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人工言語について語

kaoss sugaonve


















  Ā ā   Ī ī Ū ū   Ē ē   Ō ō

aru, have  suru, do  omou, care  miru, watch nagameru, see  eru, get kuu, eat kuru, come

ageru, give morau, receive tatu, stand tateru, build  kakeru, hang  ukeru, catch  nakusu, lose   
asobu, play ikiru, live   keru, kick saru, leave soru, bend kiru, wear kanziru, feel aruku, walk

iku, go verb -(y)ou hottoku, let saseru, make oku, put mieru, seem, iru, be okuru, send

darou , may, will. kamu, bite wasureru, forget akiru, bore

kirau, hate kíru, cut uru, sell mayou, hesitate siru, know sumu, live in sugiru, pass hirou iu, say

huku, wipe haru, tasukeru, help sasu, kiku, call for kizuku, notice sugosu nigeru kanau

kaku, write katu, win tukau, use tariru, suffice miseru, show momu matu, wait mamoru, keep

hueru, increase hirou hiku, pull sukuu toru, take draw sagasu,

tataku, klap tuku, arrive tanomu, ask humu uku hamaru ataru sagasu sinu kuttuku kusaru

kesu, vanish maku, roll sakeru, avoid sageru,

nigeru, ireru, put in harau, pay naosu, fix nozomu, hope kagu, smell neru, sleep kumu, set

  arawareru, apear wakaru, comprehend niou kaeru, change odoroku, surprise dekiru deru, go out osoreru, fear

yaku, bake , approve, argue, attack, attract kamu, bite okoru, cause kuraberu, compare

tunagaru, connect ayaturu, control , cook maneru, copy

oou, cover , crush naku, cry magaru, curve kimeru, decide , design, destruct susumeru, develop, digest

, discuss, disgust, distribute utagau, doubt

nomu, drink otiru, fall , fight, fold, force, grip, heat interest, invent, tanosimu, enjoy

jump, laugh, look, mark, mind, move, observe, offer, order, paint, produce,
, push, respect, rest, roll kosuru, rub hasiru, run , represent, request erabu, select

, shake, shock, advertise, agree, adjust, add, act, sound, note, brake,

niru, boil nuru nuku naku kakeru haru tuku sáku ieru kudaru

wareru wakareru tuzuku karamu tumeru tuburu tubureru warau, smile , smoke, posit,

arau, wash furu, wave hataraku, work moyasu, burn hakobu, carry , brush, drain, drop,

, turn musubu, tie tobu, fly bend, doubt au, meet,
drive, kikoeru, hear manabu, learn yomu, read osieru, teach , stock, tire, mix, , commit

nozoku, omit sodateru, grow motu, own , behave, become, believe, iwau hibiku umu utu hutoru

verb, drop (r)u then add i to adjective use.

samui akarui otonasii akai kurai aoi muzukasii amai yabai aubunai atarasii hurui kurusii
kusai takai

noun + rasii/rasiku

muki

sappari ippai yappari hazukasii kirai tanosii tappuri tikai tiisai atumari katamari Yasasii

adverb comes by adject off i add ku.

about, across, after, against, among, at, before, between, by, down, from, in, off, on, over, through, to, under, up, with,
as, for, of, till, than,


a , the, all, any, every, little, much, no, other, some, such, that, this, I, mine, he, you, who, and, because, but, or,
if, though, while, how, when, where, why, again, ever, far, forward, here, near, now, out, still, then, there, together,
well, almost, enough, even, not, only, quite, so, very, tomorrow, yesterday, north, south, east, west, please, yes.


account, air, amusement, animal, art, attempt, authority, back, balance, base, belief, birth, bit, blood, body,
bread, breath, brother, business, butter, canvas, chalk, chance, cloth, color, comfort, company,
cork, cotton, country, crack, credit, crime, current, damage, danger, daughter, day, degree, desire, detail,
disease, distance, dust, earth, effect, end, error, event, example, existence, expanse, experience, expert, fact,
family, father, field, fire, flower, food, form, friend, front, fruit, glass, gold, grain, grass, group,
guide, harbor, harmony, history, hole, hour, humor, ice, idea, impulse, industry, insect, insurance, iron, jelly,
journey, wit, land, language, law, leather, letter, level, light, limit, linen, liquid, list, loss, machine, man, manager,
market, mass, meal, measure, meat, memory, metal, middle, milk, minute, mist, money, month, morning ,mother, mountain,
music, name, news, night, noise, number, oil, organ, page, pain, paper, part, peace, person, place, plant, pleasure,
point, poison, polish, porter, powder, power, price, print, process, property, prose, purpose, quality, range, rate,
ray, reason, record, reward, rhythm, rice, river, road, room, rule, salt, sand, scale, science, sea seat, secretary, self,
sense, servant, sex, shame, side, sign, silk, silver, sister, size, sky, slip, slope, snow, soap, society, son, song,
sort, soup, space, stage, start, state, steel, step, stone, stop, story, stretch, structure substance sugar,
suggest, summer, support, swim, system, talk, taste, tax, tendency, test, thing, thought,
time, tin, top, touch, trade, transport, trick, trouble, twist, unit, value, verse, view, voice,
word, winter, woman, wood, wine, week, weather, way, water, war, wound, year.


angle, ant, apple, arch, arm, army, baby, bag, ball, band, basin, basket, bath, bed, bee, bell, berry, bird, blade, board,
boat, bone, book, boot, bottle, box, boy, brain, branch, brick, bridge, bucket, bulb, button, cake, camera, card, cart, cat,
chain, cheese, chest, chin, church, circle, clock, cloud, coat, collar, comb, cord, cow, cup, curtain, cushion, dog, door,
dress, ear, edge, egg, engine, eye, face, farm, feather, finger, fish, flag, floor, fly, foot, fork, fowl, frame, garden,
girl, glove, goat, gun, hair, hammer, hand, hat, head, heart, hook, horn, horse, hospital, house, island, jewel, kettle, key,
knee, knife, knot, leaf, leg, library, line, lip, map, match, monkey, moon, mouth, muscle, nail, neck, needle, nerve, net,
nose, nut, office, orange, oven, parcel, pen, pencil, picture, pig, pin, pipe, plane, plate, pocket, pot, potato, prison,
rail, rat, receipt, ring, rod, roof, root, sail, school, scissors, screw, seed, sheep, shelf, ship, shirt, shoe, skin,
skirt, snake, sock, spade, sponge, spoon, spring, square, stamp, star, station, stem, stick, stomach, store, street, sun,
table, tail, thread, throat, thumb, ticket, toe, tongue, tooth, town, train, tray, tree, trousers, umbrella, wall, wheel,
whip, whistle, window, wing, wire, worm.


able, sour, angry, automatic, beautiful, bright, cheap, chemical, chief, clean, clear,
common, complex, conscious, cut, deep, dependent, early, elastic, electric, equal, fat, fertile, first, flat, free,
frequent, full, general, good, great, happy, hard, healthy, high, important, kind, like, living,
long, male, married, material, medical, military, natural, necessary, new, normal, open, parallel, physical, political,
poor, possible, present, private, probable, quick, quiet, ready, regular, responsible, right, round, same, second,
separate, serious, sharp, smooth, sticky, stiff, straight, strong, sudden, sweet, tall, thick, true, violent,
warm, wet, wide, wise, young.


awake, bad, bitter, certain, cold, complete, cruel, dark, dear, delicate, different, dirty, dry, false,
feeble, female, foolish, future, ill, last, late, left, loose, loud, low, narrow, old, opposite, public,
rough, sad, safe, secret, short, shut, simple, slow, small, soft, solid, special, strange, thin, wrong.

black, red, yellow, blue, green, brown, white.



Kaze, wind Hikari Muki, Kagi, lock , weight , kiss , love , rain kuyasii, regret
Kotae, answer Seki, cough Yaritori, exchange, Hituyou, need
Nani Kyaku Kiki-te Kihon Kyouhu tatoe-ba hoho-emu, mayou

Koto Hito Ito Mono 「のよう」「ようだ」 kasikoi Hito-ni
Kinou Gakkou Minna Chū-goku Hi Issatu no Hon tuite-ru Nisen-Zyūroku Nen Zisin Zibun Kansou Syoukai
mezurasii Onazi Ba-ai Zyoukyou motto Yuuri Huri Risou Katati Hanbun
Zyoutai Heta Zyouzu verb sika nai Wake Kokyuu Itido Totyuu Kansei Kanpeki


Hyou-gen Sizen Ore, Omaega sukida. Kimiga sukida, Aisiteru. Watasiwa, Anatawo, Ai-sitemasu.
Matigai Gakusei Ten'in Koe Atama Me Hana Kuti Mimi Gū-zen Yū-mei

Kaga-mi Yama Ten-zyou Sugata Maturi Aite o-Tagai Mi
Akiraka Hotoke Byouki iu-made-mo-naku Sei, sex Mukasi ture-ru Dougu site-iru-mono-no Zubari aruiwa
Enryo Nantomo tukatta-bakari-no

Katati Kurou Tada Tikara Nakama Doryoku Saikin Hitei Hukuro no-mama Kari-ni Kinou
kizu-tuku
Kimi Kuti Fūhu Kuni Kibun Tuki Tugou Natu Nani nasi Namae nisi Mikau Numa

Sati Situ-ren Sippai Sunao Sūpu Hare Haha Hihu Himo, rope

Michi Mina-san gurai musume Musi Mondai  
Naisyo Ningen Kousai kuyasii Takusan Siawase sayounara Kokoro-kara
Issyo Uso Aitu Inaka Yuuki waku-waku Itu-mo Ukkari ai-tai Iu-touri
Ana Ningen nugu Aku-nin Uti isogasii urusai Yasumi o-Yu
Bi-myou Wa-hū Ume Aisatu Yama Yume Mukou
iwanai make Kagi, key Kame, turtle Kutu, shoes Tizu, map Tokei, clock Neko, cat

Ame Tuti hiraku Hara bakari koso tugi  -tyōdai    Chokorēto

de-atte, ... dewa-arimasen. te/de-arimasu,


こんにちは Kon'nitiwa. How's today.

Japanese is the official language of Japan. the commoned language:
共通語, that 「language which can widely go through that country」 各方言の最大公約数のことです。
「少々個人差や地域差があろうとも、ちゃんと通じて、不快感を与えない程度でれば問題なしです。

「共通語は現実であり、共通語は自然の状態であり、
、日常生活で私たちが「全国どこでも通じる言葉」をどうやって習得したのか、正しい物を覚えていった、というよりも、
人との接触やマスメディアを通じて自然に習得した感じです。

共通語は「全国どこでも通用する(通用するであろう)ことば」と考えます。

Standard Japanese has become prevalent nationwide, due to TV and radio.

As government policy has modernized Japanese, many of the distinctions between the two have blurred.
in schools and used on television and in official communications.

Young people usually speak their local dialect and the standard language,


共通語(きょうつうご)とは、ある地域ないし集団間で共通に使われる言語をいう。
地域内の共通語
ある地域内で、誰でも共通に理解しあえる言葉を共通語という。英語のcommon languageの訳語。
例えば、東北方言話者と沖縄方言話者がそれぞれの方言で会話しようとすると相互理解が困難であるが、
どちらにもよく知られている東京方言を話せばお互いの意思疎通を容易にすることができる。

全国で通じる言葉は東京方言を基礎とした日本語で、これが日本の共通語である。
これは明治期に、地方ごとのさまざまな方言の差異を超えて、多くの人々が簡便に理解できるという観点から、
東京の山の手方言(主に江戸時代の武家階級が用いた)を基礎にした整備されたもので、筆記言語においては大半の場合に、
口頭言語においてはテレビ、ラジオ、映画、一般的な演劇、などでひろく使われている。





Pronounce guide.

It's five vowels, similar to their Italian or Spanish counterparts.

There are short and long length of each vowel, but it is inactive used that not so often exacted to distinguish.

Ah, we soon get old. English words approximate the vowels: a, i, u, e, o.


Some consonants have changed, by via to it several allophones, and retained may to give a larger inventory of sounds.

these allophones have since become phonemic

/ti/ was palatalized to [tɕi], approximately English chi ;
however, now /ti/ and /tɕi/ are distinct as to differentiate from each other,

in the main, appear in loan words like Pātī "party" and Tī "tea".


Adjective three types of adjective:

Keiyōshi, or i adjectives, which have a conjugating ending i which can become, for example, past, or negative. For example
atsui ("to be hot") atsui hi "a hot day".

keiyōdōshi, or na adjectives, which are followed by a form of the copula, usually na. For example hen (strange)
hen na hito "a strange person". rentaishi, also called true adjectives, such as onaji "the same"
onaji hi "the same day". Both keiyōshi and keiyōdōshi may predicate sentences. For example,

Gohan ga atsui. "The rice is hot." the rice which hot Kare wa hen da. "He's strange." he what of strange being

Both inflect, though they do not show the full range of conjugation found in true verbs. The rentaishi are few in number,
and unlike the other words, are limited to modifying nouns. They never predicate sentences. Examples include ookina "big"
and onaji "the same" (although there is a noun onaji that can be followed by da, as in onaji da).

keiyōdōshi and keiyōshi form adverbs, by following with ni in the case of keiyōdōshi:

hen ni naru "become strange", weird in to be comming and by changing i to ku in the case of keiyōshi :

atsuku naru "become hot". hot being to come
The grammatical function of nouns is indicated by postpositions, also called particles. These include

Verb

Verbs are conjugated to show tenses, of which there are two: past and present, or non-past, which is used for the present
and the future. For some verbs, that represent an ongoing process, the -te iru form indicates a continuous (or progressive)
tense.

For others, that represent a change of state, the -te iru form indicates a perfect tense.
kite iru means "He has come (and is still here)", but tabete iru means "He is eating".

Negatives are formed from verb conjugations.

Negatives are formed to adds other word. Pan o tabe ru. "I will eat bread." bread which to eat
becomes Pan o tabe nai. "I will not eat bread." bread which to eat not.

with tabe ru "to eat" changing to the negative form tabe nai "to not eat". suru koto ; situation to do ; doing

and nai is kind of verb in japanese. tabe ru "to eat. end with u or ru form is present form of verb.

Future, future tense of verb

suru tsumori to do will to yaru yotei to make planning being to love in love ai site imasu being in fever ; suki desu

willing to love ; ai simasu kore ga ii ; this which really good .

Asking

The word order of Adjective and Verb.

Noun

Watashi and Boku, both meaning "I" Which slightly differs.

noun are by Zyosi indicate

Adverb stem to -sa for noun,

Adject stem to -ni for adverb use.

verbs are as Adjective before noun,

Nouns of gramatical usage.

You don't have to all the time make sure singular or plural in Japanese. nouns haven't number nor gender.
Thus hon mean "book" or "books".
It's possible to explicitly indicate singular or plural in some ways.
more than one, either by using numbers, often with a counter.

Conception on reproducting

Nodo-ka,   Sizu-ka   Yuta-ka   omou / Omoi yorokobu / Yorokobi nozomu / Nozomi tatu / tati


Words that refer to people and animals can be made to indicate groups with noun suffixes that indicate
groups, such as -tachi. there is way by repeating like, hito bito, person persons "people", which refer to more than one,

Particles for Noun to distinction its case.

watashi wa, eigo no benkyou wo, suru. as for me, learning of English that, I do.

divided by punctuation, in above sentence, the three parts are able to counterchange. it have liberty to speak

Watashi kare ga suki. I, he who my preoccupation. fever craze. ii is veried by one's tension ranging very good to not bad

Nominative subject is a complement. are marked by particles for distinction its case.

Watasi is a most appropriate or used in any situation, everyone.


Their use is often optional, since Japanese is a language, one in which
the subject of a sentence does not always need to be stated.

Watashi wa ureshii desu. "I am pleased.",

if the speaker is understood who is to be the subject, simply say ureshii desu. happy I am

A single verb completes sentence : make the sentence enough completed

yatta! "(I / we / they / etc) did (it)!". have done  (we can say) did it.

Inter exchangeable of Verbs and Nouns
turu 釣る and Turi, hikaru 光る and Hikari. 動詞と名詞の関係が語尾の母音の交替によって成り立つ。
 
tutawaru / tutaeru 自他の対立  

Interrogative sentence

Questions are formed by adding a question element to the end of the verb, usually ka. For example,

intraduceing it is the biginning to go with. i am miraa from abc company in la. hope you will kind to me.
let we to know each other. I will I hope we have a good relation.

fast and to begin, Kore de ii desu. "This is OK." by this good enough to do.
becomes Kore de ii desu ka. "Is this OK?" with this all right to do are you ok ?

ka is meaning I am asking so in like the other hand, do you ? or are you ? or is it ?




Complements

"wa" to ensure the word or words be the topic
and let any other sentence come after with grammartical errors are not occurred.

It has the function to sum up words before wa as a concept or noun. The nominated words are being for some sentences.

considering wa may serves as others Kakujoshi becoming in back and forth sentences.

"wo" is enounced o. it makes the word means like + by and + with ; indicates to do by this way or with it.

Nani o tabemasu ka? "What will (you) eat?" something which to eat will you ? what to eat, do you ?

"no" tight relation, indicates for mainly possession

watashi no kamera "my camera" I own the camera


"ga" for the main, strong possession, indicates the subject, who do it. and then Verb comes.

the main character or entity for its sentence. parameter to lead the speaker's action. usualy match the subject.

Kare ga yatta. "He did it." he who has done

"ni" for indirect object make the word the location as to act towards.
where the thing to be carried is bespoken by "ni".

Tanaka-san ni kiite kudasai "Please ask Mr./Ms. Tanaka", Tanaka-san towards him, ask it please.


Other Complements
suru -si- done and...

Kochira ("this")here is

Kotira wa Tanaka san desu. the topic of the sentence, structure is basicly topic-comment.
indicated by the particle wa.
The verb is desu "be". As a phrase, Tanaka san desu is the comment.
loosely translates to "As for this person, (it) is Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dear/ Tanaka".

the sentence Zō wa Hana ga nagai. literally means, "As for elephants, the nose is long."

The topic is Zō "elephant," and the subject is hana "nose."

Verb to or from Noun connection kou verb to Koi

The word desu/da is the copula verb. It corresponds approximately to the English be, but often takes on other roles.
A separate function of "to be" is to indicate existence, as in "there is", for which the verbs aru and iru are used for
inanimate and animate things, respectively. For example, Neko ga iru. "There's a cat." cat who is.


Ii kangae ga nai. "I haven't got a good idea." there is no/ isn't good idea with me. It's a good idea which isn't.


The verb "to do" suru, ( polite form shimasu) is often used to make verbs from nouns (ai suru "to love", benkyō suru
"to study", etc.). Japanese also has a huge number of compound verbs
(e.g. tobidasu "to fly out, to flee," from tobu "to fly and to jump" + dasu "to go out").


Honorificsm, Japanese has an extensive grammatical system to express politeness and formality.

Broadly speaking, there are three main politeness levels in spoken Japanese
: the plain form ( 砕けた),
publicly-speaking is accept when talk who know just about each other. closeted private
easy- speaking acquaint  get [become] acquainted get to know meet strike up an
the simple polite form (丁寧語) and the advanced polite form (敬語).

Since most relationships are not equal in Japanese society, one person typically has a higher position. This position is
determined by a variety of factors including job, age, experience, or even psychological state (e.g., a person asking a
favour tends to do so politely). The person in the lower position is expected to use a polite form of speech, whereas the
other might use a more plain form. Strangers will also speak to each other politely. Japanese children rarely use polite
speech until they are teens, at which point they are expected to begin speaking in a more adult manner. See uchi-soto


The plain form in Japanese is recognized by the shorter, dictionary form of verbs, and the da form of the copula. At the
teinei level, verbs end with the helping verb -masu, and the copula desu is used. The advanced polite form, keigo, actually
consists of two kinds of politeness: honorific language (sonkeigo) and humble (kenjōgo) language. Whereas teineigo is an
inflectional system, keigo often employs many special (often irregular) honorific and humble verb forms.

The difference between honorific and humble speech is particularly pronounced in the Japanese language.

Humble language is
used to talk about oneself or one's own group (company, family) whilst honorific language is mostly used when describing
the interlocutor and his group. For example, the -san suffix ("Mr", "Mrs" or "Ms") is an example of honorific language.
It is not used to talk about oneself or when talking about someone from one's company to an external person, since the
company is the speaker's "group".


Most nouns may be made polite by the addition of o- or go-; as a prefix.

whereas go- is affixed to words of Chinese derivation. In some cases, the prefix has
become a fixed part of the word, and is included even in regular speech,

such as Gohan 'cooked rice; meal.'

Such a construction often indicates deference to either the item's owner or to the object itself.

For example, the word tomodachi 'friend,' would become o-tomodachi when referring to the friend of someone of higher status
(though mothers often use this form to refer to their children's friends).
On the other hand, a female speaker may sometimes
refer to mizu 'water' as o-mizu merely to show politeness; this contrasts with the more abrupt speech of men
(though men may also use very polite forms when speaking to superiors).


Most Japanese people employ politeness to indicate a lack of familiarity. That is, they use polite forms for new
acquaintances, but if a relationship becomes more intimate, they no longer use them.




a i u e o k g ky gy s z/dz sy zy/dy t d ty (dy) ts (dz) n ny h hy f p b py by m (my) y r ry w n q

a consonant letter + y makes one consonant.

Japanese basically allows only (C)V(V)(n): Karaoke, Toukyou, Sushi, etc.



Modern Japanese is written in a mixture of three main scripts: Kanji, characters of Chinese origin used to represent both

Chinese loanwords into Japanese and a number of native Japanese morphemes; and two syllabaries: hiragana and katakana.

The Roman alphabet (in Japanese rōma ji) is also sometimes used.

, and with acquiring adequate vocabulary, understanding grammar, pronunciation, the writing system.
While the sound system is simple to master compared with those of other languages,
the writing system may pose a challenge for those whose native language does not use Chinese characters.
one learns a lot about Japanese culture
by studying kanji characters. Japanese students begin to learn kanji characters from their first grade of an elementary
school. A guideline created by the Japanese Ministry of Education, the kyōiku kanji, specifies the 1,006 simple characters
a child is to learn by the end of sixth grade. Children continue to study another 939 characters in a junior high school,
which totally covers 1,945 jōyō kanji (common kanji) characters, which are usually considered sufficient for everyday life.


the Japanese kana that represent one mora, あ is pronounced like "ah."

Okinawa Amami


Rendaku (連濁, "sequential voicing") is a phenomenon in Japanese morphology which governs the voicing of the initial
consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word. Rendaku is a common but unpredictable phenomenon
in modern Japanese. The "voicing" follows the pattern of Japanese and is therefore not a strict change from voiceless
to voiced sounds. It is also known as "sequential voicing".

[hito] + [hito] > [hitobito] ("person" + "person" → "people")
[te] + [kami] > [tegami] ("hand" + "paper" → "letter")

If rendaku were strictly phonological in nature, its action should be both predictable and phonologically motivated.
However, it is clearly morphologically motivated, since it applies only at morpheme boundaries. Even then, it does not
apply in all cases where it might be expected to apply. Furthermore, there is no motivation for the voicing of the first
consonant of the second member of a compound; that is, there is no reason for the consonant to be voiced,
other than the conventions of rendaku.

Properties Blocking Rendaku
Research into defining the range of situations affected by rendaku has largely been limited to finding circumstances
which cause the phenomenon not to manifest itself.


rendaku does not occur
if the second consonant of the second element is a voiced obstruent. This was later modified to state that rendaku
does not occur when the second element of the compound contains a voiced obstruent in any position.
This is considered to be one of the most fundamental of the rules governing rendaku.

[yama] + [kaji] > [yamakaji], not *[yamagaji] ("mountain" + "fire" > "forest fire") (* indicates an unacceptable form)
[hitori] + [tabi] > [hitoritabi], not *[hitoridabi] ("one person" + "travel" > "alone")
[tsuno] + [tokage] > [tsunotokage], not *[tsunodokage] ("horn" + "lizard" > "horned lizard")

rendaku does not manifest itself if there is a voiced obstruent near the morphemic boundary,
including preceding the boundary.

Rendaku also occurs infrequently words of Chinese origin as its the word of foreign origin.
- although see the first example below where the second element is well integrated ('vulgarized')

hardly ever in foreign lexical items:

[kabushiki] + [kaisha] > [kabushikigaisha] ("stock" + "company" > "corporation")


Rendaku is also blocked by what is called a "branching constraint". The process is blocked in the second element
of a right-branching compound:

[Mon] + ([Siro + Tyō]) > [Monsirotyō], ("family crest" + {"white" + "butterfly"} > "white cabbage butterfly")

but ([o] + [shiro]) + [washi] > [ojirowashi] ({"tail" + "white"} + "eagle" > "white-tailed eagle")


格助詞が直ぐ前の名詞に付き文法上の働きを決め、自立させる。したがって、その単位での語順が入れ替え自由である。


Sokuon, the small kana Tu, is served the deferent consonants from the large Tu.

きった kitta, きた kita, きいたkiita.

You-on sounds are ordered in the same way as the full sized sounds, and before them, thus, for example,
きょ きよ きょい きよい きょう (kyo, kiyo, kyoi, kiyoi, kyou)


Voiced versions of the kana (those with a Dakuten)


The Gozyūon (五十音) is a Japanese ordering of kana. fifty sound' ordering.
Despite the name, it only contains 46 common sounds.

The gojūon contains all the basic kana, but it does not include

versions of kana with a dakuten such as が or だ, smaller kana, such as っ for つ,

kana with added ょ, the yōon forms, such as きょ or しゃ.

The Gozyūon order is the prevalent system for collating Japanese.
dictionaries are ordered using this method.

distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society,
with verb forms and particular vocabulary which indicate the relative status of speaker and listener.
The sound inventory of Japanese is relatively small, and it has a lexically-distinctive pitch accent system.

Japanese is written with a mix of Chinese characters (Kanzi) and Kana, modified Kanzi and syllabary.

促音は次の子音と合わせて1モーラ分の長子音を構成する。後に音が続かない場合は前の母音の構えのまま息を止めるか、
声門その他の任意の調音点で声道を完全に閉鎖して無音の内破音とする。

次に側音や鼻音、はじき音、半母音、母音が続くことはないが、その要求は、側音なら摩擦音の場合と同様に持続時間の長い側音
(長子音)を構成するかまたは次の側音の構えのまま声門を閉鎖する無音状態とし、声門を開放すると同時に次の側音を発する。

この後者の場合は次に来る側音を「声門破裂を伴う側音」とし、
促音が「声門破裂を伴う側音」の前半の閉鎖持続部分を構成し、その後、後半の開放部分を発音したことになる。

次の音が鼻音、はじき音、半母音、母音の場合も上記の後者の場合と同様の方法で発音される。促音が語頭に現れることは稀であるが
(「ッア」など)、その場合も以上述べたすべての方法が準用される。

日本語の疑問語は、指示語の体系の中に位置付けられ、指示語に対応する意味の疑問表現となっているのが大きな特徴です。
なお、「だれか・なにか・どれか」などを一まとめにして「不定語」とする 考え方(「疑問語」と呼ばない)もあります

質問する側が情報に自信を持っている場合に「ね」が使われる

以前一度お会いしていますね? I'm sure that we have met once before.

Bishōjo (美少女 "beautiful young girl"), beauty little lady.
which is a Japanese term used to refer to young and pretty girls, usually below college age.

Syōzyo, girls. Syōnen, Anime, Manga Zyosei intended for adult women, Dansei intended for adult men.

The only unusual vowel is the high back vowel /ɯ/, which is like /u/, but unrounded.
and vowel length is phonemic, so each one has both a short and a long versions.

Japanese can be learned without studying Chinese characters.
Japanese borrowed thousands upon thousands of words from Chinese,
and for various reasons, many of these Chinese-based words are now homophones (words pronounced identically) in Japanese.

This may make it necessary to learn the characters if one wants to learn an extended vocabulary, although blind

Japanese people who cannot read any characters are able to function in the spoken language without problems,
since most words, even if not written down, can be understood by the context.

日本"Nihon" means "Japan", accent is on hon by high pitch.

~っけ(終助詞) 「そうだっけ?」「何だっけ?」と言う時の「っけ」です。

one series of stops, unvoiced unaspirated, written pp tt kk.

カラオケに行って、好きな歌を大きな声で歌うのは、気持ちが 良いものですね。 歌うことはストレス発散に大変効果的です。

France uを入れてfuransuに

あなたはだぁれ?: なんでここにいるの?:  知るか 何かの間違い 誘惑されたから 神様に導かれた だまされて 
合衆国大統領の命令で 来いって言われた 日本から来た 出来れば帰りたい / / いまの気分を一言どうぞ↓

optative For verbs, it can indicate the thematic roles and argument structure.



平安時代中期のころに完了した発音の変化は、語頭以外に位置するハ行が、ワ行音として発音されることでした。


「ぐむ」は、「涙ぐむ」「芽ぐむ」と同じく、名詞に付いて、内にあるものが外に向かってふくらみ、あるいは、
こぼれ出ようとしている状態を表します。

 キザスは、内にあるものが外に現れ出ることを表す語です。何かが起こる前兆をキザシもそこから生まれた。

「我は海の子」は「我は海の子なり」の「なり」を”省略”したものだという説明を聞くことがありますが、賛成できません。
両者は文の構造としては等価であっても、
表現者の意識としては、一方から他方が派生したというような関係にあるものでは決してないはずだからです。

「咲け+り」は<咲いている>「り」は、ある動作や状態が引き続き行われてを表しています。
この「り」は動詞の「あり」が他の動詞に付いたところから生まれたものです。「咲く」についてはその連用形の「咲き」に「あり」が
付いて「咲きあり」となり、それが縮まって「咲けり」の形に変化しました。

この「り」は「あり」と同じ<ある・いる>の意味も備えているし、活用も「あり」と同じ形式を取ります。
これらは活用の種類が限られます。「咲く」のように、「咲かズ・咲きタリ・咲く・咲くトキ・咲けバ・咲け」と、
四段にわたって活用する四段活用と呼ばれる動詞です。「咲きあり」から
生まれた「咲けり」の形は、一般には右の「咲けバ」と同じ活用形(已然形)とされます。
もう一種は、「せズ・しタリ・す・するトキ・すれバ・せよ」とサ行変格活用をする動詞「せ」に「り」の付いた形です。この「り」も、
「す」の連用形「し」に「あり」の付いた「しあり」が「せり」に変化したことによって生まれたものです。この「せ」は、
「せズ」の「せ」と同じ活用形(未然形)とされます。
   
「ヤワラグ」<自らがそうなる>と「ヤワラゲル」<他をそうする>があります。


「借りない」となり、「ない」の前がイ段になるので上一段活用である。
五段活用動詞は「た」「て」などの前では音便形という形をとる。

カ行、ガ行では「書いた」「き」「ぎ」であるところが「い」となり、これをイ音便という。

タ行、ラ行、ワ行(ワア行)では、「打った」「取った」「笑った」のように「ち」「り」「い」が小さい「っ」となる。

ナ行、バ行、マ行では「死んだ」「飛んだ」「読んだ」のように「に」「び」「み」が「ん」となり、これを撥音便という。

撥音便とガ行のイ音便ではあとの「た」や「て」が濁る。サ行の場合は、「渡した」のように、五段活用でも音便形にはならない。

音が変わっても意味には影響がない。K音が抜けるのは動詞に限らず、「若き」が「若い」になったり、「月立ち」が「ついたち」。
「一日」と書いて「ついたち」と読む。昔は太陰暦だったので、月がちらっと見え始めることをさす言葉であった。
   
「澄んで」いう形は、「澄み」が「て」に続くときに、音便によって「澄ん」に変わり、さらに生じた「ん」の影響が「て」を「で」
に変えたものです。このようなのを「音便形」と呼びます。音便というのは平安時代のころに起きた現象です。

同時期、「鳴き(て)」と、「鳴い(て)」とは形が少し異なるだけで、言葉の働きの上には格別の相違がありませんでした。
ところが室町時代の終りころからは、「鳴く」が「て」に続く場合には常に音便形の「鳴い(て)」だけを用いて、「鳴き」に
「て」を続ける形のほうは用いられなくなっていきます。そして、この特徴は現代の日本語にも受け継がれています。

「仰ぎ(て)」から「仰い(で)」が生まれた例です。このように動詞の語尾の「き」「ぎ」が「て」などに続くときに「い」に変わる。

「死ん(で)」は、「死に」が「て」に続くときに「死ん」に変わり、「ん」の影響で「て」が「で」に変化したものです。
「飛ん(で)」は、「飛び(て)」がもとの形です。「飛び」が「て」に続くときに「飛ん」になり、
「ん」によって、「て」が「で」に変わったものです。

動詞語尾の「に」「び」「み」がそれぞれ「て」の前で「ん」に変化したものです。
   
「打ち(て)」は、その音便形にあたる「打つ(て)」を用いています。「打ち」が「て」に続くときに促音に変化したものです。
促音便は、「て」などに続く動詞の語尾が右のような「ち」の形を取るもののほか、「り」や「い」の形を取る場合にも起こります。
「売つ(て)」の形は「売り(て)」から出たもの、「くらつ(て)」は、「くらい(て)」から生じたものです。なお、この「い」
の語尾は、旧仮名遣いでは「くらひ(て)」と書かれるように、古くは「ひ」の形を取ります。現代の表記では、促音便の形を表すのに
「打って」のように「つ」を小さく書きます。


現代語で語中、語尾にワイウエオの音が来る語の多くは、歴史的仮名遣いではハ行の仮名で書かれます。
  アワレ(哀)→あはれ  アイダ(間)→あひだ  ワラウ(笑)→わらふ  ヒトエ(単)→ひとへ  ホノオ(炎)→ほのほ
 およそ西暦 1000年 ころまで、歴史的仮名遣いのようにハ行の音に発音されていました。
   
語中尾にワが来る語について見れば、
 アワ(泡)  イワシ(鰯)   コトワリ(理)  サワグ(騒)  シワ(皺)  タワム(撓)  ヨワシ(弱)

「粟・淡・阿波・安房・」などの語は、古くアハと発音されていたので、こちらは「あは」と書かれます。
 
 kawaku okuru Tugi kasaneru kuri-kaesu arawasu ..tari, ..tari. osu Zyou-tai


助詞の「て」が続く形で、「眠る」に「て」が続くときに「眠りて」、「受く」は「受けて」となり、「眠り」「受け」が連用形です。

 
   
「湯のやうに」は、よく似た事物やことがらを取り上げて物事の性質や状態を説明するものであり、郁乎句の「おなじやうなる」は、
内容や程度が同じくらいであることを表しています。どちらも文語の助動詞「やうなり」の活用したもので、現代語の「ようだ」に
当たるものです。
 この助動詞は、漢語名詞「様(やう)」に断定の助動詞「なり」が付いて一語として用いられるようになったものですから、
歴史的仮名遣では「やうなり」と表されます。
   

「しょうがない」と拗音のこともある「しようがない」の「しよう」は、
《すること》の意味を表す名詞の「し」に前の例と同じ漢語の「様」が付いた複合語ですから、
これも歴史的仮名遣では「しやう」と表記すべきものです。

 この「よう」という助動詞は、「遊ぼう」と同じ意味を表すもので、上に来る語の活用の違いによって「う」「よう」のどちらを
用いるかが決まります。
 ところで、このような使い分けは古くからあったものではありません。
「我行かむ」のように用いられる古語の助動詞「む」が、中世初期に「う」の形に転じ、
さらに中世末期にはここから別に「よう」の形を派生して、このような両形の使い分けが生じました。
 助動詞「う」の前に来る語の末尾が五十音図のイ・エ段の音になる場合、例えば「見る」「する」に
「う」が付くようなときに、初めは「みう」「せう」の形が用いられていました。やがてそれが「みゅう」
「しょう」と拗音として発音されるようになり、「みゅう」はさらに「みょう」を経て「みよう」「しよう」に転じた結果、
新たに「よう」の形が生まれるに至りました。

   
「蹴る」という動詞が他の動詞と複合する時には、「けあげ」「けりあげ」の例が示すように、
どちらの形を用いてもよい場合もあります。しかし一方では、「けとばす」とは言うけれども「けりとばす」の形は
不自然に感じられるとか、逆に「(ボールをゴールに)けりいれる」と言うところを「けいれる」とは言い換えられないといった
規則的とは言えない面が見られます。
   

古くは「蹴る」という動詞は、「け(ず)・け(たり)・ける(時)・けれ(ば)」のような活用形式(下一段活用)を備えていました。
すでに見たように「けあげ」「けとばす」の形で他の動詞と複合する場合とか、「けはや」「けまり」のような形の名詞形を作る例は、
この古い形式に従うものです。
 ところが、近世後半の江戸言葉には、この動詞を「けら(ない)・けり(ます)・ける(時)・けれ(ば)」式の活用形式(四段活用)
に従って用いる例が見られるようになり、やがて明治期以降には、この形式が一般化して現代に至ります。
 新しく生まれた後者の活用形式に従えば、他の動詞に結び付く時には「けりいれる」のように「けり~」
の形をとることになりますが、一方には古い形の「け~」が他の動詞との結合や名詞化によって固定したまま生き残ったものもあって、
新旧両形の混在する状態が現代もなお続いているわけです。

 動詞を分類するのに、自動詞・他動詞の名称を用いることがあります。「折れる」「曲がる」のように、
ある動作や作用が他に及ばずに自身の働きに留まることを表すものを自動詞と称し、「折る」「曲げる」のように、
ある動作や作用が他に及ぶことを表すものを他動詞と呼びます。

 動詞が結合して一語となったものを複合動詞と言いますが、このような形の動詞が作られる場合には、
「自動詞+自動詞」あるいは「他動詞+他動詞」という具合に、同じ種類の動詞が結合するのが本来の姿です。
「折れ曲がる」が自動詞と自動詞の結合であり、「折り曲げる」は他動詞相互です。したがって「折れ曲げる」
「折り曲がる」のように、種類の異なる動詞が結び付くのは不自然なことになります。   

which can only attach to a verb - NOT a noun phrase tag that could attach to.
活用によっても形の変わらない部分が語幹。



Japanese is often indirect than English that avoids the imperative "Drink Coca-Cola!"
in favor of Kokakōrawo nomimasyou! ("We will drink Coca-Cola!").

Japanese has verbal inflections which switch level of politeness
(e.g. tetudau 'help'; polite form tetudaimasu. with the same purpose iku 'go', humble form mairu, honorific irassyaru.


Terms of address are a fertile field for exquisite complications; so are pronouns. In quite a few languages
it's perceived as rather a familiarity to address someone using the second person pronoun: to be polite you use
the plural (French vous), or a third-person form (Italian Lei, Spanish Usted from vuestra merced 'your mercy',
Portuguese o senhor 'the gentleman'), or a title (Japanese sensei 'teacher', otousan 'father', etc.). If this seems odd,
it's worth noting that English took the first approach, so thoroughly that the second person singular pronoun 'thou'
disappeared.
direct praise of others is avoided in Japanese.


whether the lips are rounded (u, o) not unrounded u, Japanese do. vowels may contrast by length.


In (standard) Japanese, syllables can be either high or low pitch; each word has a particular 'melody' or sequence of
high and low syllables-- e.g. ikebana 'flower arrangement' has the melody LHLL; sashimi 'sliced raw fish' has LHH;
kokoro 'heart' has LHL. It rather sounds as if a tone has to be remembered for each syllable;
but this turns out not to be the case. All you must learn for each word is the location of the 'accent',
the main drop in pitch. Then you simply apply these three rules:

Assign high pitch to all moras
(= syllables, except that a long vowel is two moras, and a final -n or a double consonant takes up a mora too)
Change the pitch to low for all moras following the accent
Assign low pitch to the first mora if the second is high. Thus for ike'bana we have HHHH, then HHLL, then LHLL.

 共通語のアクセントでは、一度音が低くなると一つの語の中では二度と高くなることはない。
「山口」というのは、地名にせよ苗字にせよ、「○●○○」、「県」は「●○」だが、「山口県」は「○●●●○○」となる。
これを「○●○○●○」というと、「山口ケン」という人の名前になってしまう。


Nani kore ? Yomi-kata wa Nan'desuka ?



一拍(monosyllabic, one syllabic sound, normal mora)

/V/: 母音(vowel) /CV/: 子音(consonant) + 母音(vowel) /YV/: 半母音(semivowel) + 母音(vowel)

/CYV/: 子音(consonant) + 半母音(semivowel) + 母音(vowel)

特殊拍(Special Morae) /R/: 長母音(long vowel) /Q/: 促音(choked sound) /N/: 撥音(syllabic nasal)






http://kamome.2ch.net/test/read.cgi/gengo/1287820452/



フランス語が しゅみ/しこうwwww _nom : akari ;luo a schavuie d japskaaja/ ;homicide : om/



http://personal.southern.edu/~caviness/Volapuk/Misc/eng-vol.htm




sceleikto
ceihalaemues hokilguies mottolokiesne nikkolespont pegaelesti
suhilitto scuokolecisto zekkemoilens zhaehoraaimuoslin
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