z'a [dze]
d'a [dzhe]
t'a [tse]
en so eins ins eins
d'en gaans, sagten/zagten zaakt-n
je s z'ai lantis/
so ein

'z [th]
'c [th in theatre]
't [ts]
'n [nj]
'D [dh]
'd [dh]
mogten reg'tens

Domestic Animals

*kwon- 'dog'
Gothic hunds, German Hund 'dog'

*gwou- 'cow'
Old High German chuo, German Kuh 'cow'

*peku- 'cattle'
Gothic faihu 'money, moveable goods', German Vieh 'livestock; animal'

*owi- 'sheep'
Gothic awe-thi 'herd of sheep', awistr 'sheepfold'

*ghaid- 'kid, goat'
Gothic gaits (Semitic *gady)

*qhog- 'goat'

Old English he:cen, Middle Dutch hoekijn 'male goat'

*sw-(en)- 'pig, swine'(under construction)
Gothic swein 'swine, pig', German Schwein 'pig'

*porko- 'piglet'
'farrow' (Latin / French loan: pork)
Old High German farah, Old English fearh 'little pig, hog'

*ghans- 'goose'
Old High German gans 'goose'

*bhei- 'bee'
German Biene

*ekw-o- 'horse'

Old Icelandic jór

Non-Domesticated Animals


*lokso- 'salmonid fish'
'lachs' (loan word)
Old High German lahs

*wed-ro-s- 'otter'
Old High German ottar

*wl,kw-o- 'wolf'
Gothic wulfs

*anH0th- 'duck'

German Ente

*On the "Huchen" (salmon), see Diebold JIES Monogr. 5.

Animals with Taboo Etymologie

*bhei- 'bee'
German Biene

H2r'tko- 'bear'
note: this root was replaced in Germanic by *bher- 'brown'

tho : article (prob feminine)

the : article (probably masculine)

broe : bread (from *brauth)

Plut : blood (from blot)

Stul : seat (from -stol)

Hus : house (from hus)

Wingart : vineyard (from winagart)

Reghen : rain

Bruder : brother (from brothar)

schwister : sister (from swistar)

Alt : old

Wintch : wind (from winds)

siluir : siver (from *silubr)

Goltz : gold (from gulth)

Kor : wheat (from *korn)

Salt : salt

Fisct : fish (from fisk)

Hoef : head (from haubith)

Thurn : door (from daur)

Stein : star (from stairno)

Sune : sun (from suno)

Mine: moon (from mena)

Tag : day (from dags)

Oeghene : eyes (from augo)

Bars : bearb

Handa : hand (from handus)

Boga : bow

Miera : ant

Rinck : siue

Ringo : ring (from *hrings)

Brunna : spring (from Brunna)

Waghen : car

Apel : apple (from Apls)

Schietn : to shoot (from skiutan)

Schlipen : to sleep (from slepan)

Kommen : to come (from qiman)

Singhen : to sing (from singan)

Lachen : to laugh

Geen : to go

Breen : to roast

Schwalth : death

Knauen tag : good day

Knauen : good (accusative)

iel : good health

ieltsch : have a good health

Iel uburt : be healthy

Marzus : marriage

Schuos : bride

Statz : land (from staths)

ada : egg

Ano : cock

Telich : stupid

Stap : goat

Gadeltha : pulchrum

Atochta : bad

Wichtgata : white

Mycha : sword

Baar : child (from barn)

Ael : stone

Menus : meat

Rintsch : month

Fers : man

Lista : like

Schedit : light

Borratsch : will

Cadariou : soldier

Kilem schkop : drinking glass

Tzo warthata : you did

Ies Warthata : he did

Ich malthata : I spoke

Aglete / Sex

Techen, to have sex

fuchen : to fuck

riden (str ver.I) : to have sex (for a man)

usluchen (str ver 2): to fuck (slang)

usluchnen : to have sex (woman)

Pasjen : to fuck (obscene)

milujen : to fuck (obscene)

lagjen : to fuck (slang)

Kojt, es, a : intercourse

Aglete, en,, a : sex, intercourse

galigren, es, o : intercourse (gentleism)

lagjen, es, a : intercourse (male point of view)

uferlagen, es, o : intercourse (female point of view)

uswierpen, (str ver 3) : ejaculate

Saften, : ejaculate (slang)

Usfulnen, es, o : orgasm

Inimen, str ver I : to have oral sex

fellen : to have oral sex (slang)

lichen, (str verb) : to have oral sex (active)

lachnen : to have oral sex (passive)

/ I don't like things like that.

*dup duoble

It is possible to form adjectives from the correlatives of place (-e), e.g. tiea, ĉiea, etc.,

meaning "finding itself there, everywhere, etc.". These adjectives are normally declined.

La ĉiea pluvo detruis ĉiuj vojojn. – Rain that was everywhere destroyed all roads.

Sometimes, it is also possible to see form tieulo – the man from there.

Quantity – -iom
The ordinal form of the correlatives of quantity is created by adding the ending a, e.g.: kioma, tioma.
Sur la kioma etaĝo vi loĝas? – On which floor do you live?
It is also possible to diminish or augment the quantity (practically only iom): iomete – a bit of, iomege – some large quantity, iometo – a bit. Some of the numerical suffixes can also be added: kiomoble – how many times, kiomfoje – how often
The forms with adverbial e are only emphasized forms of the original: iome.

Time – -iam
The forms with adjectival ending (-a), e.g. tiama, ĉiama. iama, etc., with meaning “existing in that time, existing always, existing in some time (in the past).

Cause – -ial
The only derived word is kialo – the reason, motive.

Manner – -iel
Tiele and iele are emphasized forms of tiel and iel.
The forms with adjectival ending (-a), e.g. tiela, kiela etc. are equivalents to tiamaniera, kiamaniera, etc.
It is also possible to see word *tielmaniere – the official form is tiamaniere or tiumaniere.

Possession – -ies, Thing – -io
I do not know about any derived forms.

The numeral unu can be used as a pronoun. In that case, it is declined.

Unuj legis, kaj aliaj skribis. – Ones have been reading and the others have been writing.

Estas facile unujn ami kaj aliajn malami. – It is easy to love ones and to hate others.

There are different opinions about the accusative form of the pronoun unu in singular. Some authorities say that it is not
correct to add the accusative ending n with unu in pronominal function. The reason is that it is hard to distinguish between
numeral and pronominal unu (in contrary to the form unuj, which can be only a pronoun). Some authorities are not so strict
and just say that the absence of n is illogical, and has no other than historical reasons.

Numerals as miliono – 10^6, miliardo – 10^9, biliono = duiliono – 10^12, etc. are nouns and are normally declined:

Mi havas unu milionon. – I have one million.

Mi havas dek milionojn. – I have ten millions.

and counted objects are in prepositive using preposition da:

Cent milionoj da dolaroj. – Hundred millions of dollars.

There is no strict rule about mixed expression (noun numerals with pure numerals)

Li havas dek milionojn tricent mil naŭcent sepdek ok da dolaroj. = Li havas dek milionojn tricent mil naŭcent sepdek ok dolarojn. – He has $10 300 978.

Other than cardinal numerals are formed by suffixes and endings added to the last part of the cardinal numeral. The spaces between parts of the cardinal numeral are replaced by hyphen.
trimil okcent dudek kvin – 3 825
trimil-okcent-dudek-kvina – 3 825th

Nia miliona kliento ricevos specialan donacon. – Our millionth client will receive a special present.
Ordinal numerals are normally declined as adjectives:
Mi skribas trian ĉapitron. – I am writing the third chapter.

unue – for first time, first (in a list)
due – for second time, second (in a list)
mil-kvincent-sesdek-trie – for 1563rd

Names of numbers are formed by adding the noun ending o:
unuo – number one
duo – number two
cento – number hundred
kvincent-tridek-sepo – number five hundred thirty seven

Multiplication numerals

triobla – three as much in size, strength, number, or amount

trioblo – a number or quantity three times as great as another

or by suffix foj:
trifoja – occurring three times

There is a difference between obl and foj: The former means multiplication, the latter repetition.

duobla pago – salary two times as big as normal

dufoja pago – salary paid two times to the same person


duopa – having groups of two
duope – in groups of two

marŝi kvarope – march in groups of four


duono – half

duonigi – to halve

Counted objects after fractions are connected with the preposition de (not da).
Duono de ni mortos.A – One half of us died.
triona horo = triono de horo – three quarters of an hour

Li faris sian taskon nur trione. – He did only one third of his task.

La tanko estas duone malplena. – The tank is half-empty.

Nominal fractions are normally declined:
Li donis al mi duonon de sia pano. – He gave me half of his bread.
Li trinkis duonan litron da lakto. = Li trinkis duonon de litro da lakto. – He drunk one half of the liter of the milk.

Distribution (distribuo) of objects is expressed by the preposition po:
La gastoj trinkis vinon po du glasoj. – Each guest drunk two glasses of wine.
La gastoj venis po tri. – Guests came in groups of three.
Ili ricevis po kvin pomojn. – They received five apples each.
Prenu la medikamenton po 20 gutoj. – Each time you use the medicine, take 20 drops.

From po, you can form also an adjective – poa, and adverb – poe:
Ili ricevis poan korbon da pomoj. – They received a basket of apples each.
Tiuj studentinoj havis poe plurajn amantojn. – These girl-students had more lovers each.

These forms are rare, because poa = po unu, and poe = po.

In special occasions (counting things) it is possible to use un' instead of unu.

Un'! du! un'! du! - La soldatoj marŝis. – One, two, one, two – soldiers marched.
"Un', du, tri, kvar", li kalkulis laŭte. – “One, two, three, four”, he counted loudly.

However, it is impossible to use that form in normal sentences: *Mi havas nur un' amikon. – I have only one friend.

There is no rule about number of the counted thing after nul.
it is preferred to say neniu, if it is possible:

Post tio restos nul homo(j). = Post tio restos neniu(j) homo(j). – After that nobody will stay.

Mi aĉetis nul komo kvin kilogramo(j)n da rizo. = I have bought 0.5 kilograms of rice.

Volitive is used also as subjunctive:

Mi petas, ke li venu. – I ask that he comes.

Mi alportis la libron, por ke vi ĝin tralegu. – I brought the book for you to read.

Promentante ili kantas. – Walking, they are singing.
Reveninte hejmen, ŝi komencis legi. – Having came home, she started to read.
Pagonte li foriris. – He left before paying.

Persekutate ili saltis en riveron. – Being persecuted, they jumped into the river.
Kaptite ŝi vane provas liberiĝi. – Having been caught, she is trying to free herself.
Jam kaptote, li eskapis. – Nearly caught, he escaped.

Li mortis. – He died.
Li estis mortanta. – He was dying.

Passive voice is very often expressed by different, simpler means:

Topic-Focus articulation:
La kato estis persekutata de la hundo. = La katon persekutis la hundo. – The cat was chased by the dog.

General subject:
La cervo estis pafita. = Oni pafis la cervon. – The deer was shot.

Adverbs of place can form accusative to mark the direction.
hejme – at home (place): Mi estas hejme. – I am home.
hejmen – at home (direction): Mi iras hejmen. – I go home.
kie – where (place): Kie vi estas? – Where are you?
kien – where (direction): Kien vi kuras? – Where do you run?

dank' al – by virtue of, thanks to. the only case of elision of an adverbial e.

The word jaro (year) can have the words dek (ten), cent (hundred), and mil (thousand) appended as suffixes to form

jardeko, jarcento, and jarmilo (decade, century, and millennium,

The same procedure applied to bito (a bit of computer memory) and the number ok (eight) gives bitoko (a byte of memory)


These are virtually the only Esperanto words that are inherently feminine. This table gives the literal definitions, but many of them are more often used figuratively or metaphorically, as in English.

The word damo, “lady, dame”, can also mean a “queen” in a deck of cards or a chess set, or (oddly enough) a “king” in checkers, but it would generally be considered grammatically neuter in these instances, since it refers to a thing rather than a person.

Another word, putino, appears to be the feminine form of puto. If you try to back-form puto from the main word to get “male prostitute” or something similar, you’re on your own, and you’ll get no sympathy from the rest of Esperantujo, because this word already exists, and means “a well”.

ino a female, woman

damo lady, dame

matrono matron, mature woman

primadono prima donna (principal female singer in an opera)

amazono amazon (female warrior)

furio Fury (female avenging deity in Greek mythology)

nimfo nymph (female water-forest-mountain spirit)

sukubo succubus (sexual female demon)

sireno siren (singing female demon)

megero shrew, ill-tempered woman [cap] Megæra (one of the Furies)

putino tart, whore

gejŝo geisha

madono madonna (Italian lady; Virgin Mary)

femalo a female person or animal

Other Comments

Some words that seem like they should end with -eto end with -edo instead.

This is to keep them from being identical with other words, formed as compounds, so we have planedo (planet) instead of planeto (a little plan), and cigaredo (cigarette) instead of cigareto (a small cigar, though that is the actual etymology).

Some words simply have strange Esperanto etymologies. Consider fraŭlino (Miss = unmarried woman) from Germain “Fräulein”. Now drop the apparent feminizing suffix -in-, and you get fraŭlo (bachelor = unmarried man).

Example: dog/dogs/bitch/puppies/pack/canine ≫ hundo/hundoj/hundino/hundidoj/hundaro/hunda.

Also: horse/horses/mare/foal/herd/equine ≫ c^evalo/c^evaloj/c^evalino/c^evalido/c^evalaro/c^evala.

-id- = offspring, -ar- = group of.

This uniformity and combining power enable you to invent a 'new' word for any task, and know that other Esperantists will understand:
'female-puppy-like' = hundidina.

Every letter in every word is always pronounced; there are no silent letters. Doubled vowels should be pronounced separately.
For e^ample, balaas is pronounced 'bah-lah-ahss'.

The stress, or accent, in every word is always on the second-to-last syllable.

For e^ample, familio is pronounced 'fah-mee-lee-oh'

Unstressed syllables are important in Esperanto. English speakers often swallow unstressed syllables. Take care to pronounce each letter distinctly and clearly.

What kind of computer is it? Kia komputilo g^i estas?

Which book is red? Kiu libro estas rug^a?

Whose hat is the black one? Kies c^apelo estas la nigra?

farti (*).

Zamenhof derived this from an English word: "to fare" (seen in "farewell"). It refers to the general state of one's well-being.

How are you having-health? Kiel vi sanas?

Well enough. Are you going to the office? Sufic^e bone. C^u vi iras oficejen?

No, I'm not working today. Ne, mi ne laboros hodiau^.

I'm going to the beach. Mi iras al la plag^o.

while the beach is the destination, the accusative is not used after al

OK! Well, I have to go. Bone! Nu, mi devas iri.

There is no noun with which an adjective "good" could agree in number and case, so the adverbial form bone is used. The word nu is an interjection, and has no grammatical ending.

Goodbye. Adiau^. Adios Be seeing you. G^is revido.

Pronouns can have an adjective ending -a to form possessives

Put the article la before each of these to form the equivalent of “mine, ours, yours”, etc. Via libro estas pli peza ol la mia. Your book is heavier than mine.

Some words are nouns by nature, like arbo (tree) and hundo (dog)

Changed to a verb, it can mean various things, such as to be or to act like the original item, to use it, or to bring it into existance. For example, from martelo (a hammer), we get marteli (to hammer = to use a hammer). From nodo (knot), we get nodi (to tie a knot).

from kvieta (quiet) we can get kvieto (quietness), kviete (quietly), and kvieti (to be quiet).

When an adjective modifies a noun, it has the same plural and accusative endings as that noun: La malsataj hundoj ĉasis la rapidan kuniklon (The hungry dogs chased the fast rabbit).

A predicate adjective is singular or plural, according to whether the subject is singular or plural: La tablo estas blua; la seĝoj estas ruĝaj (The table is blue; the chairs are red).

Predicatives do not take the accusative ending: Li farbis la pordon blua (He painted the door blue), but Li farbis la pordon bluan (He painted the blue door).

There may be two or more singular adjectives modifying a plural noun: la blua kaj verda libroj (the blue and green books [one of each color]).

Comparison English can either add a suffix “-er” or “-est” to the adjective to form comparative and superlative forms, or put the words “more” or “most” in front of them.

positive comparative superlative
riĉa pli riĉa la plej riĉa

bona pli bona la plej bona
good better the best

leĝe (legally = by means of laws) from leĝo (law).

If the noun names a place, the adverb more likely means “in that place”, as hejme (at home)

Adverbs that name a place can take the accusative ending -n, and then mean toward that place: Ni iru hejmen (Let’s go home).

When a verb becomes an adverb, the result generally means by means of the original action, or occuring at the same time: Li kure liveris la leterojn (He delivered the letters while running).

Prefixes and suffixes can become adverbs: from re- (again, repeating, back) we get ree (inversely), as in kuri hejmen kaj reen (to run home and back again). From ek- (commencement, suddenness) we get eke (suddenly).

Comparison of adverbs is as for adjectives: with the words pli and plej.

zorge pli zorge la plej zorge
carefully more carefully the most carefully

bone pli bone la plej bone
well better the best

Li parolis, li parolas, kaj li parolos plue (He spoke, he is speaking, and he will speak further).

denoting something like the duration of an action, as “he is speaking” (saying what he is doing right now), as opposed to “he speaks” (saying what he does habitually).

be expressed as Li parolas.

Esperanto generally does not make the distinction English does between present perfect and simple past, so “He has read that book” and “He read that book” be expressed as Li legis tiun libron.

In the cases in which English uses the present tense to express future action, Esperanto uses the future tense: “If I go to the book store, I’ll buy you the book you want” is Se mi iros al la librovendejo, mi aĉetos la libron, kiun vi deziras.


Se mi havus guldenon, mi donus ĝin al vi (If I had a guilder, I would give it to you).

Here, “had” is not past tense, but present subjunctive, indicating a condition contrary to fact (I in fact do not have a guilder), and “would give” is conditional, expressing an action based on the truth of another.

Note that Esperanto uses the same form for both purposes, but we can tell the difference because of the places they occupy in the sentence. As in other languages, conditional is sometimes used just to be polite: Mi dezirus tion (I would like that), rather than Mi deziras tion (I want that).

Mi dezirus, ke ili silentu (I would like them to be quiet)

Gravas, ke ŝi ne ekmalvarmumu (It’s important that she not catch cold).

Notice that of the last six forms, the participles, only two have one-word English translations, because English has only two participles. There is a present participle, which always ends with -ing (just like the gerund), is always active, and can be thought of as an adjective form of the verb that describes someone or something as performing the action. The other participle is technically the past passive participle, but is sometimes used with the verb “to have” in an active, past sense, and sometimes with the verb “to be” in a present, passive sense. As an adjective, it describes someone or something which is the receiver of the action.

These six Esperanto participles can be used with the verb esti, “to be”, in any of the first six verb forms, forming thirty-six compound forms of the verb, half active and half passive. The tense of the participle is secondary to the tense of the esti, if it is one of the three finite forms (estis, estas, estos).

Here are the eighteen active forms, consisting of the form of esti at the left and the active participle at the top, with an English explanation or translation of the compound form:

kantinta kantanta kantonta

esti to have sung to be singing to be going to sing

estis had sung was singing was going to sing

estas has sung is singing is going to sing

estos will have sung will be singing will be going to sing

estus would have sung would be singing would be going to sing

estu be having sung! be singing! get ready to sing!
= be done singing!

It takes some stretching to find English equivalents for some of these; it takes the same amount to come up with a reasonable Esperanto sentence that would need them.

And here are the eighteen passive forms, consisting of the form of esti at the left and the passive participle at the top:

kantita kantata kantota

esti to have been sung to be sung to be going to be sung

estis had been sung was being sung was going to be sung

estas has been sung is being sung will be sung

estos will have been sung will be sung will be going to be sung

estus would have been sung would be sung would be going to be sung

estu be having been sung! be sung! be about to be sung!
= be done being sung! = get ready to be sung!

The same stretching has to be done with the conditional and imperative forms here as with the active forms.

These forms are available for use when they are absolutely necessary, and you should understand them in case you encounter them being used by others, but the best advice I can give about compound tenses is to avoid them. English has both past (“he sang”) and present perfect (“he has sung”) tenses for the verb, and a past progressive aspect (“he was singing”), but it’s best in Esperanto to use the simple past for all three when the difference is not vital:

La knabo legis la libron.
The boy read the book or The boy has read the book or The boy was reading the book.
La knabo estas leginta la libron.
The boy has read the book (emphasizing that the action is now completed).
La knabo estis leganta la libron.
The boy was reading the book (the past action occurred at a specific time in the past, possibly over a period of time).

Passive Voice
The passive voice is more easily avoided in Esperanto than in English. One way to emphasize a part of a sentence is to move it out of its usual place to somewhere else, and one way to do that is to put the sentence in the passive voice. “My cousin wrote that book” can be made more emphatic by mentioning the book first and the cousin last, saying “That book was written by my cousin”, but Esperanto can move sentence parts around without using the passive. The equivalent of this sentence would be Mia kuzo skribis tiun libron in the plain form, and Tiun libron skribis mia kuzo in the fancy one. You can tell that libron is still the direct object by the -N ending.

One common active phrase in Esperanto that would be passive in English is the notation in a translated work, Elangligis Johano Forĝisto, “John Smith [translated] out of English”, where we would normally say “Translated from English by John Smith.”

Another use of the passive is to avoid the use of an active subject altogether. “The dishes have been washed” is an example of this. Esperanto could express this as Oni lavis la pladojn, using the indefinite pronoun oni, the equivalent of saying in English, “One has washed the dishes”, and although this is rather stilted English, it is perfectly normal Esperanto.

Although the -iĝ- suffix mentioned above builds forms with a passive feel to them, the point of using this is more to avoid the use of a compound tense than to avoid the passive voice. We might say, Li mortiĝis, rather than Li estas mortita for “He was killed.” Also, if you say La libro legiĝis for “The book got read”, it avoids having to choose between two somewhat equivalent compound forms, La libro estas legita (The book is in a state of having been read) or La libro estis legata (The book was in a state of being read).

Other Uses of Participles
If a participle is converted to a noun by changing the adjective -A ending to a noun -O ending, it names a person (generally not a thing) performing the action at the time specified by the tense of the participle:

la kantinto = the person who was singing (or who sang)
la kantanto = the person who is singing
la kantonto = the person who will be singing (or who will sing)
as opposed to la kantisto = the singer

This last word, la kantisto, uses the suffix -ist- to form a noun denoting someone who performs the action professionally or habitually.

Verbs Converted to Nouns
If a verb is converted to a noun by giving it the -O ending, the noun generally names an instance of the verb, so instrui means “to teach, to instruct”, and instruo means “a teaching, an instruction”. The abstract notion of “teaching, instruction in general” is formed with the suffix -ad-, whose basic meaning is “continuation”: instruado.

Impersonal Verbs
In English, every proper sentence has a subject. Even when the verb is imperative, such as “Run!”, we say that there is an understood, but not expressed, subject: “you”.

In some sentences, the subject is the pronoun “it”, but the pronoun doesn’t stand for anything. For example, in the sentence, “It is raining,” the word “it” stands where the subject should be, but doesn’t mean anything.

In Esperanto, sentences such as this simply have no subject at all. The sentence, «Pluvas,» means “It is raining.” To say, “It’s warm today,” we say «Estas varme hodiaŭ.» Note that “warm” is expressed as an adverb, rather than an adjective, because there is no noun to modify. Here, it modifies the verb.

There are other sentences in English with “it” as the subject, not refering to anything, and these have no corresponding pronoun (such as «ĝi») in Esperanto, but they are in fact a different situation. For example, the English sentence, “It is important to read the instructions,” would be expressed in Esperanto as «Gravas legi la instrukcion.» Here, the English has what is called an “anticipatory subject”, which stands in the place of the subject at the beginning of the sentence, while the true subject follows the verb. In this example, it is the infinitive clause, “to read the instructions”. In Esperanto, we simply allow the infinitive clause to follow the verb, and there is no need for an anticipatory subject.

In some sentences, the subject is an entire subordinate clause, rather than just an infinitive clause, and this works the same way. The sentence, “It seems that I have made a mistake,” with an anticipatory subject, can be translated into Esperanto as, «Ŝajnas, ke mi eraris.» The subject is the clause «ke mi eraris.», and there is no anticipatory subject needed.

The same holds for many English sentences beginning with “there”, especially when this is followed by the word “is” or “are”. In Esperanto, the pair of words is translated as simply «estas» “There are three books on the table.” = «Estas tri libroj sur la tablo.»

Note that there are pairs of English sentences that can be translated by pairs of Esperanto sentences, so either English sentence, “There are five cars coming,” or “Five cars are coming,” can be translated as either «Venas kvin aŭtomobiloj,» or «Kvin aŭtomobiloj venas.»

ki-, for words that ask “what”, or that say “which”.
ti-, for words that say “that” in some way or other. /d-/

Kio estas tio? What is that? (What are those?)

Tio estas libroj. Those are books.

Ĉio estas ĉi tie. Everything is here.

Ordinarily, these words do not have plurals, so we don’t ask, «Kioj estas tioj?», meaning, “What are those things?” They do take the -n ending for accusative case, when appropriate: «Kion vi faras?» “What are you doing?”

Ne, neniu el tiuj estas sufiĉe bona. No, none of those is good enough.

Very often, a -u word refers to a person, and there is seldom an actual noun following it. Examples:

Kiu estas tiu? Who is that [person]?
Tiu estas mia onklino. That is my aunt.
Ĉu iu venos? Is anyone coming?
Ne, neniu venos. No, no one is coming.
Ĉiu estas tro okupita. Everyone is too busy.

These words act like adjectives, so they can take both the plural and accusative endings.

Correlatives ending with «-A»
The -a words express kind or type. Examples:

Kia libro estas tio? What kind of book is that?
Tia libro estas amuza. That kind of book is funny.
Ia libro estas tro mafacila. Any kind of book is too difficult.
Nenia libro sufiĉos. No kind of book will suffice.
Ili havas ĉian libron. They have every kind of book.

These words act like adjectives, so they can take both the plural and accusative endings.

Correlatives ending with «-ES»
These denote possession. Examples:

Kies jako estas tio? Whose coat is that?
Tio estas ties jako. That is that person’s coat.
Ĉu ies jako estas nigra? Is anyone’s coat black?
Ne, nenies jako estas nigra. No, no one’s coat is black.
Ĉies jako estas blanka. Everyone’s coat is white.

These words behave like adjectives, but do not take adjective endings.

Correlatives ending with «-E»
These denote location. With an -n ending, they denote destination.

Kie li estas? Kien li iras? Where is he? Where is he going?
Li estas tie. Li iras tien. He is there. He is going there.
Ĉu ŝi estas ie? Ĉu ŝi iras ien? Is she anywhere? Is she going anywhere?
Ĝi estas nenie. Ĝi iras nenien. It is nowhere. It is going nowhere.
Ili estas ĉie. Ili iras ĉien. They are everywhere. They are going everywhere.

Correlatives ending with «-EL»
These words denote manner. Examples:

Kiel vi fartas? How are you doing?
Tiel ĝi iras. It goes like that.
Ĉu ni iel sukcesos? Will we succeed in any way?
Ne, vi neniel sukcesos. No, you will will succeed in no way.
Ili sukcesos ĉiel. They will succeed in every way.

These words are often followed by the preposition da, and there is some controversy over whether the pair of words, kiom da, constitutes an adverb and a preposition, so the word modified should not have the -n ending, or a single adverb, so the word should have the ending if the phrase is used as the object of a verb. So in asking, “How much money do you have?”, some will ask, «Kiom da mono vi havas?», and others, «Kiom da monon vi havas?» I would prefer simply «Kiom monon vi havas?»

Note that there are no correlatives that mean “this”. For these, we use a ti- word, and put the particle ĉi either before or after it. Some people hyphenate this word in, giving ĉi-tie or tie-ĉi (here), but officially, this is an error.

It is possible to put the particle for after a ti- word to indicate remoteness: tie for (way over yonder), but this usage is rare.

The particle ajn adds emphasis, generally emphatic uncertainty:

Kie? Where? Kie ajn? Wherever?
Iu Someone, anyone Iu ajn Anyone, anyone at all
Nenio Nothing Nenio ajn Nothing at all
Ĉiam Always Ĉiam ajn Every single time

Where English would say “all the marbles”, Esperanto would say «ĉiuj el la globetoj», the equivalent of “all of the marbles”, or «ĉiuj globetoj», the equivalent of “all marbles”, which in some contexts would mean the same thing.

The phrases «ĉio tio» and «ĉio ĉi tio» (for “all this” and “all that”) are also used, and considered perfectly grammatical.

It is permitted to replace the A of «la» with an apostrophe, giving «l’». This is often done when the previous word ends with a vowel, so the article can be pronounced as part of it, such as «de l’» for «de la», or when the following word begins with a vowel, so it can be pronounced as part of that, such as «l’ angulo» for «la angulo». In either case, the space between words is not omitted.

This feature is useful in poetry and songs, in order to get the accented syllables to scan properly.

There is some argument whether “different than” is good English, or whether it should be “different from” (or, as some people say it, “different to”), but this form is the usual and grammatical one in Esperanto.

This word also converts the preposition «antaŭ» (“before”) into a conjunction «antaŭ ol», used with subordinate clauses: «antaŭ ol ni iris» = “before we went”.

It is also used to specify preferences: «Mi preferus legi libron ol televidi» = “I’d rather read a book than watch television”.

Some can become verbs with the addition of a verb ending, with a meaning logically related to the meaning of the preposition.

Note on da: Generally, the word before da in an expression of quantity is a noun naming a unit of measurement, so if that expression is the object of a verb, the unit is in the accusative case: Mi havas kilogramon da greno I have a kilogram of grain. But if the word before da is an adverb, such as multe, pli, or one of the -OM group of correlatives, it cannot take an accusative ending. Some speakers then treat the adverb plus da as a single unit, a modifier of the substance, which can now be the object of the verb, and be in the accusative case: Mi bezonas pli da grenon I need more grain, while others treat da as an ordinary prepostion, even in this instance. Both usages are considered proper Esperanto at present.

je Preposition with no definite meaning; used when no other prepositon is appropriate, often when other languages use prepositions only as a formality, and not for their literal meanings. Sometimes used instead of the accusative case with the direct object of a verb, when the object cannot take the –N ending.

(vaguely) with respect to
je la dua at two o'clock
mi interesiĝas je tiu libro I'm interested in that book
koni je Stavros be acquainted with Stavros

per-i to act as an agent/go-between signo sign, character; supersigno accent mark, diacritical

Li ne trinkis vinon, nek bieron. He didn't drink wine, or beer either.

Akvo, akvo ĉie ajn, nek iu gut’ por trinki. Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink.

se if Used for marking that a dependent clause states a condition that the main clause depends on; if the situation is hypothetical, the verbs in both clauses are conditional

Se vi iros al la teatro, mi iros ankaŭ. If you go to the theater, I’ll go, too.

Se mi havus monon, mi aĉetus tiun libron. If I had money, I’d buy that book.

do so Same meaning as tial “therefore” but a bit weaker

Mi malsatas, do mi manĝos. I’m hungry, so I’ll eat.

The accusative case

The big gotcha!
This feature of Esperanto grammar is the single hardest one for speakers of English to get used to. Once you get past this, the rest is easy.

English has this feature, after a fashion, but we see it only in pronouns, not in nouns. Notice that we have pairs of pronouns with the same meanings, differing only in the places they are used in sentences: I/me, we/us, he/him, she/her, they/them, and who/whom (and formerly thou/thee, ye/you, and it/him). The first word of each pair is used when the word is the subject of a sentence, and the second when it is the object of a verb or preposition.

Esperanto has this distinction, not only for pronouns, but for nouns and some correlatives as well. For both, the difference is in the addition of the -n ending on the word.

I’ll illustrate this with a simple sentence:

«Mia edzino havas hundon, kiu enterigas ostojn en nia lito.» “My wife has a dog who buries bones in our bed.” Let’s take this apart one word at a time.

mia “my”, from mi (I), with an adjective ending to make it possessive.
edzino “wife”, ends with -o, because it’s the subject of the sentence.
havas “has”, a verb in the present tense.
hundon “a dog”, ends with -n, because it’s the direct object of the verb.
kiu “which”, has no -n, because it’s the subject of the subordinate clause.
enterigas “buries”, the verb in the subordinate clause.
ostojn “bones”, ends with -j because it’s plural, then with -n because it’s the direct object in the subordinate clause.
en “in”, a preposition
nia “our”, possessive of ni (we).
lito “bed”, has no -n, because objects of prepositions are usually in the nominative case.

Other uses of the accusative:

Object of a preposition of location, indicating motion towards, like en la akvon (into the water) instead of en la akvo (in the water)
Dates, like la 26-an de decembro 1999
Commands consisting of a single word, like Silenton! (Silence!)
Greetings, like Bonan tagon! (Good morning!)
Occasionally used to show omission of a preposition, like iri Usonon instead of iri al Usono (to go to America)

n~ non fakio~ de le mi sem-per.

hur hu'r Uhr / horo
kuri kaesu koto, hour

mies mine lies his

ostaro! yare yare!

verbeco ni dousa nusi ga mono dearu koto wo simesu gobi wo tukuru

kiss suru. de dat verb de aktoro recte

kiss touch-gg. de dit trovas a thing touches you.

jo kissi/kisses an tu.

あれ これ t'ad / c^id

I like my cat.

je plecies catz (des mio)/

placias lebe katze<

Grammertic Column

In English“two boys came yesterday”; in Sona“two boy come yesterday.”
It is clear that more than one boy is already indicated by two, yesterday shows the time, or tense of the verb.

-ing, -ed, -en, -t, debt, past, bent. -voiced consonant plus e, -th, growth, death -er, owner, drawer, behavior,

complex_X ::= X_tag verb_argument
where X can be "noun", "verb", "adjective" or "adverb". A terminating particle can be appended if necessary.


nomen dubium 疑問名 nomina Mia, rilura ni tu lufian mi, le is patia riluha em na.

Azumi na Nitpon an Kotoba Sentence … Topos, Pronomen verb stem, expression, noun mit case.

Topos … una concept, es von nomen + wa/a. -ia ende.
pronomen … null | personal pronoun.

verb … al r(e) ende. optional verbem, tense | conjugation.

nomenium … reciprocal word. noun phrase :: adjective/noun ... main noun. expression :: noun null marken. adjective.

modifier al verb … adverb, e ende, tense exeam.

proto_noun_modifier … article la | demonstrative | quantifier

post_noun_modifier, case tag … ordinal number | noun_phrase_tag, possessive | conect sentence le, ke.

verb, af se una com action. af en trans action.

Pronoun verb_stem, noun( as objective, accusative ) / noun + ly, of adverb.

English Sample language
_______________________________ _______________________________

I like Boston. Like I Boston.
I went to Boston. Go-did I to Boston.
He doesn't know I went to Boston. Know-not he go-did I to Boston.
Doesn't he know I went to Boston? Know-not he go-did I to Boston huh?
Which book did he buy? Buy-did he book which?

"huh" is a sentence particle indicating that the entire sentence is to be interpreted as an interrogative.

SOV - probably accounts for slightly more than 40% of all languages.

SVO - accounts for slightly less than 40%. VSO - accounts for about 15%. OVS - VOS - OSV -

NAR : men big who eat quiche ANR : big men who eat quiche RNA : quiche eat who men big RAN : quiche eat who big men

SRN and NRS (where S = specifier) "those men who just left" "men who just left those".

sentence is that, Noun verb.

Verb, when have objects, sentence is that, Noun(subject) Verb-noun(object). Louise kissed Jimmy.

Nouns that modified by adjectives is optional, and on fore of noun.

sentence is that, {adjective} noun verb ({adjective} noun) The little girl watched the birds.

When add the articles "a", "an" and "the" to the head of noun.

sentence is that, article {adjective} noun verb (article {adjective} noun)

sentence ::= noun-phrase verb. noun-phrase is article, adjective are added.

noun-phrase is article, adjective optionally

noun_phrase ::= (specifier) {adjective} noun specifiers are article | demonstrative | possessive | quantifier

possessives are possessive-adjective | {proper_noun}'s

a possessive adjective (such as "his", "your", "my", etc.)
or a proper noun followed by apostrophe-s (such as "John's", "Boston's")

John and Billy ate the whole apple pie. They ate it. ("They" = "John and Billy", "it" = "the whole apple pie")

Five angry dogs chased those three foolish boys. They chased them.
("They" = "Five angry dogs", "them" = "those three foolish boys")

English pronouns cannot be directly modified by articles (*the she),
demonstratives (*that it), possessives (*her him), quantifiers (*each she) or numbers (*five they).

or an English pronoun stands alone and is equivalent to an entire noun phrase.

Now, let's summarize by showing the entire syntax of the fragment of English that:

sentence ::= noun_phrase verb (noun_phrase) sentence is that, Noun verb.

noun_phrase ::= pronoun | modified_noun

modified_noun ::= (specifier) (number) {adjective} noun

specifier ::= article | demonstrative | possessive | quantifier

possessive ::= possessive_adjective | proper_noun's

Each of these definitions is called a _production rule_, defines how a structure within the language can be produced.

by two addition, items all at once: indirect objects and prepositional phrases:

John gave the children candy in the back of the bus on the way to the park.

Handling the indirect object "the children" is easy. We simply add an optional noun phrase to our definition of sentence:

sentence ::= noun_phrase verb ((noun_phrase) noun_phrase)

Note that the indirect object is doubly nested inside the parentheses,
indicating that it must precede the direct object, and that an indirect object cannot occur without a direct object.

about two different kinds of phrase: a sentential prepositional phrase and a noun-modifying prepositional phrase.

The phrase "in the back" indicates where the action took place.

The phrase "of the bus" simply further defines the noun "back".

Thus, the phrase "in the back" is a sentential prepositional phrase,
while "of the bus" is a noun-modifying prepositional phrase.

Similarly, "on the way" is sentential since it indicates when the action took place,
while "to the park" modifies the noun "way".

sentence ::= subject verb (objects) {prepositional_phrase}

subject ::= noun_phrase

objects ::= (noun_phrase) noun_phrase

noun_phrase ::= pronoun | modified_noun

modified_noun ::= (specifier) (number) {adjective} noun {prepositional_phrase}

prepositional_phrase ::= preposition noun_phrase

I added the constituents "subject" and "objects" to make things a little easier to read.
To keep things simple, we will consider compound prepositions such as "from under", "up to", "on top of", etc.
as if they were single words.

A noun phrase can contain a prepositional phrase which, in turn, contains another noun phrase.
This kind of circularity is called _recursion_, and is one of the features of language that makes it so flexible.
Basically, recursion occurs when a lower level structure, such as a prepositional phrase, is defined in terms of a higher
level structure, such as a noun phrase.

example of recursion is the embedded sentence, as illustrated in the following examples:

He told me (that) he wanted a new job.
That he needed so much money worried his friends.
Bill knew (that) she broke the window.
He told me (that) Bill knew (that) she broke the window.

Note that an embedded sentence can never occur as an indirect object - it can only be either the subject or direct object.

Note also that the conjunction "that" is required for an embedded sentence that is the subject of a verb,
even though it is optional for the direct object. Thus, we can represent this kind of embedded sentence as follows:

subject ::= noun_phrase | "that" sentence

objects ::= (noun_phrase) direct_object

direct_object ::= noun_phrase | ("that") sentence

Another recursive structure is the relative clause. Consider the following sentences:

The boy who broke the window apologized.
I saw the man who robbed the bank.
The textbook (that/which) he bought had a chapter on linguistics.
John played the piano (that/which) his brother gave him.

Note that there are two types of relative clause shown above. In the first type, the relative pronoun "who" links a noun
phrase to the subject of the clause. Thus, "the boy" is the effective subject of "broke", and "the man" is the effective
subject of "robbed". In this type, the relative pronoun is required. In the second type, the relative pronoun links a noun
phrase to the object of the direct clause. Thus, "the textbook" is the effective direct object of the verb "bought", and
"the piano" is the effective direct object of the verb "gave". In this type, the relative pronoun is optional.

Note also that both nouns and pronouns (e.g., "He who laughs last laughs best") can be modified by relative clauses.
Thus, the addition to our syntax is at a very low level, as follows:

noun_phrase ::= modified_noun | pronoun (relative_clause)

modified_noun ::= (specifier) (number) {adjective} noun {prepositional_phrase} (relative_clause)

relative_clause ::= relative_pronoun verb (objects) {prepositional_phrase}

| (relative_pronoun) subject verb direct_object {prepositional_phrase}

where a relative pronoun can be either "that", "who" or "which". I will not discuss how to handle other types of relative
clause that can be formed with relative pronouns such as "whose", "with whom", "to which", etc., but will leave
it as an exercise for the interested reader.

Anyway, you should now have a pretty good idea about how to describe the syntax of an AL using BNF.
I won't go any further with my analysis of English, since things are getting kind of messy already,
and I don't think there's much to gain by going any further. For those who are interested, here's a summary of the syntax
of the English fragment that we've just analyzed:

sentence ::= subject verb (objects) {prepositional_phrase}

subject ::= noun_phrase | "that" sentence

objects ::= (noun_phrase) direct_object

direct_object ::= noun_phrase | ("that") sentence

prepositional_phrase ::= preposition noun_phrase

noun_phrase ::= modified_noun | pronoun (relative_clause)

modified_noun ::= (specifier) (number) {adjective} noun {prepositional_phrase} (relative_clause)

specifier ::= article | demonstrative | possessive | quantifier

possessive ::= possessive_adjective | proper_noun's

relative_clause ::= relative_pronoun verb (objects) {prepositional_phrase}

| (relative_pronoun) subject verb direct_object {prepositional_phrase}

English goes as far as (s) + (C) + (r, l, w, y) + (V) + V + (C) + (C) + (C): sprite, thinks.

エーッ、なによ、企画会議室スペシャルって! 聞いてないだわさ~!

・・・って(またか)、寝てる場合じゃないだわさ! アレをやらなきゃ、アレを!
さーて、アレって何回言ったでしょう? ・・・って(もういい)、遊んでる場合じゃ凪いだわさ~!
まだまだ受け付けてるから、みなさま、アタイの宿題手伝ってくだされ~! かたじけなぃ~!






さて、何から話そうかしら?やっぱりダーリンのこと♥? それともダーリンのこと♥♥? どうやらダーリンのこと♥♥♥?








je_luo d'hishwards

Author:je_luo d'hishwards