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htdh

intro
a a aa.






Words do not begin with nf or nh. However, words may begin with zn, but words do not end with z. As a result, z generally appears at the beginning or in the middle of a word, while nf and nn generally appear in the middle or at the end of a word.

None of the letters nf, r, l, lh, lf, tr, and nn should be the first letter of a word.



adu that thing (that one) enna what?


idu yenna? What is this thing? idu pustaham This is a book. edu? Which thing?

jannal yedu? Which (thing) is a window?

niinga you (polite) yaaru who? avaru he(polite),that man avanga she(polite),that woman,they

niinga yaaru? Who are you? maaNavan a (male) student maaNavi a (female) student maaNavaru a student (pol.)

avaru amerikkan He is an American naan maaNavan I am a (male) student

inge here ange there enge? where? iru be located irukku(du) (it) is (located) irukkiinga (You) are (located)

irukkaaru (he, pol) is (located) irukkaanga (she/they) is/are (located) irukkeen (I) am (located)


pustaham enge irukku? Where is the book? kaNNaaDi (y)enge irukku? Where are the glasses?

poDave enge irukku? Where is the saree? jannal ange irukku. The window is there.

naan enge irukkeen? Where am I? niinga inge irukkiinga. You are here.


Question marker -aa? adu ruum-aa? Is that a room? idu meece-y-aa? Is this a table?

adu poDave-y-aa? Is that a saree? aamaa, idu meese Yes, this is a table


ille no, not ille, idu alamaari ille No, this is not a cabinet.

ille, idu caTTe ille, idu poTave. No, this is not a shirt, it's a saree.

avaru/avanga indyanaa? Is s/he (an) Indian?

-le in (locative suffix) ruum-le in the room amerikkaa-v-le in America meece-y-le in, on the table/desk

niinga indiyaavle irukkiingaL-aa? Are you in India? irukk-aa? Is it?

pustaham meeceyle irukkaa? Is the book on the table?


-aa...-aa either (x) or (y)

adu poDaveyaa caTTeyaa? Is that a saree or a shirt?


jarman teriyumaa frenc teriyumaa? Do you know German or French?


Tii piTikkumaa kaafi piDikkumaa? Do you like tea or coffee?

pustaha-ttu-le in the book niinga seelattule irukkiinkaLaa? Are you in Salem?





Vaanga ~来てください(please come) vaa: は、「来る(vara: )」の命令形です。



お元気ですか? nalla irukkirinkala?

はい、元気です nalla irukken


みんな元気です ellarum nalla irukkanka
食事を済ませましたか? サプティンガラ? sapputinkala?
はい、済ませました sappiten
何を食べましたか? エンナ サプティンガラ? enna sapputinkala?
イドリーを食べました イドリー サピテン idly sappiten



あなたの名前は何ですか? unka peru enna? 私の名前はユカです en peru yuka 

あなたはどこに住んでいますか? ninka enge vacsikkirinkala?

チェンナイに住んでいます na~ cennay-ile vasjikkiren

あなたは何をされていますか? ninka enna vele ceyyirinkala?

大学生です(私は大学で勉強しています) na~ kalluri-ile patikkiren

私はオフィスで働いています na~ apisu-ile vele pakkiren

私の家族を紹介します kutumpattinarai arimukappatutturen

ival pallikkuudattile csolli taraal 彼女は教師をしています ivan ancam vakuppu patikkiran 彼は5年生です



Come Vaa Came Vanthuttan(male) / vanthutta(female) Will come Vanthiruvan(male) / vanthiruva(female)

Open Thera Opened Theranthiruke Will open Therakum

Sit Ukkarru Walk Nadae Eat Saapidu Drink Kudi Win Jayie Go Poa Run Odu

I go Naan porean He goes Avan poraan He eats an apple Avan apple saapiduvaan

He is eating an apple Avan apple saapiduraan He ate an apple Avan apple saapittaan

I saw the film last week Naan poana vaaram padam paarthean

She came by bus yesterday Aval nethu pearundhu valiya vandha They went to the temple Avankellam kovilluku poannaanga

He slept the whole night Avan mulu rathiriyum thoonkinaan

He wrote well in the examination Avan paritchayila nalla eluthi irukkaan

He has eaten Avan saapittu mudichutaan He had eaten Avan saapittaan He had gone Avan poittaan

He had come Avan vanthutaan He will eat Avan saapiduvaan He will go Avan povaan

He will come Avan varuvaan What is your name? Unga peru enna?

What Enna Your Wun, unga(respect) Name paer

What did you do? Nee enna panra, neenga enna panreenga (respect) What should I do? Naan enna seyyanum?

What are the questions? Enna kelvigal? What were the questions? Enna kelvigal irunthithu?

What is the last question? Kadaisi kelvi enna? What is written in the letter? Khadithathil enna ezhuthi iruku?

What you had been told? Unaku enna solli irunthathu? What will be the answer? Badil enna va irukum?

Why did you come? Yean vantha ? Why did you sleep? En thoonguray?

Why did you tell him to go? Yaen avana poga sonna? Why did he bring the bag? Avan yean pai kondu vanthan?

Why did she pay the money? Aval yaen kaasu koduthal? Why did they sit there? Avunga yaen inga utkaanthirukaanga?

Why do you drive the car? Yaen car ottina?

Why are they late for the meeting? Yean avunga meeting ku thamadama vanthaanga?

How did you come? Nee eppadi vanthe? How did you sleep? Nee epadi thoongina?

How did you drive? Nee epadi oattina? How did you write? Nee epadi ezhuthina?

How many apples are there in my hand? Ethana apple enn kaieilla irukku?

How many did you take? Ethana nee edutha? How much did he pay you? Evalavu panam kodutha?

How much distance to go? Evalavu thooram poakanum?

How was the journey yesterday? Nethu payanam epadi irrunthathu?

Which way did you come? Entha valiya vanthe? Which is your favorite color? Virupamana niram enna?

In which room did you sleep? Entha arailla thoongina? Which story did you tell? Entha kathaya sonna?

Which is the sweetest fruit? Unnaku rumba inipaana palam ethu?

Which is the best newspaper in Hindi? Entha siethithaal nalla irukkum?

Which Indian state has the largest population? Entha indhiya naattu maanilathula romba janathogai irruku?

Where did you come from? Enga irunthu vandha? Where did you sleep? Enga thoonguna?

Where is the manager's cabin? Seyalaalar arai enga? Where should I go? Naan enga poganum?

Whom should I contact? Yeara santhikanum? Is it a book? Ithu puthakama? It is a book Ithu puthakam?

Is it the answer? Ithuthaan badhila? It is the answer? Ithuthaan badhil? Will you come with me? Enkoda varuviya?

I shall come with you. Naan wunkoda varuven. Will you give me your pen? Peanava kodupeengala?

Yes, of course. Aama, pinna. I love you. Naan Unnai Kadalikiren.

Can you give me your pen? Peanava kudukka mudiyuma? Can you lift the box? Pettiya thookka mudiyumma?

Can you write the exam? Paritchai elutha mudiyumma? Did you take your lunch? Madhiyaanam saappadu saapittiya?


The special character 'ஃ' (pronounced 'akh') is called āytham in the Tolkāppiyam (see Tolkāppiyam 1:1:2). The āytham is rarely used by itself: it normally serves a purely grammatical function as an independent vowel form, the equivalent of the overdot diacritic of plain consonants. The rules of pronunciation given in the Tolkāppiyam suggest that the āytham could have glottalised the sounds it was combined with. Although the character was common in classical Tamil, it fell out of use in the early modern period and is now very rare in written Tamil. It is occasionally used with a 'p' (as ஃப) to represent the phoneme [f].

The āytham is also called ahenam (literally, 'the "ah" sound'). Its resemblance to the three dots that were found on shields in mediaeval times, and the similarity of the name āytham to the word āyutham meaning 'weapon' or 'tool' has resulted in it often being called āyutha ezhuthu (literally, 'the war-weapon letter').

Many researchers now feel that the āytham is actually used to represent the voiced implosive (or closing part or the first half) of geminated voiced plosives inside a word. For example, a word written as 'mu-āytham-dee-dhu' (from MuLL+dheedhu) should be read as 'muddeedhu' (MuLL+dheedhu). (This derivation is in accordance with the puṇarci rules for agglutination in Tamil.) Thus the letter doesn't have a unique pronunciation ('akh') as commonly believed, but takes its pronunciation from the succeeding plosive in the word. Thus it doesn't have a separate place of origin in the oral cavity on its own, it shares the place of origin of the succeeding plosive. This is the reason why Tolkāppiyam calls it a 'Saarbezhuthu' (a dependent letter/sound).

It is used to defend the mixing of other language words in Tamil.



Person and number are indicated by suffixing the oblique case of the relevant pronoun (ēn in the above example).

Tamil has no articles.
Definiteness and indefiniteness are either indicated by special grammatical devices, such as using the number "one" as an indefinite article, or by the context.

In the first person plural, Tamil makes a distinction between inclusive pronouns that include the listener and exclusive pronouns that do not.



aasiriyar vakuppaRaiyuL nuzhainthaar.
avar uLLE nuzhainthavudan maaNavarkaL ezhunthanar.
vaLavan mattum than arukil ninRu kondiruntha maaNavi kanimozhiyudan pEsik kondirunthaan.
naan avanai echarithEn.

The teacher entered the classroom.
As soon as he entered, the students got up.
Only Valavan was talking to Kanimozhi who was standing next to him.
I warned him.


aasiriyar Teacher gender-neutral honorific plural indicated by suffix ar. The feminine gender aasiriyai can be used here too; the masculine gender aasiriyan is rarely used, considering the honored position of the teacher

vakuppaRaiyuL inside the class room vakuppu + aRai + -y- + uL adverb

nuzhainthaar entered verb third, gender-neutral, past honorific plural In an honorific context, the masculine and feminine equivalents nuzhainth-aan and nuzhainth-aaL are replaced by the collective nuzhainth-aar

avar He third, gender-neutral honorific plural indicated by suffix ar In honorific contexts, the masculine and feminine forms avan and avaL are not used

uLLE inside

nuzhainthavudan upon entering nuzhaintha + -v- + udan

require a v to be inserted between an end-vowel and a beginning-u during agglutination.

maaNavarkaL students masculine, often used with gender-neutral connotation plural indicated by suffix kaL

ezhunthanar got up third, gender-neutral, past

VaLavan name Proper noun masculine, usually indicated by suffix an

mattum only adjective

than his (self) own

arukil near (lit. "in nearness") aruku + il The postposition il indicates the locative case

ninRu kondiruntha standing ninRu + kondu + iruntha
the verb has been morphed into an adverb by the incompleteness due to the terminal a

maaNavi student feminine singular

kanimozhiyudan with Kanimozhi (name of a person) kanimozhi + udan Comitative
the name Kanimozhi literally means sweet language

pEsik kondirunthaan was talking pEsi + kondu + irunthaan third, masculine, past continuous
indicated by the incompleteness brought by kondu

avan-ai him masculine the postposition ai indicates accusative case

echarith-En cautioned first, indicated by suffix En, gender-neutral, past
singular, plural would be indicated by substituting En with Om



curry from Tamil kari "sauce, relish for rice."

candy possibly from Tamil kantu "candy." kandu sugar candy, rock candy

catamaran from Tamil kattu-maram "tied wood," from kattu "tie" + maram "wood, tree."
kattu tie, band, fastening, ligature; 2. boil, abscess, tumour; 3. fabrication, false hood, invention
maram tree; 2. endogenous plants; 3. wood, timber; 4. medicinal shrub or root; 5. ship or boat

coolie possibly from Tamil kuli "to hire." kuuli wages, pay; 2. fare, hire, freight

ginger possibly from ancient Dravidian inchiver, from inchi "root."
inqi ginger-plant, m. sh., zingiber officinale , one of the important drugs used in almost all tamil medicine; 2. parasitic leafless plant

mango from Tamil mankay, from man "mango tree" + kay "fruit."
manf the earth, the world; 2. earth, as an element; 3. clods of earth taken from ten specified places and rubbed on the person in purificatory baths; 4. dust, dirt; 5. sacred white earth; 6. dry ground, soil, land; 7. atom, particle, grain; 8. lime-mortar, cement; 9. paste smeared on the head of a drum for toning it; 10. house-site; 11. cultivable field

kaay unripe fruit; 2. the last metrical division in a word of three syllables sounding like ka1y ; 3. unripe boil; 4. aborted foetus; 5. chessman die; 6. a preparation in the form of a cone made of pulse mixed with treacle, one of the many important eastables exhibited on marriage occasion; 7. burner in a lamp; 8. half; 9. failure, defeat; 10. decit; 11. seed, as of a bull

pariah from Tamil paraiyar, plural of paraiyan "drummer" (at festivals, the hereditary duty of members of the largest of the lower castes of southern India), from parai "large festival drum." Especially numerous at Madras, where its members supplied most of the domestics in European service. Applied by Hindus and Europeans to members of any low Hindu caste and even to outcastes. Extended meaning "social outcast" is first attested in 1819.



■Kannatthil Muthamittal の品詞分解的日本語訳

→kannam+il  mutham+ittu+al
頬 +に  キス+する(過去分詞)+~したら(仮定)


Ulagam Suttrum Vaaliban 世界~go aroundの未来形を形容詞化~若者 「世界を駆け巡る若者」、ってところかな。



■わなっかんがー
 「わなっかん」をもっと丁寧に言うとこうなる。
 文語(書き言葉・アナウンサーの話言葉)だと「わなっかんがる」となるやつ。
 「んが(る)」をつけると丁寧表現になる、という言葉はたくさんありますね。

■さりんがー
 「さり」(わかりました。「I see」みたいな意味)の丁寧表現

「パダヤッパ」でムルゲシュ、アラゲシュたちがバスンダラ(サウンダリヤ)に「パダヤッパ兄貴が話があるんだって。聴いてやってよ」と迫るシーンで、バスンダラが「わかったわ」と答えるときに言ってたタミル語がコレ!タミル語を習う前からこの単語は聞き取れてましたが、言葉の構造がこうやってわかるとまた新鮮ですね~。バスンダラは使用人だから、「さり」ではなく、「さりんがー」と言ったんですね。
  
余談ながら、パダヤッパが母親に「分かった」と言ってるときは、「さりまー」(「さり」+「まだむ」=女性への丁寧表現。)ですよ。


■うっかるんがー(おっかるげ、とよく聞こえる)
 「うっかるんがる」の口語。「座ってください」。パダヤッパがニーランバリ家で、「まあ座れよ。座れッたら!」とおじさんたちにやんややんや言われるくだりで連発しましたね。


■わんがー   「わんが、わんが」とよく聞きます。「おいでおいで!」 「わーんがる」の口語です。

...ということで、文語では「~がる」と言うところが、口語では「る」が抜け落ちるということです。で、表記上は「ー」はないけど、「がー」と語尾がストレッチして伸びて聞こえることが多いんですね。 




 「わなっかん」は、丁寧に言うと「わなっかんが(る)」です。映画でも「わなっかん」と言っている場合と、 「わなっかんがー」と言っている場合がありますので、聞いてみてください。
  どの時間帯でも使えるし、さよならの挨拶にも使えます。広範囲に使えて便利な言葉です。


c (optionally 's' in word initial position)


Lateral sounds
When the tip of the tougue is touching the pre-alveolar portion of the mouth, the air is released through the sides of the toungue to make the lateral sounds "l" (l as in lean, later) and "f" (L as in mole, goal). The former is called alveolar lateral and the latter is called retroflex lateral.

When producing the retroflex lateral (L), the tip of the toungue curves back a little and makes a contact on the alveolar region of the mouth.



For many Tamil speakers, the distinction between a flapped r and a trilled r is no longer made in pronunciation
(though, of course, it is relevant in the written language).


ai / ae ei e. e^ -y- yw -v- vw

k; [k] g; [g] x; [x] gh [ɣ] kh [h] ng; [ŋ] c; [ʧ] gj [ʤ] dj [ʤ] cs [s]

sj [ʃ] zj [ʒ] ch; [ʧ] nj [ɲ] tf; :語頭では用いられない df [ɖ] rf [ɽ] T [ʈ]

N [ɳ] nf :単語の先頭には来ない th; [.t] ts [.t] dz [.d] dh [ð] n; [.n] p; [p] b [b]

bh [β] m [m] y [j] r [ɾ] l [l] v [ʋ] rf [ɻ] zh [ɻ] lf [ɭ] L [ɭ]

tr; [r]語頭では用いられない dr [r] rt [t] rd [d] R [r] zn [n_]

j [ʤ] sh [ʂ] s [s] h [h] ksh [kʂ] shri []

a aa i ii u uu e ee ai o oo au

k, kk [k] g [g] gn ng [ŋ]ng c, cc [ʧ] q [ʤ] nh [ɲ]nq

-, tt [ʈ] d [ɖ], [ɽ] -, fn [ɳ]nd th, ht [.t] dh [.d] n [.n]ndh p, pp [p] b [b]

m, mb [m] y [j] r [ɾ] l [l] v [ʋ] z [ɻ] f [ɭ] -, tr [r] dr [r] -, nz n [n_]ndr

Grantha j [ʤ] sri sh [ʂ] s [s] h [h] ks [kʂ]



Words do not begin with N or n_ However, words may begin with n but words do not end with n As a result, n generally appears at the beginning or in the middle of a word while N and n_ generally appear in the middle or at the end of a word.

None of the letters N, r, l, zh, L, tr, and n_ should be the first letter of a word. Instead, i must precede the letter.

rice raicsu pizza piitcaa computer kambiyuuttar



avar kaaval kaaran "He is a police officer."

There is a word for "a"/"an", which is oru, which is used.

avarkaf aindhu aaciriyarkaf "They are 5 teachers naan oru paiyan "I am a boy."


To make a simple sentence negative (reverse the meaning), add illai to the end of the sentence

To turn a sentence into a question, add -aa to the end of the sentence.


Verbs roots, by themselves, can be used as commands. A command is a statement requesting something to be done.

Thamil verbs have been organized into 7 classes based on the changes made when adding suffixes. Weak verbs refer to verbs in classes 1-4. Strong verbs refer to verbs in classes 6-7. There are no more than 10 or so verbsin class 5, so we'll leave it alone.


When verbs show action in a sentence, a suffix is added to the verbs that match up with the subject of the sentence. Each pronoun is associated with a verb suffix. This means that if a pronoun appears in a sentence, then its corresponding verb suffix is adding to the end of the verb. (Verb suffixes are also known as PGN or PNG suffixes.) The table below shows pronouns and the corresponding verb suffixes:

singluar plural

1st Person pronoun verb suffix pronoun verb suffix

naan -een naam -oom
naangaf -oom
__________________________________________________________________

2nd Person nii -aay niingaf -iirkaf

niingaf -iirkaf
__________________________________________________________________

3rd person avan -aan

avaf -aaf avarkaf -aarkaf

avar -aar
__________________________________________________________________

adhu -adhu (past/present tense) avai N/A* (past/present tense)

-um (future tense) -um (future tense)

* Present tense verbs used with avai are made differently. Since adhu and avai present quite a few excpetions.

If the subject of the sentence isn't a pronoun, then the subject will have a related pronoun. Then the verb suffix corresponding to the related prnoun is added to the verb.

Ex: verb suffix for kamalaa = -aaf manfi = -aan



some weak verbs vilfaiyaadu play thuungu sleep utkaar sit vaangu buy, receive odu run

some strong verbs padi read kodu give paar see niznai think

Turning a verb root into a present tense verb depends on if the verb is a weak or strong verb:


Weak Verbs verb root + kidr + verb suffix

naay thuungu-kidr-thu = "The dog sleeps." avarkaf vifaiyaadu-kidr-aarkaf = "They play."

avan vaangu-kidraan = "He buys."


Strong Verbs verb root + kkidr + verb suffix

kamalaa padi-kkidr-aan; = "Kamala reads."



The rules presented below aren't all the rules, but they are the more commonly used ones.

suffix addition rules

1. If the suffix begins in a vowel sound and the word ends in an i, ii, ee, or ai, insert yw in between.

2. If the suffix begins in a vowel sound and the word ends in an a, aa, uu, o, oo, or ofa, insert a vw in bewteen.

3. If the suffix begins in a vowel sound and the word ends in an u sound, and...

a. If the word is made of 2 short letters, insert a vw in between.
b. If the word is not made of 2 short letters, drop the last u and add the suffix

4. If the suffix begins in a vowel sound and the word is made of 2 short letters, with the 2nd letter being a consonant, then double the 2nd letter and add the ending.

Otherwise, join the word and suffix as they are.

[
So far, we've come across 2 instances of adding suffixes. The first time was forming a question. Not coincidentally, each sentence ended in a consonant, so the last rule was used. Then came present tense verbs, where a verb suffix was added to "verb root + kidr / kkidr". Since kidr and kkidr both end in a consonant, the last rule was used again.

These rules for adding suffixes will always apply unless otherwise specified.


Compound Subjects
Now let's try examples using the ending for compound subjects.


For each member of a compound subject, the suffix -um is added to each word.


Since compound subjects refer to more than 1 person or thing, the subject thus becomes plural.

Suffix examples:

1. thambiyum thangaiyum kodukkidraarxaf = "Younger brother and younger sister give."

thambi -y -um = tham piyum thang -y -um = thang kaiyum

2. ammaavum naaznum utkaarkidroom = "Mother and I sit."

am maa -v -um = am maavum naan -um = naaznum

3.

a. naaznum maadum zudukidroom = "The bull and I run." maadu -um = maadum

b. niiyum pakavum paarkkidriirkaf = "You and the cow see." nii -y -um = niiyum paka -v -um = pakavum

4. aanfum pefnum utkaarkidraarkaf = "The male and the female sit." aanfa -um = aanfum penf -um = penf nfum



Once you have a handle on which verbs are strong and which verbs are weak, putting verbs into the future tense shouldn't be too hard.



weak verbs, for pronouns (other than adhu / avai), verb root + v + verb suffix

Ex:

niingaf ooduviirkaf = "You will run."

avaf thuunguvaaf = "He will sleep."

avarxaf pekavaar kafaa? = "Will they speak?"

naay naafaikku uykaarum = "The dog will sit tomorrow."


strong verbs, for pronouns (other than adhu / avai), verb root + ppw + verb suffix

Ex:

nii kooduppaayaa? = "Will you give?"

avai kudikkum = "They will drink."

niingaf engee vakippiirkaf? = "Where will you live?"

naangaf camaippoom = "We will cook."


More Verbs
weak: peecu talk unf, caappidu eat virumbu like ezudhu write

strong: nadu walk kudi drink camai cook vaci live iru be



For the English word "all", there are two words. One word is used for people, and one word is used for non-people things.

elloorum everyone ellaam everything

To translate the word "all" when it is used as an adjective in English, insert one of the two words above after the things/people it describes. Ex:


artha maadukaf ellaam thaangum = All of those cattle will sleep.

kuzandhaikaf elloorum indru vifaiyaaduvaarkaf = All of the kids will play today.





used in the spoken language as well cel 'go' is not used in spoken, only poo 'go,' used in both; கூறு speak, say' is not used in ST, only sollu ( col ), used in both, nor is it possible to determine what their spoken forms might be, and what class they belong to in spoken, since historical and morphophonemic changes have resulted in some verbs switching to another class, or to a class not represented in Literary Tamil. For example, செய் cey `do' is class 1 (past in t /t/) in LT, but class 2 seyyi (with palatalization of nt /nt/ to /nc/, (phonetically [-nj-]) in spoken.


The importance of transitivity status is, of course, that while English verbs can often be either one or the other (e.g. English `break') in Tamil it must be specified as to whether something breaks of itself (`it broke') or whether an agent caused it to break (`I broke it'). In English the same verb is used, but in Tamil the intransitive verb உடை meaning `break something'. In other cases pairs of verbs with slightly different phonological shapes are found, much like English pairs `fall/fell', `lie/lay', `sit/set'. Examples of these are verbs like திரும்பு tirumbu return (of one's own accord)' vs. திருப்பு tiruppu `return s.t. (tr.)' and ஓடு oodu run (under one's own power)' vs. ஓட்டு oottu `run something (tr.)'. Without information about verb class and transitivity, non-Tamils have no way of knowing how to choose the correct form, and may produce such ungrammatical things as உடைகிறேன் I break (of my own accord)' rather than the proper உடைக்கிறேன் `I break (something).'





ko-lai-ya, ko-lai-ya mun-thi-ri-kaa, ne-Ra-ya, ne-Ra-ya ceet-thu vaa!

a bunch, a bunch of cashew-nut fruits, more, more add and come!












pala many palaa jack fruit

kelee branch pillee child tolle trouble padu lie down paadu sing paaddu song kattu scream

kaadu ear kadavuL god kaNavan husband kalyaaNam marriage palahaaram snacks cuppiramaNiyan

proper name pandu ball anbu love


"k" when initial, or next to an unvoiced consonant, like k in English; after vowels, a velar fricative like ch in Bach or sometimes a voiced stop like g; after n, like g in finger.


"c" when initial, usually pronounced as s, like the c in cent; sometimes as ch in church. In loanwords from Sanskrit, it may be sh as in shakti (Tamil cakti). After ñ, like j in enjoy. When c is doubled or after T, pronounced tch as in focaccia or cappuccino.


"z" was originally a voiced alveolar-lateral fricative; now it is pronounced the same as retroflex f;.

"f" is a retroflex L, with the tongue bent backward and up to the roof of the mouth

"tr" is a strongly trilled alveolar r. It was originally an alveolar t; when followed by an unvoiced consonant, it is pronounced as t. Note: doubled rr is pronounced tr as in attract.


"e^"
toNmai ~ toNme ancient vanmai ~ vanme skillful tambi younger brother tangai ~ tange younger sister



「Vanakkam」で、 m; は、語末にくると鼻にかかった音になって、 軽く「ん」という感じになります。

The nasal consonants that occur at the end of words are usually nasalized by the preceding vowels.
'na~ ' 'I' 'avan ~ ava~' 'he' 'maram ~ mara~' 'tree' 'pazham ~ pazha~' 'fruit'

However, the consonant "nf" that occurs at the end of words is doubled and an enunciative vowel "u" is added in spoken Tamil.
'kanf ~ kafnu' 'eye' 'manf ~ mafnu' 'soil/sand'


"k" is pronounced g after nasal consonants: angee ~ ange 'there' ingee ~ inge 'here' engee ~ enge 'where'

'x' between vowels and after "r" and "y":

paxal 'day' maxan ~ maxa~ 'son' maxaL ~ maxa 'daughter' uurxaL 'towns' naayxaL 'dogs'

'k' in word initial position and in clusters:

kappal 'ship' kadal 'ocean' pakkam ~ pakka~ 'side' thuukkam ~ thuukka~ 'sleep'



"c" is pronounced 'j' after nasal consonants: anqu 'cotton' nanqu 'poison' anqu 'proper name'

's' between vowels and optionally in word initial position

toosai ~ doose 'dosa' aasai ~ aase 'desire' maasam ~ maasa~ 'month'

cakkaram ~ cakkara~ 'wheel' cani or sani 'Saturday' cevvaay or sevvaay 'Tuesday'

'ch' in word initial position and in clusters: cakkaram ~ cakkara~ 'wheel' cani 'Saturday'

cevvaay ~ ceevvaa 'Tuesday' paccai ~ pacce 'green' eccil 'salaiva'



"t" is pronounced 'd' after nasal consonants and between vowels:

tundu 'towel' karandi 'spoon' nadu 'crab' padam ~ pada~ 'picture' oodam ~ ooda~ 'boat' naadu 'country'

't' in word initial position and in clusters

tamaaram ~ tamaara~ 'a drum' tii 'tea' taim 'time' pattu 'silk' puuttu 'lock' kaattu 'show'



"th" is pronounced 'dh' after nasal consonants and between vowels: pandhu 'ball' indha 'this - adjective'

andha 'that-adjective' adhu 'that (thing)' paadhai ~ paadhe 'route/way' moodhu 'dash/strike'

'th' in word initial position and in clusters thamiz 'Tamil' thafniir ~ thafni 'water'

thingaL ~ thinga 'Monday' pahtu 'ten' kahtu 'scream' ezhuhtu 'letter/script'



"p" is pronounced 'b' after nasal consonants and between vowels: thambi 'younger brother' thirumbu 'turn'

enfpadhu 'eighty' kooba~ 'anger' abaaya~ 'danger' caaba~ 'curse'


'p' in word initial position and in clusters

padi 'study' paza~ 'fruit' panfa~ 'money' appaa 'father' thappu 'mistake' thuppu 'spit'




With respect to orthography, vowels occur in their isolated character only in the beginning position of words. In all the other positions, such as medial and final positions, they are realized in the form of a secondary symbol.

adhu 'that (thing)' aamaam 'yes' idhu 'this (thing)'

ii 'fly' ulaxa~ 'world' uur 'town/village' edhu 'which (thing)'

eezu 'seven' aiyoo 'alas' - interjection oru 'one (adjective)' oodu 'run'



Clusters with identical consonants:

akkaa 'elder sister' paccai ~ pacca 'green' pattu 'silk' efnai ~ efne) 'oil' --> nfney

pahtu 'ten' munnuudru 'three hundred' appaa 'father' ammaa 'mother' koyyaa 'kovva fruit'

palli 'lizard' cevvaay ~ sevvaa 'Tuesday' taLLu 'push' munnaal ~ munnaale 'in front of'



The consonants ங், ஞ், ர் and ழ் do not occur successively as a cluster.
Section Clusters with non-indentical consonants

Nasal + Stop angee ~ anga 'there' panqu 'cottorn' thundu 'towel'

pandhu 'ball' thambi 'younger brother' enfpadhu ~ embadhu 'eighty' anbu 'love'


Others: kalkahtaa 'Calcutta' karnaadaha~ 'Karnataka' idli 'Idly' minsaara~ 'electricity'

inRaikku ~ iNNekki 'today' eda\d rku ~ edukku) 'for what' kalvi 'education' kashTa~ 'difficulty'

pustaha~ 'book'



Contrasts between short and long vowels; single and clusterd consonants; retroflex and non retroflex consonants; flapped and trilled r etc. , cause a large number of minimal pairs in Tamil.

Difference in pronunciation in such words is usually subtle, and special attention is needed when one attempts to say those words.

Minimal pairs due to length of vowels

Each of the following pairs represents a minimal form due to short and long form of vowels.

pal 'tooth' vs. paal 'milk' kal 'stone' vs. kaal 'leg' pala 'many' vs. palaa 'jack fruit'

vidu) 'leave' vs. viidu 'house' vidhi 'fate' vs. viidhi 'street' kodu 'give' vs. koodu 'line'

todu 'touch' vs. toodu 'earring' cudu 'shoot/fry' vs. cuudu 'heat' mudi 'hair/tie' vs. muudi 'lid'



Minimal pairs due to consonant clusters
paaxu 'sugar syrup' vs. paakku 'betal nut' pasai 'crease' vs. paccai 'green'

kudai 'umbrellaa' vs. kuttai 'small pond' kaadhu 'ear' vs. kaahtu 'wind'


Minimal pairs due to difference of nature of consonants

Trilled r vs. flapped r kadrai 'stain' vs. karai 'bank of a river'


Frictionless continuent and alveolar lateral mazai 'rain' vs. malai 'mountain'


Retroflex lateral consonant vs. alveolar lateral vafai 'circle' vs. valai 'net'


Retroflex nasal vs. alveolar nasal manfa~ 'fragrance' vs. mana~ 'mind'



The suffix ,inga, is used for both the genders. The verb 'come' which is 'va' in Tamil must be verbalized as 'vanga'.


Eat which is 'sapidu' must be said as 'sapidunga'. Unless you are referring to an animal or non living thing,
speaking without the suffix will highly offend the other person.



ぃえん わーるっかい あーらんびっちゃどぅ バスストップ ら だーん
(ここ(バス停)で人生が始まったんだ)

ぃえん en =私の
わーるっかい waazhkkai =人生、生活
あーらんびっちゃどぅ aarambicchadhu =始まったこと、始めたこと
バスストップ bas stop =バス停(英語から)
ら la =~で(場所、季節などの時間) いる il (~で)の会話形
だーん dhaan =それこそ~だ、というような強調

*いる il (~で)は、会話では「ら(la )」になることが多いです。


例 (書き言葉→会話形)
大阪で
おおさか ヴぃる osaka vil→おおさか ら osaka la

4月に
ぃえーぷりる まーだってぃる april madhadhil→ぃえーぷりる まーだってぃら april madhadhila

テレビで
てぃーヴぃー いる TV yil→てぃーヴぃー ら TV la



だいやもんど かりちるち (ダイヤがあった!)

*かりちるち
きだいっとぅ ヴぃったどぅ kidaitthu vittadhu=得ることができたの会話形。

「あった」とか「もらった」とか、よく使います。

例)
うんが めいる かりちるち unga mail karichiruchi
=君のメールが届いたよ

さんばらむ かりちるち sambaLam karichiruchi
=給料もらったよ

ガールフレンド かりちるちゃー? girlfriend karichiruchaa?
=カノジョできた?


けったヴぁん kettavan=悪人、悪い人
*なっらヴぁん nallavan=善人、いい人
illai=いいえ、~ではない



de eaux.t





annuppu- to send appeDiyA really appuRam then arisi rice (husked) Aru river asingemAne ugly assaeppaDu- to desire asuttemAne, suttam illade dirty badil sollu- to answer balemAne strong bayam fear bayeppaDu- fear caeDi plant djannel window DObi, vaNNAn launderer grAmam village ii fly iiremAne damp illaeNNA otherwise illAme without inde samayettule now ingae koNDu va- to bring innaekku today ippo now irraevu, rAtri night irudayam heart irumel cough irundum yet iruTTane dark kAccel fever kaDae shop kaDaesi last kadavu door kaDel sea kaDidam letter kAdu ear kADu forest kaeaeLvi question kai hand kajattu to remove kajuvu- to wash kakkUs toilets kAl leg kAl SaTTae trousers kAlae morning kAlaeyile in the morning kaliyANam wedding kAliyAne empty kallu stone kambu stem kAmi-, kATTu- to show kANA pOccu missing kaSTam diifculty kaSTmAne diificult katterikkol cissors katti knife kAttu wind kattu- to shout kAtu konNdu- to wait kAy unripe fruit kAyam wound kayiRu rope kiijae downside koDu-,tA-, taru- to give kondjam a little kuDumbam family kujandae child kuLir cold kural voice kUrAne sharp kuruvi, paraevae bird madyAnam after noon maejuguvatti candle maelae above magae daughter magan son majae rain makkeL people malae mountain mAmpajam mango manaevi woman mANevar student maNi naeaeram time mañjaL yellow maram tree maranduTu- to forget maRumbediyum again marundu medicine, drug mAsam month matta, vaeaeru other mATTi vae to hook maTTum only mayir hair miin fish miLegAy pepper miLegu pepper moji language mOndu par- to smell mosamAne bad mUccu viDu- to breathe muDivu decision mugam face mujusam whole mukkiyemAne important mUkku nose munAl in front of muTTae egg naDandu po- to walk nADu country NaDuvule in the middle of naeaerA straight naeaesi- to like naejal shadow naellu paddy naenae- to think nageram town nAkAli chair nAkku tongue nAL day nAl annaikki after to morrow nAlLaekku to morrow nambikkae confidence naNber friend nanRi thanks naRukku, vaeTTu to cut nAy dog neettu yesterday niiNDe long nil- to stop, to stand niRam colour niRutte- to stop nitchalaDi- to swim nO illness nOTTuppustagam notebook nOyAli sick nyAbagam varu- to remember ODu- to run onnum illae nothing Oram side oruvarun illae nobody OTTu- to drive ovvoru each pADal, pATTu song paDam picture pAdi half paDi- to study paeaer, paeyar name paeaesu- to speak paesae to knead pai bag paiyan boy pal tooth pAl milk pAmbu snake paNam, kAsu money paNekkAran rich paNNu- to do pAr- to see pasi hunger piDi- to catch piDikkum- to please so pOdum enough poNNu girl poruL thing pOTTiru to wear pOyDu- to go pudiye new pul grass puLipAnae sour pUnDu flower pUnDu garlic purinjukku- to understand pUTTu lock rAdjA king rANi queen rAtriyile night rattam blood rombe very sAdAreNe ordinary saettu pO- to die sakkarae sugar samaeyel- to cook sambAdi- to earn saNDae quarrel sandi- to meet sandoSamAne happy sApiDu- to eat sAppADu meal saTTae shirt sAvi key sialndi pUcci spider sila samayam, sila vaeaeLae sometime sile some sinne small siri- to smile sol word sollu- to say sOru rice (cooked) sUDAne hot suttam saey- to clean suvaeyAne tasteful suver wall taeaeDu- to search for taeaeLu scorpion taengAy coconut taeriyum- to know taeru street tAgam thirst takkAli tomato talae head tambi younger brother tangatchi youger sister tappu fault tAttA grand father tayAr saey- to prepare tiDiinnu suddenly tiipaeTTi fire tirande open tire- to open tiruDan thief tirumbi va- to come back tojil occupation tUkku- to lift tUnge- to sleep tUnguae po- to go to bed tuNiccel courage tUsi dust uDal nalam health udevi help ukkAr- to sit ulegam world -uLLae inside -um and uppu salt uraeyADal conversation uruLaekkijangu potato vA-, varu- to come vae- to put vaeaelae work vaeaervae sweat vaegemAne fast vaeLiyaeae outside vaengAyam onion vaetchiru- to keep vaeyil heat vaji way vAlapajam banana vali pain vaNakkam good morning vAnam sky VaNDu drone vAngu buy vAram week varuSam year vasediyAne convinient vAsi- to play (instrument) vAsi- to read vayel field vayiru belly vibaram detail viiDu house vijA celebration viju- to fall vilAsam address vileae uyernde expensive viLekku vimAnam plane virumbu- to want viSam poison viTTuDu to abandon vityAsam difference vivesAyam farming vLaeyADu- to play
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