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napilselekke

napi.txt





tiki ポリネシアの伝統的な立像

puka 膨張

瞼 mabuta

辛子、芥子 羅 シナーピ sinapi

ipus built

zega opening -> karamituku, karadawo sakasani

maki キツネザル


Kippu wa dokode kaemasu ka? - Hvor kan jeg keube en billet.

[vor er kaufen oyn billet] dare demo} ?doko ni itera?}

hatte haben p o p


misa 心, feeling

napi today

izanaki / izanami isa lead na that of mi femme / ki male


_ Bunpou teki puriori to

_ verb no ato no ypuso ni acc-flict


"kadakayo amin"はいわばイディオムのようなもので、「あなたがたみなさんに」といった意味を表します。

Naimbag a malem kadakayo amin! 「みなさん、こんにちは」


amin みんな、全て

kasta そのように


"Naimbag nga agsapa!" "Kasta met!"

_____

ika スゴイ、大きい

pam 食う、食べ物

mun 人


wa ~は、が、の

pu ~を

sa ~へ(移動・変化の終点は、全てこれ)

si ~で、に(副詞句を作る) pay si  風で→速く(風のつもりで) puo si  火で→熱中して(火のつもりで)

i ~から、より


助動詞

pam-tin-nat ba.
食わ せた の だ。…使役形。tin を挟む。

pam-nan-nat ba.
食わ れた の だ。…受け身形。nan を挟む。



冠詞 u- は、代表的な意味を抽出する。「名詞」の明示。抽象名詞を作る u-tuy 形 u-uo 善、愛



1 puti 2 saki 3 mita 4 tapa 5 misa 6 sita 7 pitu 8 nani 9 tisa


4 nasi

1 i-sa 2 pasam 4 mus 6 anem

8 asto asta

7 saba 8 tamani

3 musi tuna saba namin kapusa

4 tis 5 tina

1 apuna taka napu asi ista tasa ni-pima nini um-buni -ebuni

2 aduna mata *biga nimapa amin nupa puta

5 tuna aski masa nima mubis

10 kumi ki-pu putim tuma dasa deca das-ta

tanqi 10 kakeru 10 no XX


1-set una

1st pu/ysti

1st hui --stina


--tsu for countable --apui to all for nombers

0 nanti mana-imapas

__________


古代日本語は現代日本語と発音が違います。

「ち」「つ」は「ティ」「トゥ」、「は」行は「パ」行、「を」は「ウォ」と発音されていました。
「ひとつ」の発音は「ピトトゥ」でした。



1 ひとつ
2 ふたつ
3 みつ
4 よつ
5 いつつ
6 むつ むっつ
7 ななつ
8 やつ
9 ここのつ

10 とを

11 とを あまり ひとつ
12 とを あまり ふたつ
13 とを あまり みつ
14 とを あまり よつ

20 はたち 20 個

30 みそぢ 3 × 10個

40 よそぢ 4 × 10個

50 いそぢ 5 × 10

60 むそぢ 6 × 10


70 ななそぢ ななそじ 7 × 10

80 やそぢ やそじ 8 × 10

90 ここのそぢ ここのそじ 9 × 10

100 もも もも 100

「つ」、「ち」、「ぢ」は一般的な物を数えるときに用いる接尾辞



個数(-つ) 人数(-たり) 日数(-うか)

1 ひと
ひとつ ひとり ひとひ

2 ふた

ふたつ ふたり ふつか

3 み
みつ みたり みか

4 よ
よつ よたり よか

5 いつ
いつつ いつたり いつか

6 む
むつ むたり むゆか

7 なな
ななつ ななたり なぬか

8 や
やつ やたり やうか

9 ここの
ここのつ ここのたり ここぬか

10 と
とを とたり とをか

20 はた
はたち はたたり はつか

30 みそ
みそぢ みそたり みそか


32 個 = みそぢ あまり ふたつ
32 日 = みそか あまり ふつか
32 年 = みそとせ あまり ふたとせ



100 もも

200 ふたほ 2 × 100
300 みほ 3 × 100
400 よほ 4 × 100

1000 ち

2000 ふたち 2 × 1000
3000 みち 3 × 1000
4000 よち 4 × 1000

10000 よろづ 10000

20000 ふたよろづ 2 × 10000
30000 みよろづ 3 × 10000

70000 ななよろづ 7 × 10000
80000 やよろづ 8 × 10000
noster.txt



Abessive case

[Caritive [Privative

without or by -less.



Martuthunira, -wirriwa or -wirraa.

Parla-wirraa nganarna.
money-PRIV 1PL.EXC

We've got no money.



raha "money" raha-tta "without money"


ilman rahaa "without money" or, more uncommonly: rahaa ilman "without money"



tuloksetta "unsuccessful, fruitless, futile"

Itkin syyttä. "I cried for no reason."


The abessive use in nominal forms of verbs (-ma- / -mä-)

puhu-ma-tta "without speaking", osta-ma-tta "without buying", välittä-mä-ttä "without caring"


Juna jäi tulematta. "The train didn't show up."


oftentimes be replaced by using the negative form of the verb: Juna ei tullut.



Estonian -ta in both the singular and the plural:

ilma autota "without a car"



Tallinn boasts a pair of bars that play on the use of the comitative and abessive,

the Nimeta baar (the pub with no name) and the Nimega baar (the pub with a name).


The nominal verbs affix -ma- and the abessive marker -ta:

Rong jäi tulemata. "The train didn't show up."



Skolt Sámi: -tää in both the singular and the plural:

Riâkkum veä'rtää. "I cried for no reason."


The abessive marker for verbal nouns is -ǩâni or -kani:


Son vuõ'lji domoi mainsteǩâni mõ'nt leäi puättam. "He/she went home without saying why he/she had come."



Inari Sámi: -táá. Verbal nouns are marked by -hánnáá, -hinnáá or -hennáá.


________
Ablative case

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Singular -ā -ō -e/-ī -ū -ē
Plural -īs -īs -ibus -ibus -ēbus

as adverbs magnā (cum) celeritāte, literally "with great speed," may also be written "very quickly."



pöytä ― pöydältä "table ― off from the table"

It is an outer locative case, used just as the adessive and allative cases to denote both being on top of something and "being around the place"

(as opposed to the inner locative case, the elative, which means "from out of" or "from the inside of").


-lta or -ltä

away from a place

Katolta
Off of the roof

Pöydältä
Off of the table

Rannalta
From the beach

Maalta
From the land

Mereltä
Off the sea



to stop some activity with the verb lähteä

lähteä kalalta
quit fishing (literally Quit the fish)

lähteä maidolta
stop drinking milk

lähteä tupakalta
stop smoking (in the sense of putting out the cigarette one is smoking now; literally Quit the tobacco)

lähteä hippasilta
quit the tag game (hippa=tag, olla hippasilla=playing tag)


_________
Absolutive case

mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb.

It contrasts with the ergative case, which marks the subject of transitive verbs.


Basque

mutil ("boy") takes the absolutive singular ending -a both as subject of the intransitive clause

mutila etorri da ("the boy came")


and as object of the transitive clause


Irakasleak mutila ikusi du ("the teacher has seen the boy"),

in which the subject bears the ergative ending -ak.


ergative case is marked (most salient), while the absolutive case is unmarked.

For this reason, words in absolutive case are usually used as the lemma to represent a lexeme.

____________
Accusative case : used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb


_______
Adessive case "on"


Estonian laud (table) and laual (on the table), Hungarian asztal and asztalon (on the table).



It is also used as an instrumental case in Finnish.


-lla/-llä

pöytä (table) and pöydällä (on the table).

In addition, it can specify "being around the place",

as in koululla (at the school including the schoolyard),

as contrasted with the inessive koulussa (in the school, inside the building).

The meaning distributes along time, too: "at (someone's) lunch break" is ruokatunnilla,

whereas ruokatunnissa is "within a lunch break".

________
Adverbial case


Georgian, several functions in stating the adverbs


Pianinoze kargad ukravs ("He/she plays the piano well") -ad.


also acts as the essive case : Mastsavleblad mushaobs ("He works as a teacher")



also employed when stating the name of a language:

Inglisurad laparakobs "He speaks English"

Germanulad gadatargmna "He translated it to German"

_________
Allative case "onto"


-lle, pöytä (table) pöydälle (onto the top of the table)

In addition, it is the logical complement of the adessive case for referring to "being around the place".



koululle means "to the vicinity of the school".

With time, the use is the same: ruokatunti (lunch break) and ... lähti ruokatunnille ("... left to the lunch break").

The term allative is generally used for the lative case in the majority of languages which do not make finer distinctions.

________
Aversive case

[Evitative case

found in Australian Aboriginal languages, noun is avoided or feared



Walmajarri:

Yapa-warnti pa-lu tjurtu-karrarla laparnkanja natji-karti.
child-ABS.PL IND-they dust-AVERSIVE ran away cave-ALL

The children ran into the cave because of the dust storm.

-karrarla : the action (running away) was carried out in order to avoid the dust storm, tjurtu-.



may used to mark the object of verbs of fearing.

Djabugay:

Djama-lan ŋawu yarrnga-nj.
snake-AVERSIVE I be afraid-PAST


I was afraid of the snake.

The aversive may be used on a nominalized verb, to produce an equivalent of English "lest".

"lest they be forgotten" could be encoded as "to avoid forgetting them".



Few languages have a distinct aversive case. Usually, a single case will be used both for the aversive and other functions.

_____
Benefactive case "for"


"She opened the door for Tom," or "This book is for Bob."


Basque: -entzat

Quechua : -paq.

Tangkhul-Naga ( from the Tibeto Burman group of languages) : -wiʋaŋ.

____

Causal-final case

Hungarian combines the Causal case and the Final case:

it can express the cause of emotions (e.g. value sb. for sg.) or the goal of actions (e.g. for bread).


_________
Comitative case "in company with" or "together with"


Estonian '-ga' to the genitive in case of singular:

nina (nominative: nose) -> nina (genitive) -> ninaga (comitative: with a nose)



by '-de' and '-ga' to the partitive in case of plural:

leht (nominative: leaf, page) -> lehte (partitive) -> lehtedega (comitative: with leaves)

kass (nominative: cat) -> kassi (partitive) -> kassidega (comitative: with cats)


denote when something is used as an implement - kirvega (with axe / using an axe)
or as a means of transport laevaga (by boat).



In the expressions corresponding to the Estonian ones above, the adessive may be used,

e.g. lehdillä "with leaves" or laivalla "by boat".

The idea of "being in company" is expressed with genitive + kanssa, e.g. tyttö koiran kanssa "girl with dog".

In spoken Finnish, this abbreviates to a clitic very similar to the Estonian comitative, -nkaa (via -nkans).

It is debatable if this is a grammatical case, because it does not obey vowel harmony; that is, there is no form -nkää.
Some dialects do have such a form, however.


_______
Dative case

The given be a tangible object, "a book" or "a pen", or be an intangible abstraction, "an answer" or "help"


the indirect object of a verb,
although in some instances the dative is used for the direct object of a verb
pertaining directly to an act of giving something.

Russian, the verb 'to call' always takes the dative


Scottish Gaelic and Irish, the dative case is used by nouns following simple prepositions and the definite article.


In Georgian marks the subject of the sentence in some verbs and some tenses.



Under the influence of English, uses "to" for both indirect objects (give to) and directions of movement (go to)




The Old English

"methinks" it seems to me


"me" (the dative case of the personal pronoun) + "thinks" ("to seem", a verb closely related to the verb

"to think", but distinct from it in Old English; later it merged with "to think" and lost this meaning).



The pronoun whom is also a remnant, dative pronoun "hwām" ( nominative "who", from "hwā")

― though "whom" also absorbed the functions of the accusative "hwone".

"him" is a remnant of both the Old English dative "him" and accusative "hine",

"her" serves for both Old English dative "hire" and accusative "hīe"


In current English usage, expressed with a prepositional of "to" or "for",

though an objective pronoun can also be placed directly after the main verb and used in a dative manner,
provided that the verb has a direct object as well;

"He gave that to me" can also be phrased as "He gave me that", and "He built a snowman for me"

can also be rendered as "He built [for] me a snowman".


the generic objective pronoun "me" functions as a dative pronoun does in languages

which still retain distinct accusative and dative cases.



German

prepositions require the dative: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu and gegenüber

(a sequence that may be remembered by singing them to the main tune of The Blue Danube as a mnemonic device).


Other prepositions (e.g. auf, an, unter") may be used with dative (indicating current location),
or accusative (indicating direction towards something).

Das Buch steht auf dem (dative) Tisch but Ich stelle das Buch auf den (accusative) Tisch.



Note that the concept of an indirect object may be rendered by a prepositional phrase.

the noun or pronoun's case is determined by the preposition, NOT by its function in the sentence.

Ich schicke das Buch zum Verleger. 'I send the book to the editor.'



Ich the nominative, the direct, das Buch the accusative, and zum Verleger the dative,

since zu always requires the dative (zum is a contraction of zu + dem). However:

Ich habe das Buch an meinen Freund (accusative) weitergegeben.

'I forwarded the book to my friend.' (weitergeben = lit.: to give further).



In this sentence, Freund would seem to be the indirect object, but because it follows an (direction),
the accusative is required, not the dative.


The ditransitive verb lehren (to teach) requires the dative case for the indirect object (the recipient, in this case),

but in colloqial speech, people tend to use the transitive verb lernen (to learn) with the Dative, instead.


Ich lerne dir Englisch. (lit.: I learn you English.)


This is not regarded as proper German and is thus not recommended.

Some German verbs require the dative for their direct objects.

Common examples include folgen, helfen and antworten. In each case, the direct object of the verb is rendered in dative.



The dative case in Latin

Except the main case (Dativus), there are 3 other kinds:

Dativus finalis with the meaning of purpose

auxilio vocare - "to call for help", venio auxilio - "I'm coming for help",

accipio dono - "I receive this as a gift" or puellae ornamento est - "this serves for the girl's decoration";


Dativus commodi (incommodi), which means action for somebody, e.g. Graecis agros colere - "to till fields for Greeks"; Combination of Dativus commodi and finalis (double Dative): tibi laetitiae "for your joy"

Dativus possesivus which means possession, e.g. angelis alae sunt - "the angels have wings".

Dativus ethicus

Dativus auctoris



Greek

The dativus finalis, or the 'dative of purpose', is when the dative is used to denote the purpose of a certain action.

"τῷ βασιλεῖ μάχομαι"

"I fight for the king".


"θνῄσκω τῇ τιμῄ"

"I die for honour".



Dativus commodi (incommodi): The dativus commodi sive incommodi, or the 'dative of benefit (or harm)' is the dative that expresses the advantage or disadvantage of something for someone.

For the benefit of:

"πᾶς ἀνὴρ αὑτῷ πονεῖ" (Sophocles, Ajax 1366).

"Every man toils for himself".


For the harm or disadvantage of:

"ἥδε ἡ ἡμέρα τοῖς Ἕλλησι μεγάλων κακῶν ἄρξει." (Thucydides 2.12.4).

"This day will be the beginning of great sorrows for the Greeks (i.e., for their disadvantage)".


Dativus possesivus:

The dativus possesivus, or the 'dative of possession' is the dative used to denote the possessor of a certain object
or objects.

"ἄλλοις μὲν γὰρ χρήματα ἐστι πολλὰ καὶ ἵπποι, ἡμῖν δὲ ξύμμαχοι ἀγαθοί."
(Thucycdides 1.86.3)

"For others have a lot of money and ships and horses, but we have good allies (i.e., To others there is a lot of money..)".



Dativus ethicus:
The dativus ethicus, or the 'ethic or polite dative,'

is when the dative is used to signify that the person or thing spoken of is regarded with interest by someone.

This dative is mostly, if not exlusively, used in pronouns. As such, it is also called the "dative of pronouns."


"τούτῳ πάνυ μοι προσέχετε τὸν νοῦν." (Demosthenes 18.178).

"Pay close attention to this, I beg you (i.e., please pay..)".


"ὦ μῆτερ, ὡς καλός μοι ὁ πάππος." (Xenophon, Cyropaedia 18.178).

"Oh, mother, how handsome grandpa is (I've just realized!)".



Dativus auctoris: The dativus auctoris, or the 'dative of agent,' is the dative used to denote the doer of an action.

Note, however, that in Classical Greek, the agent is usually in the genitive after ὑπό (by, at the hands of).

The agent is in the dative only with the perfect and pluperfect passive, and after the verbal adjective in -τέος.

"πολλαὶ θεραπεῖαι τοῖς ἰατροῖς εὕρηνται." (Isocrates 8.39)

"Many cures have been discovered by doctors."



Dativus instrumenti: The dativus instrumenti, or the 'dative of instrument,' is when the dative is used to denote an instrument or mean of a certain action (or, more accurately, as the instrumental case).

"με κτείνει δόλῳ." (Homer, Odyssey 9.407)

"He kills me with a bait (i.e., by means of a bait)."



Dativus modi: The dativus modi, or the 'dative of manner,' is the dative used to describe the manner or way by which something happened. For example:
"νόσῳ ὕστερον ἀποθανόντα." (Thucydides 8.84)
"having died of (from) a disease."


Dativus mensurae: The dativus mensurae, or the 'dative of measurement,' is the dative used to denote the measurement of difference. For example:
"τῇ κεφαλῇ μείζονα." (Plato, Phaedo 101a)
"taller by a head."


"μακρῷ ἄριστος." (Plato, Laws 729d)
"by far the best."



Tsez, takes the functions of the lative case in marking the direction of an action.

By some linguists, they are still regarded as two separate cases in those languages, although the suffixes are the exact same for both cases. Other linguists list them separately only for the purpose of separating syntactic cases from locative cases. An example with the ditransitive verb "show" (literally: "make see") is given below:


Кидбā ужихъор кIетIу биквархо.

kidb-ā uži-qo-r kʼetʼu b-ikʷa-r-xo
girl:OBL-ERG boy-POSS-DAT/LAT cat:[III]:ABS III-see-CAUS-PRES

"The girl shows the cat to the boy."



The dative/lative is also used to indicate possession, as in the example below, because there is no such verb as "to have".

Кидбехъор кIетIу зовси.

kidbe-qo-r kʼetʼu zow-si
girl:OBL-POSS-DAT/LAT cat:ABS be:PST-PST

"The girl had a cat."



As in the examples above, the dative/lative case usually occurs in combination with another suffix as poss-lative case;
this should not be regarded as a separate case,

though, as many of the locative cases in Tsez are constructed analytically; hence,

they are actually a combination of two case suffixes.



Verbs of perception or emotion (like "see", "know", "love", "want") also require the logical subject to stand in

the dative/lative case, note that in this example the "pure" dative/lative without its POSS-suffix is used.


ГIалир ПатIи йетих.

ˁAli-r Patʼi y-eti-x
Ali-DAT/LAT Fatima:[II]:ABS II-love-PRES

"Ali loves Fatima."

_________
Direct case


Indo-Aryan, the direct case is used with all three core relations:

the agent of transitive verbs, the patient of transitive verbs, and the experiencer of intransitive verbs.

Such a case may also be called the nominative

_________
Disjunctive case

French, for pronouns ( avec lui, pour toi )


Moi et lui, nous sommes allés au parc. I and he, we went to the park.

Nous, nous sommes pour; eux, ils sont contre. We are for; they are against.




For non-3rd person verbs in the imperative mood,

the disjunctive pronouns are used to mark the direct and indirect objects of a transitive verb, as in the accusative case.


So we have écoute-moi (listen to me), dis-moi (tell me).

However, in the third person (both singular and plural), the disjunctive is not used.

This is likely because French preserves the dative/accusative distinction in the third person,

and so use of the disjunctive would result in a loss of information


you say tue-le (kill him), but dis-lui (tell him) -- examples of the accusative and dative, respectively.


Note that in this case "lui" is the dative third person singular pronoun, not the disjunctive --

the difference may be seen in the 3rd person feminine, where the disjunctive is "elle" but the dative is still "lui".


_________
Distributive case

the manner when something happens to each member of a set one by one

("per head", "in each case"), or the frequency in time ("once a week", "every ten minutes").


Finnish, rare and even rarer in singular : -ttain/-ttäin , the basic meaning is "separately for each"

maa "country" becomes maittain for an expression like Laki ratifioidaan maittain., or

"The law is ratified separately in each country".

It can be used to distribute the action to frequent points in time, e.g. päivä (day)
has the plural distributive päivittäin (each day).


It can mean also "in/with regard to the (cultural) perspective" when combined with a word referring to an inhabitant (-lais-).

Frequently Finns (suomalaiset) say that suomalaisittain tuntuu oudolta, että ..., or "in the Finnish perspective, it feels strange that ...".


________
Distributive-temporal case

Hungarian can express how often something happens ( monthly, daily)


Finnish ("on Sundays" is sunnuntaisin), or an origin ("born in" is syntyisin)

It is restricted to a small number of adverb stems and nouns, mostly those with the plural formed with -i- , -sin

päivä (day) has the plural päivi-, and thus the temporal distributive päivisin ("daily" or "during the days")


The temporal distributive case specifies when something is done, in contrast to the distributive case,
which is specifies how often something is done, as in regular maintenance.


Siivoan päivisin vs. Siivoan päivittäin

The former (temp. dist.) means "I clean by day", implying the cleaning is done in the daytime,

whereas the latter (dist.) means "I clean daily", implying that there's no day without cleaning.


If the plural has another form than -i-, either joka (each) or the essive case is used.

uusi vuosi (New Year) is either joka uusi vuosi or uusina vuosina, respectively.

________
Elative case "out of"


Finnish "sta/stä", Estonian - "st" to the genitive stem. Hungarian : "ból/ből"


"talosta" - "out of the house, from house" (Finnish)

"majast" - "out of the house, from house" (Estonian)

"házból" - "out of house" (Hungarian)


Other locative cases are:

Inessive case ("in")

Illative case ("into")

Adessive case ("on")

Allative case ("onto")

Ablative case ("from off of")


________
Essive case

The essive or similaris case carries the meaning of a temporary state of being, often equivalent to the English "as a...".


-na/-nä

"lapsi" child lapsena "as a child", "when (I) was a child"


Russian, where it appears as the instrumental case

"Я работаю переводчиком" (Ya rabotayu perevodchikom)

"I work as a translator" (contrast this with "я - переводчик" (Ya - perevodchik), which means "I'm a translator")


(Logically speaking, the profession is the mean by which one does his or her job, hence the reason it's deployed in the instrumental case.)



Finnish, it is also used for specifying times, days and dates when something happens.

"maanantaina" -> "on Monday", "kuudentena joulukuuta" -> "on the 6th of December".


Some expressions use the essive in the ancient locative meaning

"at home" is "kotona". Observe the similarity to English "at home/in my home":


Luen lehtiä kotona. "I read newspapers at home.

" If you use the inessive, kodissani, you contrast to reading them in the garage (a physical location) instead.


Kodissani tehdään remonttia. "In my home, a renovation is underway."

________
Essive-formal case

Hungarian : case combines the Essive case and the Formal case,

and it can express the position, task, state (eg. "as a tourist"), or the manner (eg. "like a hunted animal").

The status of the suffix -ként in the declesion system is disputed for several reasons.

First, in general, Hungarian case suffixes are absolute word-final,

while -ként permits further suffixation by the locative suffix -i.


Second, most Hungarian case endings participate in vowel harmony, while -ként does not.


Third, the Hungarian possessive nominal suffix -é freely combines with case endings but not with -ként.


For these reasons, many modern analyses of the Hungarian case system, starting with László Antal's

"A magyar esetrendszer" (1961) do not consider the essive/formal to be a case.

________
Essive-modal case


Hungarian can express the state, capacity, task in which

somebody is or which somebody has (Essive case, e.g. "as a reward", "for example"),

or the manner in which the action is carried out, or the language which somebody knows

(Modal case, e.g. "unexpectedly", "speak German").

_______
Equative case

comaprison, likening.


Ossetic : -ау [aw]:

фæт ― arrow, фæтау ― like an arrow.


Ницы фенæгау йæхи акодта

Nothing seer-like himself made ("[he or she] pretended to see nothing").


________
Excessive case

a transition away from a state.

It is a rare case found in certain dialects of Baltic-Finnic languages.


It completes the series of "to/in/from a state" series consisting of the translative case,
the essive case and the excessive case.



Finnish, found only in Savo and southeastern dialects; speakers from other regions do not recognise it.

Its ending is -nta/ntä.

tärähtäneentä terveeksi = "from loony to healthy", or a state change from mental illness to mental health.


In its locative sense it is somewhat common and generally understood in some nonstandard forms

takaanta (from behind, standard Finnish takaa), siintä (from there, standard Finnish siitä).



Estonian : -nt

tagant = from behind (something)


____
Genitive case : /possessive case/ marks a noun as being the possessor of another noun.


certain verbs may take arguments in the genitive case; and it may have adverbial uses.


Modern English does not typically mark nouns for a genitive case ― rather,
it uses the clitic 's or a preposition (usually of) ― but the personal pronouns do have distinct possessive forms.


Depending on the language, specific varieties of genitive-noun–main-noun relationships may include:

possession:

inalienable possession ("Janet's height", "Janet's existence", "Janet's long fingers")

alienable possession ("Janet's jacket", "Janet's drink")

relationship indicated by the noun being modified ("Janet's husband")



composition (see Partitive case):

substance ("a wheel of cheese")

elements ("a group of men")

source ("a portion of the food")



participation in an action:

as an agent ("my leaving") ― this is called the subjective genitive

as a patient ("the archduke's murder") ― this is called the objective genitive



origin ("men of Rome")

description ("man of honor", "day of reckoning")


Depending on the language,
some of the relationships mentioned above have their own distinct cases different from the genitive.



Possessive pronouns are distinct pronouns, found in Indo-European languages such as English,

that function like pronouns inflected in the genitive.

They are considered separate pronouns if contrasting to languages where pronouns are regularly inflected in the genitive.

"my" is either a separate possessive pronoun or an irregular genitive of I, while in Finnish

"minun" is regularly agglutinated from minu- "I" and -n (genitive).


In some languages, nouns in the genitive case also agree in case with the nouns they modify
(that is, it is marked for two cases). This phenomenon is called suffixaufnahme.


In some languages, nouns in the genitive case may be found in inclusio ― that is,
between the main noun's article and the noun itself.


English does not have a proper genitive case, but a possessive ending


The English -'s ending

Possessive marker

Some argue that it is a common misconception that English nouns have a genitive case,

-'s.

Some linguists believe that English possessive is no longer a case at all, but has become a clitic,

an independent particle which, however, is always pronounced as part of the preceding word.

This is claimed on the basis of the following sort of example:


"The king of Sparta's wife was called Helen." If the English -'s were a genitive case mark,

then the wife would belong to Sparta; but the -'s attaches not to the word Sparta, but to the entire phrase the king of Sparta.


Despite the above, the English possessive did originate in a genitive case.

In Old English, a common singular genitive ending was -es.

The apostrophe in the modern possessive marker is in fact an indicator of the e that
is "missing" from the Old English morphology.



The use of an independently written particle for the possessive can be seen in
the closely related Afrikaans language: die man se hand (the man's hand).


The 18th century explanation that the apostrophe might replace a genitive pronoun,

as in "the king's horse" being a shortened form of "the king, his horse",

is erroneous (a construction which actually occurs in German dialects and has replaced the genitive there,

together with the "of" construction that also exists in English).

Indeed, it would be expected that plurals and feminine nouns would form possessives using '-r':

"*The queen'r children" would be short for "the queen, her children".


Since this is different from the plural, it would provide a useful distinction.

The fact that that is not how English speakers form possessives shows that the above explanation is incorrect.


A few remnants of the genitive case do remain in Modern English in a few pronouns as whose, the genitive form of who; likewise, my/mine, his/hers/its, our/ours, their/theirs. See also Declension in English.



Uses of the marker in English

-'s has various uses other than a possessive marker.

Most of these uses overlap with a complement marked by 'of' (the music of Beethoven or Beethoven's music),

but the two constructions are not equivalent.

The use of -'s in a non-possessive sense is more prevalent, and less restricted, in formal than informal language.




Genitive of origin; subjective genitive

Beethoven's music

Fred Astaire's dancing

Confucius' teaching


In these constructions, the marker indicates the origin or source of the head noun of the phrase, rather than possession per se. Most of these phrases, however, can still be paraphrased with of: the music of Beethoven, the teaching of Confucius.




Objective genitive; classifying genitive

the Hundred Years' War

a dollar's worth

two weeks' notice

A Midsummer Night's Dream

a prisoner's release

In these constructions, the marker serves to specify, delimit, or describe the head noun.

The paraphrase with of is often un-idiomatic or ambiguous with these genitives:

*the war of a Hundred Years, *the pay of a day, and *notice of two weeks introduce the likelihood of misunderstanding.



Genitive of purpose

women's shoes

children's literature

Here, the marked noun identifies the purpose or intended recipient of the head noun.

Of cannot paraphrase them; they can be idiomatically paraphrased with for: shoes for women.



The genitive in astronomy
In the case of constellations, it is useful to know the genitive of the constellation's Latin name,
since this is used to make the Bayer designation of stars in that constellation.

For instance, since the genitive of the Latin word virgo ("virgin") is virginis,

the brightest star in the constellation Virgo is known as Alpha Virginis.

Many references on constellations list the genitive for each constellation.



Baltic Finnic "genitives"

the accusative case -(e)n is homophonic to the genitive case.

In Estonian, it is often said that only a "genitive" exists.

However, the cases have completely different functions, and the form of the accusative has developed from *-(e)m.

(The same sound change has developed into a synchronic mutation of a final 'm' into 'n' in Finnish, e.g.

genitive sydämen vs. nominative sydän.)


This homophony has exceptions in Finnish, where a separate accusative -(e)t is found in pronouns


kenet "who (telic object)", vs. kenen "whose", and some of the Sámi languages,


where the pronouns and the plural of nouns in the genitive and accusative are easily distinguishable from each other

kuä'cǩǩmi "eagles' (genitive plural)" and kuä'cǩǩmid "eagles (accusative plural)" in Skolt Sami.

_______
Illative case

"into (the inside of)"


An example from Hungarian would be "a házba" (into the house).

An example from Estonian would be "majasse" and "majja" (into the house), formed from "maja" (a house).


An example from Finnish would be "taloon" (into the house), formed from "talo" (a house).

the case is formed by adding -h@n, where '@' represents the last vowel, and then removing the 'h' if a simple long vowel would result.

talo + h@n becomes talohon, where the 'h' elides and produces taloon with a simple long 'oo'; cf. maa + h@n becomes maahan, without the elision of 'h'. This unusually complex way of adding a suffix can be explained by its reconstructed origin: a voiced palatal fricative. (Modern Finnish has lost palatalization and other fricatives than 'h' or 's'.)

The other locative cases in Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian are:

Inessive case ("in")

Elative case ("out of")

Adessive case ("on")

Allative case ("onto")

Ablative case ("from off of")




Illative case in the Lithuanian language

The illative case, denoting direction of movement, is used rarely in the modern standard Lithuanian,

although it's used in common spoken language, especially in its certain dialects.

Its singular form is more popular than the plural and can be found in books, newspapers, etc.


Most Lithuanian nouns can take the illative ending,

indicating that from the descriptive point of view the illative still can be treated as a case in Lithuanian,

although since the beginning of the 20th century) isn't included in the list of cases of the standard Lithuanian and

the prepositional construction į+accusative is more frequently used today to denote direction,

and is the one promoted by grammar books as the correct one.


The illative case was used extensively in older Lithuanian;

the first Lithuanian grammar by Daniel Klein, that mentions both illative and į+accusative,

calls the usage of the illative "more elegant". In later times,

it often appeared in written texts of the authors who grew in Dzukija or Eastern Aukštaitija,

such as Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius.



The illative case in Lithuanian has its own endings, that are different for each declension paradigm,

although quite regular, compared with some other Lithuanian cases.
An ending of the illative allways ends with n in singular, and sna is the final part of an ending of the illative in plural.


Examples:

Masculine gender words (singular, singular illative, plural, plural illative, English translation)

karas, karan, karai, karuosna, war(s)

lokys, lokin, lokiai, lokiuosna, bear(s)

akmuo, akmenin, akmenys, akmenysna, stone(s)


Feminine gender words (the same cases as above):

upė, upėn, upės, upėsna, river(s)

jūra, jūron, jūros, jūrosna, sea(s)

obelis, obelin, obelys, obelysna, appletree(s)

_________
Inessive case "in"


"in the house" is "talo·ssa" in Finnish, "maja·s" in Estonian, "etxea·n" in Basque, and "ház·ban" in Hungarian.


Finnish the inessive case is typically formed by adding "ssa/ssä".

Estonian adds "s" to the genitive stem.

Hungarian, the suffix "ban/ben" is most commonly used for inessive case, although many others,
such as -on, -en, -ön and others are also used, especially with cities.


Finnish, the inessive case is considered the first of the six locative cases,
which correspond to locational prepositions in English. The remaining five cases are:

Elative case ("out of")

Illative case ("into")

Adessive case ("on")

Ablative case ("from off of")

Allative case ("onto")


______
Instructive case "by means of"

It is a comparatively rarely used case, though it is found in some commonly used expressions, such as omin silmin -> "with one's own eyes".

In modern Finnish, many of its instrumental uses are being superseded by the adessive case,

as in "minä matkustin junalla" -> "I travelled by train."


It is also used with Finnish verbal second infinitives to mean "by ...ing", for example "lentäen" -> "by flying", "by air".


__________
Instrumental case

indicates a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

The noun may be either a physical object or an abstract concept.



librum stylo scripsi.

the nominative stylus changes to the ablative (the ablative of means) stylo.


English (with) to express the same meaning:

I wrote the book with a pen.


the noun into a past-tense verb, "I penned the book."


Technical descriptions often use the phrase "by means of", which has often conventionally been replaced by "via", which really means by way of.




instrumental/comitative case is arguably present in Turkish and other Altaic languages, as well as in Tamil.

Also, Uralic languages reuse the adessive case where available, or locative case if not, to mark the same category.
Finnish kirjoitan kynällä does not mean "I write on a pen", but "I write using a pen", even if the adessive -llä is used.

In Ob-Ugric languages, the same category may also mark agents with verbs that use an ergative alignment,
like "I give you, using a pen".



most notably used in Russian, where the case is called tvoritelnij padezh ("Творительный падеж).

Though exceptions exist, the instrumental case in Russian can generally be

distinguished by the -ом ("-om") suffix for most masculine and neuter nouns,

and the -oй ("-oy") suffix for most feminine nouns.


"я написал письмо ручкой" (ya napisal pis'mo ruchkoy)

"I wrote the letter with (or by means of) a pen," the word Ручка (Ruchka, "pen")


is in the instrumental case, as noted by the conversion of the feminine suffix -а to -oй.




However, many Slavic languages, the case is not only used to denote the mean of a certain action, but also:

to denote a time where an action occurs ("during").

"я работаю утром" (ya rabotayu utrom),
which means "I work during the day," the word утро (utro, "day, morning") in its instrumental case denotes the
time in which the action (in the case of this example, "working") takes place ("during the day").


to denote a change of status.

"сегодня я стал американским гражданином" (sevodnya ya stal amerikanskim grazhdaninom)

which means "Today I became an American citizen,"

the word гражданин (grazhdanin, "citizen") is used in the instrumental case because it denotes a change of status (in this case, possibly from an immigrant to a citizen).

However, it's not exclusively used with стать (stat', "to become"), but also other verbs too.

"сегодня я проснулся больным" (sevodnya ya prosnulsya bol'nym) means "I woke up sick today"

("больным" is the instrumental of "больной" (bol'noi), "sick").




to emphasize an attribute or profession, where in English "as" would be used.

"Я работаю переводчиком" (Ya rabotayu perevodchikom) means "I work as a translator"

(contrast this with "я - переводчик" (Ya - perevodchik), which means "I'm a translator")


(Logically speaking, the profession is the mean by which one does his or her job, hence the reason it's deployed in the instrumental case.)



some languages use other cases to denote the mean, or instrument, of an action.

In Classical Greek, for example, the dative case is used as the instrumental case. This can be seen in the sentence

"..με κτείνει δόλῳ," or "..me ktenei dolôi" (Book IX, line 407 of the Odyssey),

which means "he kills me with a bait."

Here, "δόλῳ," the dative of "δόλος" ("dolos" - a bait) is used as the instrumental case

(the mean or instrument here is, obviously, the bait). In addition to Classical Greek,

Latin also uses one of its cases (the ablative case) as the instrumental case, as seen in earlier in this article.

___________
Instrumental-comitative case

Hungarian contains the Instrumental case and the Comitative case at the same time, "with"

refer to the means of the action (with a knife, fork; by tram etc.)

and to the person in whose company the action is carried out (with his family etc.)

as well as other meanings (temporal, modal etc.)


_________
Lative case

indicates motion to a location

"to" and "into"


Finnish, not productive anymore.
It occurs in various adverbs, e.g. alas "down", kauemmas "(moving) farther off", pois "(going) away", and

rannemmas "towards and closer to the shore", -s.

In productive contexts, it has been superseded by a more complicated system of locative cases and enclitics.



In the Northeast Caucasian languages, such as Tsez,

the dative also takes up the functions of the dative case in marking the recipient or beneficient of an action.

By some linguists, they are still regarded as two separate cases in those languages, although the suffixes are the exact

same for both cases.

Other linguists list them separately only for the purpose of separating syntactic cases from locative cases.

An example with the ditransitive verb "show" (literally: "make see") is given below:



Кидбā ужихъор кIетIу биквархо.

kidb-ā uži-qo-r kʼetʼu b-ikʷa-r-xo
girl:OBL-ERG boy-POSS-DAT/LAT cat:[III]:ABS III-see-CAUS-PRES

"The girl shows the cat to the boy."


The dative/lative is also used to indicate possession, as in the example below, because there is no such verb as "to have".

Кидбехъор кIетIу зовси.

kidbe-qo-r kʼetʼu zow-si
girl:OBL-POSS-DAT/LAT cat:ABS be:PST-PST

"The girl had a cat."


The dative/lative case usually occurs, as in the examples above, in combination with another suffix as poss-lative case;

this should not be regarded as a separate case, though, as many of the locative cases in Tsez are constructed analytically;

hence, they are actually a combination of two case suffixes.


Verbs of perception or emotion (like "see", "know", "love", "want") also require the logical subject to stand in the dative/lative case, note that in this example the "pure" dative/lative without its POSS-suffix is used.

ГIалир РатIи йетих.

ˁAli-r Patʼi y-eti-x
Ali-DAT/LAT Fatima:[II]:ABS II-love-PRES

"Ali loves Fatima."


___________
Locative case

(also called the seventh case)

English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by".

The locative case belongs to the general local cases together with the lative and separative case.




in modern Balto-Slavic languages (see however prepositional case)

some classical Indo-European languages, particularly Sanskrit and Latin

in uncommon, archaic or literary use in certain modern Indian languages

(such as Marathi in which a separate ablative case has however disappeared)




in Turkish, elim means: my hand, and elimde means in my hand, so using -de and -da suffixes, the locative case is marked.




Finnish, there are two sets of local cases. Instead of the locative,

has the inessive, which indicates a location inside of a place, and the adessive indicates a location outside of a place

ulkona 'outside'

kotona 'at home'.


grammary, the locative is included in the essive case -na/-nä



In Inari Sami, the locative suffix is -st.

kyeleest 'in the language'

kieđast 'in the hand'.




Hungarian, yet the name locative case refers to a form (-t/-tt) used only in a few city/town names
along with the Inessive case or Superessive case. It can also be observed in a few local adverbs and postpositions.


Győrött (also Győrben), Pécsett (also Pécsen), Vácott (also Vácon), Kaposvárt and Kaposvárott (also Kaposváron),

Vásárhelyt (also Vásárhelyen)

itt (here), ott (there), imitt, amott (there yonder), alatt (under), fölött (over),
között (between/among), mögött (behind)



The town/city name suffixes -ban/-ben are the inessive ones, and the -on/-en/-ön are the superessive ones.



In the Russian language, often and recently called the prepositional case.

this case is only used after a preposition and not always used for locations.

Statements "в библиотеке" ("in library") or "на Аляске" ("in Alaska") show the usuage for location.

However, this case is also used after the preposition "о" ("about") as in "о студенте" ("about the student").



Nevertheless few words preserved a distinctive form of locative case:

"лежать в снегу́" (to lie in the snow), but "думать о снеге" (to think about snow).


дом (house) - "на дому́", дым (smoke) - "в дыму́", бок (side) - "на боку́".

The stress marks here signify that the stress is made on the last syllable, unlike another case that has the same spelling


______
Oblique case

(Latin: casus generalis) is a noun case of analytic languages

that is used generally when a oun is the predicate of a sentence or a preposition.

An oblique case can appear in any case relationship except

the nominative case of a sentence subject or the vocative case of direct address.


Languages with a nominative or an oblique case system also contrast with those that have an absolutive or ergative case system.

In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive case is used for a direct object
(the subject will then be in the ergative case);

but the absolutive case is also used for the subject of an intransitive verb,
where the subject is being passively described, rather than performing an action.



Bulgarian

Accusative:

"Kiss me!": целувай ме! (celuvaj me!)

"Kiss me! (not him)" целувай мен! (celuvaj men!)


Dative:

"Give me that ball": дай ми тaзи топка (daj mi tazi topka)

"Give that ball to me" дай тaзи топка на мен (daj tazi topka na men)



There is also one for masculine nouns with the article:

"The wind is blowing": Вятърът вее (vjatǎrǎt vee)

"I despise the wind": Mразя вятъра (mrazja vjatǎra)


oblique case is a relic of the original, more complex system of noun cases from the common Proto-Indo-European language.

Oblique cases appear in the English pronoun set; these pronouns are often called objective pronouns.

One can observe how the first person pronoun me serves a variety of grammatical functions:


as an accusative case for a direct object:
She bit me!

as a dative case for an indirect object:
Give me the rubber hose!

as the instrumental object of a preposition:
That dirt wasn't wiped with me…

and as a disjunctive topic marker:
Me, I like French…


me is not inflected differently in any of these uses;
it is used for all grammatical relationships except the genitive case of possession and
a non-disjunctive nominative case as the subject.


Oblique pronouns tend to become clitics.

The Romance languages tend to have even larger varieties of clitics,

as in the Spanish expression dámelo, "give it to me," which has two oblique clitics me and lo or the similar

French "Donnez-le-moi" with the same meaning; so do a series of the Slavic languages.

___________
Objective


An objective pronoun in grammar functions as the target of a verb, as distinguished from a subjective pronoun,
which is the initiator of a verb. Objective pronouns are instances of the oblique case.


many objective pronouns are different from their corresponding subjective pronouns

"I" can be compared to "me", "we" compared to "us", "he" compared to "him",

"she" to "her", "who" to "whom", and "they" to "them".


once had an extensive declension system that specified distinct pronouns for accusative and dative cases.

This collapsed into a single pronoun for both accusative and dative cases, now called the objective pronoun.

Thus, many requirements for declension in English
concerning the objective and subjective pronouns have since mostly regressed.



Regional differences

Several relatively common usages of objective pronouns in the subject position are regarded as errors by prescriptivists,

though descriptive grammarians and linguists class such usages as dialect and a natural part of language evolution.

Various dialects of English often disregard subjective/objective pronoun distinctions in certain cases.


to use the objective pronoun in a compound subject is traditionally considered grammatically incorrect by prescriptivists.

"Incorrect": You and me are going to school together.

"Correct": You and I are going to school together.

"Incorrect": The teacher teaches you and I.

"Correct": The teacher teaches you and me.


Also, using the objective pronoun for the second word in a comparison using the conjunction
than is traditionally considered incorrect if a subjective pronoun would be necessary in the "full" form of the sentence.

This rule is very often disregarded in many varieties of English,
to the point where a sentence constructed using "proper" grammar can, in some cases,
be perceived as artificial or archaic to a native speaker.


"Incorrect": You are a better swimmer than her.
(Than is used here as a preposition, as such it assigns objective case to its argument, 'her'.)


"Correct": You are a better swimmer than she.
(You are a better swimmer than she [is]. Prescriptivist English uses 'than' only as a conjunction.)


"Correct": They like you more than her. (They like you more than [they like] her.)

Following a copula (linking verb) with an objective pronoun is traditionally considered incorrect,
following the logic that, as the subject and the object are the same, they should share the same case.


to some ears the first "correct" sentence below sounds artificial.

"Incorrect": The winner was me.

"Correct": The winner was I.

"Correct": I was the winner.


Finally, the word whom, technically the objective form of who, is falling into disuse in some areas.

Who is commonly being used for both the objective and nominative cases, similar to the word you.


"Incorrect": Who should I tell?

"Correct": Whom should I tell?

"Correct": Who should hear that?


It should be restated that labelling these differences "correct" and "incorrect" is a prescriptive response

to dialectical differences from standard written English.

___________
Partitive case

it has to be distinguished from partitive meaning which refers to the selection
of a part or quantity out of a group or amount

"partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity"



Finnish often used to express unknown identities and irresultative actions, "a" or "ta"

After numbers, in singular: "kolme taloa" -> "three houses"


(cf. plural, where both are used,

e.g. sadat kirjat "the hundreds of books", sataa kirjaa "hundred books" as an irresultative object.)



For incomplete actions and ongoing processes: "luen kirjaa" -> "I'm reading a book"

Compare with accusative case: "luen kirjan" -> "I will read the (entire) book"


After certain verbs, particularly those indicating emotions (as they are irresultative):

"rakastan tätä taloa" -> "I love this house"


For tentative enquiries: "saanko lainata kirjaa?" -> "can I borrow the book?"

For uncountables: "lasissa on maitoa" -> "the glass contains (some) milk"


In places where English would use "some" or "any": "onko teillä kirjoja?" -> "do you have any books?"

Compare with accusative case: "onko teillä kirjat?" -> "do you have the (specific) books?"

For negative statements: "talossa ei ole kirjaa" -> "there is not a book in the house"




Where not mentioned, the accusative case would be ungrammatical.

the partitive must always be used after singular numerals.


irresultative meaning of the partitive,

ammuin karhun (accusative) means "I shot the bear (dead)",

whereas ammuin karhua (partitive) means "I shot (at) the bear" without specifying if it died.


Notice that Finnish has no native future tense,
so that the partitive provides an important reference to the present

(luen kirjaa) as opposed to the future (luen kirjan).

The latter means "I will read the book", as a result ("the book has been read")



The case with an unspecified identity is onko teillä kirjoja, which uses the partitive, because it refers to unspecified books, as contrasted to accusative onko teillä (ne) kirjat?, which means "do you have (those) books?"

A Western Finnish dialectal phenomenon seen in some forms of spoken Finnish is the assimilation of the final -a into a preceding vowel, thus making the chroneme the partitive marker. For example, suurii → suuria "some big --".




Of the Sámi languages,

Inari and Skolt Sámi still have a partitive, although it is slowly disappearing and its function is being taken over

by other cases and only occurs in the singular. In Skolt Sámi, the genitive often replaces the partitive.


The three functions of the partitive in Skolt Sámi are:

It appears with numbers larger than 6.

It is used with certain postpositions.

It is used with the comparative to express the thing being compared.


_______
Possessive case


"'s" morpheme, which is suffixed onto many nouns in English

________
Prepositional case

marks prepositions. In some languages, e.g., English and French, all prepositions take a single case;


in others, Latin, Polish and Russian,

multiple cases can take prepositions, and the same preposition can take various cases with contrasting meanings.


In a narrower sense, the Russian term "prepositional case" (predlózhniy padézh or предложный падеж)
is used for a certain case that cannot occur independently, but only with some prepositions.

Since the case is also used to denote (most) locations it is frequently called locative case in English

and some other languages.

The equivalent term is lokál (as opposed to lokatív) in Czech and in Slovak and miejscownik in Polish.


Pashtu language there also exists a case that occurs only in combination with certain prepositions.

It is more often called the second oblique than the prepositional.

________
Prolative case

is a declension of a noun or pronoun that has the basic meaning of "by way of".

The prolative is widely used in Estonian.


Finnish, it has a highly restricted, almost fossilized meaning "by (medium of transaction)".

"postitse" ("by post"), "puhelimitse" ("by phone"), "meritse" ("by sea"), "netitse" ("over the Internet").


The prolative is considered more to be an adposition by some Finnish grammarians

as a result of the fact that it does not show agreement on adjectives like the other Finnish cases.

___________
Prosecutive case is a declension found in Tundra Nenets language and in Old Basque.

This is a variant of the "prolative case".

It is used to describe movement using a surface or way. "by way of/through the house."


_________
Sociative case

express the person in whose company (cf. Latin socius) the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people

which take part in the action (together with their owners).

not productive any more; nowadays the Instrumental-comitative case is usually used instead.

__________
Subessive case "location under or below"

______________

Sublative case

express the destination of the movement, originally to the surface of something (e.g. sit down on the ground, climb the tree), but in other figurative meanings as well (e.g. to university, for two nights).

_____________

Superessive case

a grammatical declension indicating location on top of something or on the surface of something.

Latin supersum, superesse: to be over and above.


While most languages communicate this concept through the use of prepositions

in Hungarian: a könyveken means "on the books", literally "the books-on".

___________
Temporal case

Hungarian : -kor

hétkor "at seven" or hét órakor "at seven o'clock" , éjfélkor "at midnight" , karácsonykor "at Christmas"

_________
Terminative case


In morphology, indicates to what point; where something ends.

Estonian : -ni

jõeni: "to the river" / "as far as the river"

kella kuueni: "until six o'clock"

___________
Translative case

This declension (case) indicates a change in state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X" or "change to X".


Finnish, this is the counterpart of the Essive case, with the basic meaning of a change of state.

It is also used for expressing "in (a language)" and "considering it's a (status)". Its ending is -ksi.

pitkä "long", venyi pitkäksi "stretched long"

englanti "English", englanniksi "in English"

pentu "cub", Se on pennuksi iso "Considering it's a cub, it is big"


____________
Vialis case

found in Eskimo-Aleut languages. This is another name for prolative case.

"movement using a surface or way"

by way of or through the house.


_________
Vocative case

"I don't know, John.", John is a vocative expression indicating the party who is being addressed.



Latin the same as the nominative, except for masculine singular second declension nouns that
have the endings -us or -ius in the nominative case.


"Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", translated as "You too, Brutus?"), where Brute is the vocative case, whilst Brutus would be the nominative case.

When "-ius" nouns are put into the vocative, however, they lose this ending and replace it with a "ī". Therefore, "Julius" becomes "Julī". When Latin names in the vocative case are translated into English, the nominative case is usually used, as English simply uses the nominative case for vocative expressions but sets them off from the rest of the sentences with pauses as interjections (rendered in writing as commas).



Take, for example, the word for "wolf":

Case Proto-Indo-European Latin Classical Greek Sanskrit
Nominative case *wl̥kʷ-o-s lup-u-s λύκ-ο-ς (lúk-o-s) vr̥k-a-s
Vocative case *wl̥kʷ-e-Ø lup-e-Ø λύκ-ε (lúk-e-Ø) vr̥k-a-Ø


The elements separated with hyphens denote the stem, the so-called theme vowel of the case and the actual suffix. The symbol "Ø" means that there is no suffix in a place where other cases may have one. In Latin, e.g., the nominative case is lupus and the vocative case is lupe!, whereas the accusative case is lupum. The asterisk in front of the Indoeuropean words means that they are merely hypothetical reconstructions, not based on any written sources.





Polish, the vocative (wołacz) is different from the nominative and is formed according to a complex grammatical pattern.

Nominative case Vocative case

Pani Ewa (Ms Eve) Pani Ewo! (Ms Eve!)

Pan profesor (Mr Professor) Panie profesorze! (Mr Professor!)

Krzysztof (Christoph) Krzysztofie! (Christoph!)

Krzyś (affectionate form of Krzysztof) Krzysiu!

Ewusia (affectionate form of Ewa) Ewusiu!

Marek (Mark) Marku!

ciemność (darkness) ciemności!

książka (book) książko!

informal speech, the nominative is increasingly used in place of the vocative, but this is regarded as a bad style in any formal situation.




Czech, similars Polish

The vocative differs from the nominative in masculine and feminine nouns in singular.

Nominative case Vocative case

paní Eva (Ms Eve) paní Evo! (Ms Eve!)

pan profesor (Mr Professor) pane profesore! (Mr Professor!)

Kryštof (Christoph) Kryštofe! (Christoph!)

Marek (Mark) Marku!

knížka (book) knížko!


informal speech, it is usual that the male surname is in nominative when addressing men


pane Novák! instead of pane Nováku! (Female surnames are adjectives,

thus they are the same in the nominative as well as in the vocative - see Czech declension).


Teachers often address their pupils with the surname in nominative.

However, such addressing can seem impolite.

Using the appropriate vocative is strongly recommended in the official and written styles.





Russian an obsolete feature, preserved only in certain cases of archaic usage.

In "frozen" expressions, such as proverbs.

"Vrachu, istselisya sam" ("Physician, heal thyself").

Here "vrach" is "doctor", and "vrachu", with the accent on the first syllable, is vocative; accenting the last syllable produces the dative case.

The most commonly heard vocative archaism in Russian is Боже мой! (Bozhe moy!), "O, my God!" Бог (Bog) is the nominative singular of "God." The final -g is softened to -zh- by the vocative suffix. Note also the frequent expression, "Go'spodi!", meaning "Lord" from the nominative "Gospo'd'".
In Church Slavonic, which is used in the Russian Orthodox Church. For example, the Patriarch would be addressed as "vladyko", the nominative form of which is "vladyka".
Therefore, most linguists consider Russian no longer to have a vocative case.





Colloquial Russian has a form of given names which some linguists consider to be a reemerging vocative case.

It is applicable only to given names that end in a vowel when used in a vocative-like expression: "Len, gde ty?" ("Lena, where are you?")
This is basically equivalent to "Lena, gde ty?",

the only difference being that the former version suggests a positive personal,

emotional bond between the speaker and the person being addressed.

This example, as well as the fact that this form is not genetically related to the archaic vocative

(which would be "Leno" in this example), leads other linguists to believe that this form is not the vocative case.




In Georgian, for addressing the second singular and plural persons.

For the word roots ending with a consonant, the vocative case suffix is -o, and for the words ending with a vowel,

there is no suffix for the vocative case (the suffix used to be -v in old Georgian, but is now considered archaic).

kats- is the root for the word "man." If one addresses someone with this word, it becomes, katso!


Adjectives are also declined in the vocative case.

Just like nouns, consonant final stem adjectives take the suffix -o in the vocative case, and the vowel final stems are not changed.

lamazi kali "beautiful woman" (nominative case)

lamazo kalo! "beautiful woman!" (vocative case)


In the second phrase, both the adjective and the noun are declined.

The second singular and plural personal pronouns are also declined in the vocative case.

Shen you(singular) and tkven you (plural) in the vocative case become, she! and tkve!, with the drop of the final -n.
Therefore one could, for instance, say,

She lamazo kalo! "you beautiful woman!"

with the declination of all the elements.




Romanian is inherited from Latin. Morphologically it is formed using specific endings,

occasionally causing other morphophonemic changes (see also the article on Romanian nouns):


singular masculine/neuter: "-e" as in

"om" - "omule!" (man, human being),
"băiat" - "băiete!" or "băiatule!" (boy),
"văr" - "vere!" (cousin),
"Ion" - "Ioane!" (John);


singular feminine: "-o" as in
"soră" - "soro!" (sister),
"nebună" - "nebuno!" (mad woman),
"deşteaptă" - "deşteapto!" (smart, but this vocative is always used ironically),
"Ileana" - "Ileano!" (Helen);


plural, all genders: "-lor" as in
"fraţi" - "fraţilor!" (brothers),
"boi" - "boilor!" (oxen, used toward people as an invective),
"doamne şi domni" - "doamnelor şi domnilor!" (ladies and gentlemen).

More often than not the vocative simply copies the nominative/accusative form, even when it does have its own.
This happens because the vocative is often perceived as very direct and thus can seem rude.




In Gaelic, the vocative case causes lenition of the initial letter of names.

In addition, male names are slenderized, if possible (that is, adds an 'i' before the final consonant).

Also, the word a is placed before the name unless it begins with a vowel, e.g.:


Nominative case Vocative case
Caitrìona a Chaitrìona
Domhnuill a Dhomhnuill
Màiri a Mhàiri
Seumas a Sheumais
Una Una




in Irish operates in a similar fashion to Gaelic.

The principal marker is the vocative particle a which causes lenition of the initial letter.


In the singular there is no special form except for first declension nouns.

These are masculine nouns ending in a 'broad', i.e. non-palatal, consonant which is made 'slender', i.e. palatal,

to form the singular vocative (as well as the singular genitive and plural nominative). Adjectives are also lenited.

In many cases this means that (in the singular) masculine vocative expressions resemble

the genitive and feminine vocative expressions resemble the nominative.


plural is usually the same as the nominative plural except once again for first declension nouns which show the vocative plural by adding -a.

Gender masculine feminine m f
English the big man the big boy the big woman the big hen Seán Mary
Sg. Nominative an fear mór an buachaill mór an bhean mhór an chearc mhór Seán Máire
Genitive an fhir mhóir an bhuachalla mhóir na mná móire na circe móire Sheáin Mháire
Vocative a fhir mhóir a bhuachaill mhóir a bhean mhór a chearc mhór a Sheáin a Mháire
Pl. Nominative na fir móra na buachaillí móra na mná móra na cearca móra
Genitive na bhfear mór na mbuachaillí móra na mban mór na gcearc mór
Vocative a fheara móra a bhuachaillí móra a mhná móra a chearca móra



Chinese, is used with name, kinship term or even positional title

by 阿

陳小明 (chen xiao ming) be 阿明 (a ming)


one's own father and mother is often said: 阿爸 (a ba) and 阿媽 (a ma) "dad" and "mom".



applied to other simple single syllable

As honorific, a stranger can be addressed as 阿伯 (a bak) for an old man, and 阿婆 (a po) for an old woman.




Korean use only with first names in casual situations, -(a) if the name ends in a consonant and -(ya) if in a vowel

Mijin-eun chibe kagesseo? "Is Mijin going home?"

Mijin-a, chibe kagesseo? "Mijin, are you going home?






The vocative, in Arabic by the particle ya placed before a noun.

____________
Ergative case

the subject of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages

while the absolutive case is unmarked


New work in case theory has vigorously supported the idea

that the ergative case identifies the agent (intentful doer of action) of a verb (Woolford 2004).

Furthermore, the agent has been shown to have a fixed location in which

it is base-generated in the specifier of a light-verb projection within X-bar theory.


_________
Intransitive case

the subject of an intransitive verb,

but not used with transitive verbs.


It is generally seen in languages which display tripartite nominal morphologies,

where it contrasts with the nominative and absolutive cases employed

in other languages' morphosyntax to mark the experiencer of intransitive clauses.

_________


Nominative case

the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.



The nominative case is the usual, natural form (more technically, the least marked) of certain parts of speech,

such as nouns, adjectives, pronouns and less frequently numerals and participles,

and sometimes does not indicate any special relationship with other parts of speech.


Therefore, in some languages the nominative case is unmarked, that is, the nominative word is the base form or stem,

with no inflection; alternatively, it may said to be marked by a null morpheme.

Moreover, in most languages with a nominative case, the nominative form is the lemma;

it is the one used to cite a word, to list it as a dictionary entry, etc.


English
I (accusative, me), we (accusative, us), he (accusative, him), she (accusative, her) and they (accusative, them).

An archaic usage is the singular second-person pronoun thou (accusative thee).


special you: ye was nominative and you the accusative, over time come to be used for the nominative.


Some writers on English employ the term "subjective case" instead of nominative.


In active-stative languages there is a case sometimes called nominative which is the most marked case,

and is used for the subject of a transitive verb or a voluntary subject of an intransitive verb,

but not for an involuntary subject of an intransitive verb; since such languages are a relatively new field of study,

there is no standard name for this case.

____________

Location

Adessive case adjacent location near/at/by the house

Apudessive case location next to something next to the house

Inessive case inside something inside the house

Locative case location at/on/in the house

the case in Slavic languages termed the "locative case" in English is actually a prepositional case.)


Pertingent case in contact with something touching the house

Temporal case (used only with time expressions)specifying a time at seven

Subessive case under something under/below the house

Superessive case on the surface on (top of) the house



Motion from

Ablative case movement away from something away from the house

Delative case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house

Egressive case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house

Elative case out of something out of the house

Initiative case starting point of an action beginning from the house



Motion to

Allative case in Hungarian and in Finnish:movement to (the adjacency of) somethingin

Finnish:movement onto something to the houseonto the house


Illative case movement into something into the house

Lative case motion to location to/into the house

Sublative case movement onto the surface on(to) the house

Terminative case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house



Motion via

Perlative case movement through or along through/along the house

Prolative case movement using a surface or way by way of/through the house

Prosecutive case across or along along the road

Vialis case through or by by way of the house, using the house




Chart for review for the basic cases

interior surface adjacency
from Elative case Delative case Ablative case
at/in Inessive case Superessive case Adessive case
(in)to Illative case Sublative case Allative case




Morphosyntactic alignment

Case Usage Example Found in

Absolutive case (1) patient, experiencer he pushed the door and it opened Basque

Absolutive case (2) patient, involuntary experiencer she crossed the ice; he slipped active languages

Absolutive case (3) patient; experiencer; instrument he pushed the door with his hand and it opened Inuktitut

Accusative case (1) patient she opened the door

Accusative case (2) direct object of a transitive verb; made from; about; for a time I see her

Ergative case agent he pushed the door and it opened

Ergative-genitive case agent, possession he pushed the door and it opened; her dog Inuktitut

Instrumental instrument, answers question with which thing? with the house

Instrumental-comitative case instrument, in company of something with the house Hungarian | Tlingit

Instructive means, answers question how? by means of the house

Nominative case (1) agent he pushed the door and it opened nominative-accusative languages

Nominative case (2) agent; voluntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; she paused nominative-absolutive languages

Objective case (1) direct or indirect object of verb I saw her; I gave her the book. Bangla (Bengali)

Objective case (2) direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive I saw her; I gave her the book; with her. English | Swedish | Danish

Oblique case all-round case; any situation except nominative concerning the house Hindi | Telugu

Passive case or patient case the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb The door opened languages of the Caucasus





Relation

Ablative case all-round indirect case concerning the house

Benefactive case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house

Causal case because, because of because of the house

Causal-final case efficient or final cause

Comitative case in company of something with the house

Dative case shows direction or receiver for/to the house

Dedative case (Respective) related to related to the house Quenya

Distributive case distribution by piece per house

Distributive-temporal case how often something happens daily; on Sundays

Genitive case shows relationship, possession of the house

Possessed case possession by something the house is owned by something Tlingit

Possessive case direct possession of something owned by the house English | Quenya

Sociative case along with something, together with something with the house



Semantics

Disjunctive case used when the subject is repeated for emphasis or to itemize a plural subject
the house and the car, they're both here

Partitive case used for amounts three (of the) houses Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Russian | Skolt Sami

Prepositional case when certain prepositions precede the noun in/on/about the house

Vocative case used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition Hey, father!O father!Father!




State

Abessive case the lack of something without the house

Equative case comparison with something like the house Tsez

Essive case temporary state of being as the house

Essive-formal case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian | Manchu

Essive-modal case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian

Excessive case marking a transition from a condition from as being a house Estonian | Finnish

Formal case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian

Identical case showing that something is identical being the house Manchu

Orientative case oriented towards something turned towards the house Manchu

Revertive case backwards to something against the house Manchu

Translative case change of a condition into another (turning) into a house

_________

語幹 -null er nominative , accuative


起点格 -
到達格 -em
様態格 -
比較格 -


男性名詞 hestur(馬)、dynkur(騒音)、vinur(友人)

女性名詞 kinn(頬)、borg(町)

中性名詞 skip(船)



-a -wa

述語と項の意味的な関係。 対象格(objective)

意味役割(semanticrole)、主題関係(thematicrelation)


Adverbial -ad


主格 nominative -- -i

動作主格 agentive


呼格 vocative ee -o often replaced by nominative.

属格 genitive -s, -es -is -en
「生格

与格 dative -m -s

対格 accusative tuk, zik

対格主題 nga

奪格 ablative
「従格
「離格 -lta


道具格 instructive -in -it 複数形にしかない
「造格 instrumental

所格 locative -le
「処格
「地格
「位格
「接格 adessive -lla -na


前置格 prepositional

能格 ergative -k -ma


Martin-ek is the agent (transitive subject),

so it is marked with the ergative case ending -k (with an epenthetic -e-

di- marks a verb with the equivalent of both a direct and an indirect object, in the present tense;

-zki- marks the equivalent of a plural direct object (in this case the newspapers; if it were singular there would be no infix); and

-t is the equivalent of the indirect object mark: "to/for me".
in this instance an unmarked or "null case" equates to the "nork", which in most European languages would be the subject.

The phrase:

"you buy the newspapers for me" would translate as:
Zuek egunkariak erosten dizkidazue
The auxiliary verb is composed as di-zki-da-zue

( equivalent terms in European languages )

di- = direct object
-zki- = marks plural of direct object
-da- = indirect object ( to/for me ) {-t becomes -da- when intercalated.}
-zue = subject ( you pl. )


genitive marker "-ak"
絶対格 absolutive

入格 illative -un

出格 elative -sta

向格 allative -lle

分格 partitive -a -ja, plur

様格 esseive -ksi

変格 translative

内格 inessive -ssa

欠格 abessive -tta

共格 comitative -ine 複数形にしかない



この内弱階程の形を取るものは単数属格、単・複数対格、単・複数変格、単・複数内格、単・複数出格、単・複数接格、単・複数向格、単・複数奪格、単・複数欠格、複数主格、複数具格の19種類である。

-i- as plural kaj infliktion -a od por


名詞 Maria To-kyo 単数

中性 kinder 単数 複数

男性 pater 単数 複数

女性 mater fleur 単数 複数

物性 milk 単数 複数

象性 idea for make thing 単数

________

gender

grammatical use to modifi de adject ac cord


reprisent feminin / masclim / thing

speak to feminin / masclim / baby

///

amenial

used by baby or feminin / masclim

feminin form is close to that child speak

_______

名詞 Noun, n.

代名詞 Pronoun, pron.

動詞 Verb, v.

代動詞 広い意味では動詞

形容詞 Adjective, adj

冠詞 Article 広い意味では形容詞

数詞 Numeral 広い意味では形容詞

副詞 Adverb, adv.

前置詞 Preposition, prep.

接続詞 Conjunction, conj.

感動詞 間投詞 Interjection, int.

関係詞 Relative

疑問詞 Interrogative


敬語表現

尊敬語彙

物主代名詞

_________


Verb Conjugate

tense : past and present

mood, person, number

voice : active, passive medial : the medial voice is an independent class of verbs



gender system

singular (masculine, feminine, and neuter)

two in plural : humanic and things

(personal masculine gender for human males, which is distinguished from a common plural gender for all other categories).



tense forms have been simplified through elimination of three old tenses (the aorist, imperfect, and past perfect).



Aspect is every verb, either imperfective or perfective,

the imperfective form with a prefix, although there are many perfective verbs
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