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Cyrillic Scholarly[1] ALA-LC BGN/PCGN ISO 9 Official Belarusian and UN[2]
А а a a a a a
Б б b b b b b
В в v v v v v
Г г h h h g h
Ґ ґ[3] g g – g̀ –
Д д d d d d d
Дж дж dž dz͡h dzh dž dž
Дз дз dz dz dz dz dz
Е е e e ye e ie, je
Ё ё ë i͡o yo ë io, jo
Ж ж ž z͡h zh ž ž
З з z z z z z
І і i i i ì i
Й й j ĭ y j j
К к k k k k k
Л л l l l l l
М м m m m m m
Н н n n n n n
О о o o o o o
П п p p p p p
Р р r r r r r
С с s s s s s
Т т t t t t t
У у u u u u u
Ў ў ŭ (w) ŭ w ǔ ú
Ф ф f f f f f
Х х x (ch) kh kh h ch
Ц ц c ts ts c c
Ч ч č ch ch č č
Ш ш š sh sh š š
’ – - – ’ –
Ы ы y y y y y
Ь ь ′ ′ – ′ ’
Э э è ė e è e
Ю ю ju i͡u yu û iu, ju
Я я ja i͡a ya â ia, ja
^ Parentheses ( ) denote older variants.
^ For е, ё, ю, я, the digraphs je, jo, ju, ja are used word-initially, and after a vowel, apostrophe (’), separating ь, or ў.
^ The letter Ge (Ґ ґ) has never been the part of the standard Belarusian alphabet.

Bulgarian Cyrillic United Nations Official transliteration English
Всички хора се раждат свободни и равни по достойнство и права. Tе са надарени с разум и съвест и следва да се отнасят помежду си в дух на братство. Vsički hora se raždat svobodni i ravni po dostojnstvo i prava. Te sa nadareni s razum i sǎvest i sledva da se otnasjat pomeždu si v duh na bratstvo. Vsichki hora se razhdat svobodni i ravni po dostoynstvo i prava. Te sa nadareni s razum i savest i sledva da se otnasyat pomezhdu si v duh na bratstvo. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

у u ou
ф f
х h
ц c
ч ch č
ш sh š
щ sht sht ŝ št sht

Vorbes essif actival agressif transif
being walk take bring make break

Х х x ch x h h kh kh
Ц ц c c cz

Щ щ šč šč shh šč ŝ shch shch

Ы ы y y y' y y y y

Э э è ė è è è ė e
Ю ю ju ju yu ju û i͡u yu
Я я ja ja уа ja â i͡a ya

Ѯ ѯ ks – – – – – –
Ѱ ѱ ps – – – – – –
Ѡ ѡ ô, o – – – – – –

Ѧ ѧ ę, ja – – – – – –
Ѭ ѭ jǫ, ju – – – – – –
Ѩ ѩ ję, ja – – – – – –

** GOST 7.79-2000: Cyrillic і in Ukrainian and Bulgarian is always transliterated as Latin i, as well as in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian texts where it is usually used before vowels. In the rare case where it falls before a consonant (for example, in the word мiрь) it is transliterated i'.

Cyrillic Scholarly* ALA-LC† BGN/PCGN‡ ISO 9 National** French German
А а a a a a a a a
Б б b b b b b b b
В в v v v v v v w
Г г h h h g h, gh¹ h h
Ґ ґ g g g g̀ g g g
Д д d d d d d d d
Е е e e e e e e e
Є є je i͡e ye ê ie, ye² ie je
Ж ж ž z͡h zh ž zh j sh
З з z z z z z z s
И и y y y i y y y
І і i i i ì i i i
Ї ї ji or ï ï yi ï i, yi² ï, yi ji
Й й j ĭ y j i, y² i j

С с s s, ss

Х х x or ch kh kh h kh kh ch
Ц ц c t͡s ts c ts ts z
Ч ч č ch ch č ch tch tsch
Ш ш š sh sh š sh ch sch
Щ щ šč shch shch ŝ sch chtch schtsch
Ю ю ju i͡u yu û iu, yu² iou, you² ju
Я я ja i͡a ya â ia, ya² ia, ya² ja
Ь ь ′ ′ ’ ′ ’ – –
’ - or ″ - ” ’ ” – –

Eth (Ð ð) and the Runic letters thorn (Þ þ), and wynn (Ƿ ƿ) were added to the Old English alphabet. Eth and thorn were later replaced with th, and wynn with the new letter w. Although these three letters are no longer part of the English alphabet, eth and thorn are still used in the modern Icelandic alphabet.

Some West, Central and Southern African languages use a few additional letters which have a similar sound value to their equivalents in the IPA. For example, Ga uses the letters Ɛ ɛ, Ŋ ŋ and Ɔ ɔ and Adangme uses Ɛ ɛ and Ɔ ɔ. Hausa uses Ɓ ɓ and Ɗ ɗ for implosives and Ƙ ƙ for an ejective. Africanists have standardized these into the African reference alphabet.

Types of digraphs
There are two main kinds of digraphs, sequences and double letters.

[edit] Sequences
This is a pair of different letters in a specific order. Examples in English are:

ch usually corresponds to /tʃ/ (voiceless postalveolar affricate), to /k/ (voiceless velar plosive) when used as an etymological digraph in words of Greek origin, more rarely to /ʃ/ (voiceless postalveolar fricative)
ck represents /k/ (voiceless velar plosive)
gh represents /g/ (voiced velar plosive) at the beginning of words. Represents /f/ (voiceless labiodental fricative), or is silent at the end of words, and in compounds formed from such words.
ng represents /ŋ/ (velar nasal)
ph represents /f/ (voiceless labiodental fricative)
qu usually represents /kw/ or /k/; q is conventionally followed by u in native words.
rh represents /ɹ/ (alveolar approximant), and is an etymological digraph found in words of Greek origin.
sc normally represents /s/ (voiceless alveolar fricative) before e or i
sh represents /ʃ/ (voiceless postalveolar fricative)
th usually corresponds to /θ/ (voiceless interdental fricative) or /ð/ (voiced interdental fricative). See also Pronunciation of English th.
wh represents /ʍ/ (voiceless labial-velar fricative) in some conservative dialects; /w/ (voiced labial-velar approximant) in other dialects; and /h/ (voiceless glottal fricative) in a few words where it is followed by o, such as who and whole. See also Hwair.
wr represents /ɹ/ (alveolar approximant). Originally, it stood for a labialized sound, while r was a non-labialized rhotic, but this distinction was lost, and the two sounds have merged into a single phoneme, which is allophonically labialized at the start of syllables, as in red [ɹʷɛd].

Rr alveolar trill /r/

[edit] Ambiguity
Some letter pairs should not be interpreted as digraphs, but appear due to compounding, like in hogshead and cooperate. This is often not marked in any way (it is an exception which must simply be memorized), but some authors indicate it either by breaking up the digraph with a hyphen, as in hogs-head, co-operate, or with a diaeresis mark. The New Yorker writes cooperate as coöperate, for instance.

In Czech also (and analogically in other Slavic languages), double letters may appear in compound words, but they are not considered digraphs. Examples: bezzubý (bez + zubý, toothless), cenný (cen + ný, valuable), černooký (černo + oký, black-eyed).

[edit] Digraphs versus letters
In some languages, digraphs and trigraphs are counted as distinct letters in themselves, and assigned to a specific place in the alphabet, separate from that of the sequence of characters which composes them, in orthography or collation. Other languages, such as English, make no such convention, and split digraphs into their constituent letters for collation purposes. Some language alphabets that include digraphs are:

Croatian, Serbian. Note that in the Cyrillic orthography, these sounds are represented by single letters, rather than pairs of letters.
lj corresponds to /ʎ/, (palatal lateral approximant)
nj corresponds to /ɲ/ (palatal nasal)
dž corresponds to /dʒ/ (voiced postalveolar affricate)
cs represents /tʃ/ (voiceless postalveolar affricate)
dz represents /dz/ (voiced postalveolar affricate)
gy represents /ɟ/ (voiced palatal plosive)
ly originally represented /ʎ/ (palatal lateral approximant), but in the modern language stands for /j/ (palatal approximant)
ny represents /ɲ/ (palatal nasal)
sz represents /s/ (voiceless alveolar fricative) (s is pronounced as /ʃ/)
ty represents /c/ (voiceless palatal plosive)
zs represents /ʒ/ (voiced postalveolar fricative)
ch corresponds to /x/ (voiceless velar fricative)
cz corresponds to /tʂ/ (voiceless retroflex affricate)
dz corresponds to /dz/ (voiced alveolar affricate)
dź corresponds to /dʑ/ (voiced alveolo-palatal affricate)
dż corresponds to /dʐ/ (voiced retroflex affricate)
rz corresponds to /ʐ/ (voiced retroflex fricative)
sz corresponds to /ʂ/ (voiceless retroflex fricative)
Scandinavian languages.
aa represents /ɔ/, and is alternatively spelt å.
Spanish. The following digraphs are considered part of the alphabet. They used to be sorted as separate letters, but a reform in 1994 by the Spanish Royal Academy has allowed that they be split into their constituent letters for collation. Note: the digraph rr has never been included in the Spanish alphabet, in spite of having a distinct pronunciation (alveolar trill).
ch represents /tʃ/ (voiceless postalveolar affricate)
ll corresponds to /ʎ/ (traditionally a palatal lateral approximant, though it has several dialectal variants in modern Spanish)
Welsh. The digraphs listed below represent distinct phonemes. On the other hand, the digraphs mh, nh, and the trigraph ngh, which stand for voiceless consonants, but only occur at the beginning of words as a result of the nasal mutation, are not included in the alphabet.
ch represents /x/ (voiceless velar fricative)
dd represents /ð/ (voiced dental fricative), like the English th in then.
ff represents /f/ (voiceless labiodental fricative), like English f, since Welsh f is pronounced like an English v.
ll represents /ɬ/ (voiceless alveolar lateral fricative)
ng represents /ŋ/ (velar nasal), the same sound as in English.
ph represents /f/ (voiceless labiodental fricative)
rh represents /r̥/ (voiceless alveolar trill), pronounced roughly like the combination hr.
th represents /θ/ (voiceless interdental fricative)

Place of articulation → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical (none)
Manner of articulation ↓ Bilabial Labio‐
dental Dental Alveolar Post‐
alveolar Retro‐
flex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn‐
geal Epi‐
glottal Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant β̞ ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Trill ʙ r * ʀ *
Tap or Flap ѵ̟† ѵ† ɾ ɽ *
Lateral Fricative ɬ ɮ * * *
Lateral Approx­imant l ɭ ʎ ʟ
Lateral Flap ɺ * * *

V di nomr veth

W Ω orm 'orm

Ы wuei

Z zejt det

ho a

abandon abandoned abandonment

12 abate
11 abbey
9 abbreviate
7 abbreviation
12 abdicate
10 abdomen
12 abdominal
11 aberration
11 abet
12 abhor
12 abhorrent
10 abide
11 abiding
2 ability
12 abject
11 ablaze
1 able
7 abnormal
8 abnormality
4 aboard
5 abolish
7 abolition
12 abominable
8 aboriginal
9 abort
6 abortion
10 abortive
8 abound
1 about
1 above
11 abrasive
12 abreast
2 abroad
6 abrupt
3 absence
2 absent
3 absolute
4 absolutely
4 absorb
8 absorbing
8 absorption
10 abstain
11 abstinence
4 abstract
9 abstraction
5 absurd
9 absurdity
5 abundance
5 abundant
4 abuse
7 abusive
11 abyss
3 academic
5 academy
12 accede
8 accelerate
9 acceleration
10 accelerator
2 accent
kep 2 accept
4 acceptable
4 acceptance
3 access
6 accessible
12 accession
4 accessory
2 accident
5 accidental
6 accidentally
12 acclamation
12 accolade
6 accommodate
10 accommodating
5 accommodation
7 accompaniment
10 accompanist
3 accompany
11 accomplice
4 accomplish
5 accomplished
5 accomplishment

hab cord 4 accord








Author:je_luo d'hishwards