(b,p)
**KVP
[edit]JVK
Onomatopoeic
**JVK1
**JVK
**JVK2
**JVK
**JVK
**JVK
**JVK
**JVK
**JVK (?)
**JVK3
**JVK (?)
**JVK4
**JVK5
**JVK
**JVK
**JVK
Visage-verbalized
**Den
**JVK
**JaK
**ten
**teg
**tu?
**(t,s)uk
**JiK 'act of showing the teeth/gums'
[edit]JVJ
Onomatopoeic
**JVJ
**JVJ
**JVJ
**JVJ
**JVJ
**JVJ
**JVJ
Visage-verbalized
**zVz 'act of curling the upper lip, showing the teeth/gums'
[edit]JVL
Onomatopoeic
**JVL1
**JVL
**z(i,e)r
JVL
**JVL
**JVL2
JVL
Visage-verbalized
**Jir
[edit]JVP
Onomatopoeic
**JV(b,p)
**JV(b,p)
**JV(b,p)
**JV(b,p) (?)
**JV(b,p)
**JVP
**JVP
**JVP
**JVP
**JVP 'sound of collision'
**JVP (?)
[edit]LVK
Onomatopoeic
**LVK1
**LVK (?)
**LVK
**LVK
**LVK2
**LVK
**LVK
Visage-verbalized
**LVK
**LVK (?)
**LVK
Sound-expressive
**LVK
**LVK
**LVK
**l(i,e)N (?)
**LVn
**lVy
**LVK
**l(i,e)N
[edit]LVJ
Onomatopoeic
**rVJ1
**LVJ
**rVJ2
**LVJ
**LVJ
**LVJ
**LVJ
**LVJ
**LVJ
**(l,r)VJ
**LVJ
[edit]LVL
Onomatopoeic
**lV(r,R)
*LVR
**(l,r)VL
**LV(r,R)
Sound-expressive
**lVL
[edit]LVP
Onomatopoeic
**l(e,u)b
**LVP
**lem
**LVP
**lem
**LV(b,p)1
**LV(b,p)
**LV(b,p)
**LVP
**lem
**LVP
**LVb
**LVP
**LVP2
**LVP
**lem
**Raw
**LV(b,p)
[edit]PVK
Onomatopoeic
**(b,p)VK1 'sound of collision'
**PVK
**PVJ
**pu(h,q)
**PVK
**pu(h,q)
**(b,p)VK2 'sound of breaking/cracking'
**PVK
**PVK
**PVK
**(b,p)VK
**PVK
[edit]PVJ
Onomatopoeic
**(b,p)VJ1
**PVJ
**(b,p)VJ
**(b,p)VJ
**(b,p)VJ
**buJ
**(b,p)VJ
**PVJ
**(b,p)VJ2
**(b,p)VJ
**buJ
**PVJ
**pus
[edit]PVL
Onomatopoeic
**(b,p)VL
**(b,p)VL
**(b,p)VL
**(b,p)VL
Visage-verbalized
**mul
**muR
Sound-expressive (?)
**(b,p)Vl
**(b,p)VL
**(b,p)V(l,r)
[edit]PVP
Onomatopoeic
**pup
**PVP (?)
**baw
**pap
**(b,B)u(b,B)
**PVP (?)
**baw
Visage-verbalized
**Paw
**PVP
**baw
Resyllabized (?)
**bab
**PVP (?)
**baw
**bVb
[edit]CVC roots
The following roots strongly support Cohen's Uniform-Root (UR) thesis.
**teg 'firm, bolt upright, sturdy' (also, **JVK)
**lem- 'soft, weak, moist, tired'
**keC 'adhesive, sticky'
**gem 'to grasp'
**kun 'throat'
**KVK 'to open up; opening...'
**til 'small protruding part'
**pap 'flattened'
**ger 'to shake, shiver, tremble'
**Din 'hear, ear'
[edit]Supposed CV roots
Cohen notes that supposed CV roots can be better analyzed as CVC roots, where the final -C can be -K, -J, -L, or -P.
**bu1- 'round,
> swollen, big-bellied, pregnant
> buttocks, posterior, rectum, stern
> hill, mountain, elevated ground
> lump, bump, hump'
Alternative candidates: **PVK, **buJ, **PVJ
**bu2- 'rotten, mold'
**bu3- 'white' (meanings of derived forms: to remove, to split; foam)
**lu- 'soft (matter)
> mud(dy); to wallow
> soft, tender, ripe
> grease, oil; to (be)smear
**le- 'moist; mud; tired, weary, slack; to give (way)'
**tu- 'heel, stump, base, prop, support'
**su- 'comb' (meanings of alternative forms: to insert; to pentrate; to crush)
**si- 'side, edge' (meanings of derived forms: percussive sound; to spread apart; to deviate)
**pu- 'master, lord'
**ba- 'to carry' (meanings of derived forms: to come together; to take away; to lay/lie across; to connect)
**li- 'to twist, turn, wind, whirling' (cf. Blust's *(k,q)ali- prefix)
[edit]Supposed VCV roots
Cohen notes that VCV candidates can be better analyzed as part of a merger of two CVC morphemes (CVCVC), or, rarely, as part of a reduced reduplicated (Cohen 1999:139).
**ela 'space between, interval, interspace'
**iri 'line, row, file; to trail, drag'
**awa 'wide open space' (meanings of derived forms: to cut; to open; to bite; to crack)
**abu 'dust, ashes; ash-gray'; **ebu 'dust' (meanings of derived forms: to fragment; to separate)
**abu 'fog, mist, smoke; turbid' (meanings of derived forms: to close over; to surround; to conceal)
[edit]Supposed -V-V- roots
Cohen notes that many -V-V- morpheme candidates cited by Nothofer can be better analyzed as composing solely of CVC morphemes (Cohen 1999:140).
**u-a {'to come out, open up, take off'}
> 'to vomit'
> 'to bubble up'
> 'foam'
> 'spit, spittle'
> 'to open, loosen, untie'
> 'to yawn, gasp'
> 'wide open, wide, hole, hollow'
> 'to come out'; 'outside'
> 'to peel'
> 'lever, dibbling stick'
**i-a 'to cry, whine; cry of fowl, twitter, chirp' (meanings of derived forms: reverberating sound, etc.)
**a-i 'hook; to grasp with a hook' (meanings of derived forms: to hold together; to cut into; to constrict; to fasten)
**i-a '(to) shine, sparkle, dazzle; light' (meanings of derived forms: to burn; to gnaw)
**u-u {'protruding'}
> 'headland, point'
> 'nose, beak, snout'
> 'mouth, labial orifice, lips'
> 'horn'
**a-a 'mouth' (meanings of derived forms: to open; to separate)
**u-u 'blunt, dull(-witted)' (meanings of derived forms: to wear down; to compact; to diminish)
**u-u 'to mumble' (meanings of derived forms: to burn; to light up)
**a-u 'to mix, knead'
**i-i 'tooth; to show teeth; jagged'
[edit]Supposed roots consisting solely of consonants
Cohen notes that these roots have very weak supporting evidence (Cohen 1999:229). His reconstructions in this section contain various glyphs that are not shown here.
**l-p-t 'to fold'
**k-(C)-p 'to blink, flash'
**l-c/s-C 'to slip, slide, glide'
**k-l/r-C-t 'wrinkled'


roto-Mon-Khmer

[edit]Noun
ɗaak
water, liquid
[edit]Descendants
Vietic: *ɗaak
Vietnamese: nước
Khmer: ទឹក (tɨk)
Mon: ဍာ် (daik)



ffu yuekk lang


yosimikaa ea


indesibels yu-kasn pqk
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