type x3. (Also everlasting, eternity, (= cimnytei),
eternal (= cimnyteikai or temcimni
cimnytei t1 = c1 is an eternity
cimnyterjunta j3 = c1 is a/the black hole
cimoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 3 to ordinal selbri; x1 is third among x2 ordered by rule
cimri’a r1 (event/state) moistens c1 with liquid
c2 under conditions r3
cimtu’a t1 = c1 is a swamp/marsh/wetland at
location t2 with liquid c2
cinba x1 (agent) kisses/busses x2 at locus x3.
cincizra n1 = z1 = x1 is sexually deviant/perverted in activity/state n2 = x2 in property z3 = n3 = x3 to person/by reference point
z2 = n4 = x4; x1 is sexually perverted
cindu x1 is an oak, a type of tree of
species/strain x
cinfos x1 is Leo [constellation/astrological
sign]. (From cinfo (=lion; lojban); leo (=lion; latin).
Many civilizations over thousands of years have
portrayed the constellation of Leo as a lion.)
cinfo x1 is a lion/[lioness] of species/breed x2.
cinfyma’i x1 is August of year x2 in calendar x
cingafpre p1 is a transsexual perso
cinje [cij] x1 is a wrinkle/crease/fold
[shape/form] in x

scindjiág Xinjiang (Uygur Autonomous Region
of China)
cinjikca j1 = c1 courts/flirts with j1, exhibiting sexuality/gender/sexual orientation c3 (ka) by
standard c4
cinki x1 is an insect/arthropod of species xbugo/beetl
cinla x1 is thin in direction/dimension x2 by
standard x3; [relatively short in smallest dimension
cinlysko s1 is a string of s2 material
cinlyze’a z1 = c1 becomes thinner in direction/dimension c2 by amount z
cinmle m1 = c1 is sexy/hot/attractive to m2 in
aspect m3 by standard m4 = c
cinmo [cni] x1 feels emotion x2 (ka) about x
(Also mood/humor (= nuncni

shinono [threehundred
shino thirty
cinri [ci’i] x1 (abstraction) interests/is interesting to x2; x2 is interested in x1. (Use x1 tu’a for
non-specific interest in an object; interested in (=
cinse [cin] x1 in activity/state x2 exhibits
sexuality/gender/sexual orientation x3 (ka) by
standard x4. (Also: x1 courts/flirts; x3 could be
a ka ¡gender or role¿, ka ¡attraction to a gender¿,
or ka ¡type of activity¿, etc.; (adjective:) x1 is sexual/sexy; x1 is flirted with/courted by x2 (= cinfriti, cinjikca
cinta x1 [material] is a paint of pigment/active
substance x2, in a base of x
cintypu’i p1 paints surface p3 with paint p2 = c
cinza x1 is a/are
tool/bodyt] for x2 to pinch x
cionmau x1 is a panda of genus/species x
cipcta x1 checks/investigates/examines/inspects
x2 for property x
ciplanli l1 experiments l2 = c2 by means l
cipni [cpi] x1 is a bird/avian/fowl of speciesy
cipnrbuteo x1 is a buzzard of species/type x2
(Genus Buteo)
cipnrdodo x1 is a dodo of species x2.
cipnrdromai x1 is an emu of variety/species x2.
(This could also be used for any member of the
Dromaius genus, of which there is currently only
one surviving species.)
cipnrfalko x1 is a falcon (genus ’falco

cipnrfasani x1 is a pheasant/partridge/quail/peafowl of species/type
x2 (Family Phasianidae )
cipnrkanario x1 is a canary. (Cf. cipni. Linnaean ’Serinus canaria’. )
cipnrkorvo x1 is a crow/raven of species x
cipnrkuku x1 is a cuckoo of species x
cipnrlaridei x1 is a gull of species x2 (FamilLaridae)
cipnrlori x1 is a lory/lorikeet of species x
cipnrpika x1 is a European magpie of subspecies x
cipnrsikonia x1 is a stork of species/type x2
(Genus Ciconia)
cipnrxuazine x1 is a hoatzin of breed x
cipra [cip] x1 (process/event) is a test
for/proof of property/state x2 in subject x3 (individ./set/mass). (Also examination, proxy measure, validation; (a set in x3 must be completely
cipyple p1 is a test-paper from source p2
for/proof of property/state c3 in subject c
circre ce1 is an historian of the history of ci2 according to standard ce
circtu ct1 teaches history ci1 to audience ct2 by
method ct5 (even
cirko [cri] x1 loses person/thing x2 at/near
x3; x1 loses property/feature x2 in conditions/situation x3. (x2 may be a specific object,

a commodity (mass), an event (rare for cirko), or
a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities,

this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= po’ecri, posyselcri for unambiguous semantic

cirla x1 is a quantity of/contains cheese/curd
from source x
cirmi’o m1 (person/object/event) is historical
among community of persons m2 (mass). (Cf. cirvai, circtu.)
ciroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: thrice; objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
cirvai v1 is historical/a landmark/watershed in
the history of c2, according to v2 = c3, in aspect/for reason v3 (nu/ka). (Cf. cirmi’o.)
ciska [ci’a] x1 inscribes/writes x2 on display/storage medium x3 with writing implement
x4; x1 is a scribe. (Also x3 writing surface. See
also papri, penbi, pinsi, tcidu, xatra, pixra, prina,
finti for ’author’ or specific authorial works, barna,
cisma x1 smiles/grins (facial expression).
(Smile/grin at something (= cismyfra
cismyfra c1 = f1 smiles at f3 under conditions
cisni x1 is of size/measurement x2 in dimension/aspect x3
cistcika t1 (hours, minutes, seconds) is the daylight saving time of state/event t2 on day t3 at location t4 = c
ciste [ci’e] x1 (mass) is a system interrelated
by structure x2 among components x3 (set) displaying x4 (ka). (x1 (or x3) is synergistic in x4;
also network; x2 also relations, rules; x3 also elements (set completely specified); x4 systemic functions/propertie
cistrxaioliano x1 is the minor key of tonic x2
of/with type/notes x
cistrxioniano x1 is the major key of tonic x2
of/with type/notes x
citkanba k1 is a kid of goat species k
citka [cti] x1 eats/ingests/consumes (transitive verb) x
citmau z1 = c1 is younger than z2 by amount z
citmle m1 is cute to m2 in aspect m
citnau n1 = c1 is a youth/young man by standard c
citno [cit ci’o] x1 is young/youthful [relatively short in elapsed duration] by standard x2.
(Also age (= nilnalci’o); (adjective:) x1 is junior.
citrai t1 = c1 is youngest among t
citri [cir] x1 is a history of x2 according to
x3 (person)/from point-of-view x3. (Also historic/historical (= cirtermo’i, cirvai
citsi x1 is a season/is seasonal [cyclical interval], defined by interval/property x2, of year(s)
x3. (Also anniversary (= citsydei, na’arcitsydei),
jubilee (= mumnoncitsi); the period of time may
be short or long as indicated by x2, and may occur every year or every nth year as indicated by
x3 (default every year); (x2 and/or x3 may need
metaphorical restriction: djecitsi, pavdeicitsi; also
equinox, solstice, time of yea
citsymu’u x1 migrates to x2 from x3 over
path/route x4 in season x5.
civla [civ] x1 is a louse/flea [bloodsucki
arthropod] of species/breed x2, parasitic on x
cizda’u x1 = c1 = d1 is a monster/freak of
species x2 = d2, monstrous/freakish in property
x4 = c3 according to x3 = c4
cizra [ciz] x1 is
strange/weird/deviant/bizarre/odd to x2 inproperty x3 (ka). (Also alien, mysterious, deviant,queer, unusual, exoti
ci [cib] [three]
ckabu’u b1 is bedcloth of material b
ckabu x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
rubber/latex from source x2 of composition including x
ckacivla x1 is a bedbu
ckafi [kaf] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of coffee from source/bean/grain x2. (Brew
based on a seed/bean/grain; e.g. also chicory coffee, decaf, postum
ckagai x1 is a blanket / quilt.
ckaji [kai] x1 has/is characterized by
x2 (ka); x2 is manifest in x1. (Manifested/property/quality/trait/feature/aspect
(= selkai
ckakla k1 goes to bed from k3. (Omit x3 = se
klama (destination) = ckana (bed))
ckaku’a k1 is a bedroom in structure k2
surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor k3(mass/jo’u
ckali’a cl1 rises/gets up/leaves bed.
ckana [cka] x1 is a bed/pallet of material x2
for holding/supporting x3 (person/object/event
ckape [cap] x1 is perilous/dangerous/potentially harmful to x2
under conditions x3. (x1 is a danger/peril to x2.
ckasu [cas] x1 ridicules/mocks/scoffs at x2
about x3 (property/event) by doing activity x(event
ckeji [kej cke] x1 feels
ashamed/mortified/humiliated under conditions x2 before community/audience x
ckiipyris Albani
ckiku [kik] x1 is a key fitting/releasing/opening/unlocking lock x2,
and having relevant properties x3. (Also x2
fastener, mechanism; code key (= termifckiku,
kiktermifra); x3 is dependent on the type of key,
but are those form properties of the key that
enable it to serve the function of opening the
lock - in the case of a metal key to a padlock, for
example, this would be the shaft and teet

ckilus x1 is Libra [astronomical constellation/astrological sign]. (The symbol for Libra is
the Scales. Since babylonian times, Libra has been
represented intrinsically with law, fairness and civility, as the scales were commonplace in the livelihood of the people, throughout the ages.)
ckilu [ci’u] x1 (si’o) is a scale of units
for measuring/observing/determining x2 (state).

ckini [ki’i] x1 is related to/associated
with/akin to x2 by relationship x
ckiptare x1 is Albanian (Balkan) in aspect x
ckire [kir] x1 is grateful/thankful
to/appreciative of x2 for x3 (event/property).
(Also gratitude (= nunckire or kamckir
ckopalku p1 is a diaper (absorbent garment) ofmaterial p2
ckukajna k1 is a bookshelf attached to k2
ckuke’u x1 is the x3’rd edition ofbook/publication x2 about subject/theme/story
x4 by author x5 for audience x6 preserved inmedium x7

ckule [kul cu’e] x institute/academy at x2 teaching subject x3 to audiencommun x4 operated byx
ckunu [ku’u] x1 is a conifer/pine/fir of
species/strain x2 with conesz
ckupaupau x1 is a part of x2, which is a part ofa book . x1 is a part of chapter x2 (x2 is the name
of the chapter, not the book
ckupau p1 is a chapter of book c1 = p2. (Indices,
appendices and forwards are also ckupau
ckupra cup1 publishes cup2 = cuk1 by processcup3
ckusro s1 is a library of books c1 = s2
ckuzai z1 is a bookshop selling books z2 = c1,
operated by z3
ckuzdacre c1 is a librarian by standard c
ckuzdaske s1 is library science with methodology s
clabajykla k1 = b1 runs a marathon/long distance to destination k2 from origin k3 via route k4.
clacelxa’i x1 = ce1 = cl1 is a rifle for use against
x2 by x3, launching projectile c2 propelled by c3.

cladakyxa’i x1 = d1 = c1 is a sword / long knifeweapon for use against x2 = d2 by x3 with blade ofmaterial d3 long by standard c3
cladu [lau] x1 is loud/noisy at observationpoint x2 by standard x
clakarce k1 = c1 is a limousine for k2, propelledby k3
clamau z1 is longer/taller than z2 in direction c2
by margin z4
clame’a m1 is shorter than m2 in direction c2 bymargin m4
clanebda’u d1 = cl1 = cn2 is a giraffe ofspecies/variety d2
clani [cla] x1 is long in dimension/direction
x2 (default longest dimension) by measurement
standard x
clapezli p1 is a leaf of p2, long by standard c3.
clapre p1 is a tall person, by measurement standard c
claselxadni xa2 = c1 is tall in stature by measurement standard c3
brabracrida. Refers specifically to a body.)
clatei t1 is a long
time/duration/interval/period/elapsed timefrom time/event t2 to time/event t3
claxu [cau] x1 is without/lacking/free
of/lacks x2; x1 is x2-less
clazme g1 is a cucumber of cultivar g2
clika x1 is a moss/lichen of species/strain x2
growing on x3; (adjective:) x1 is mossy
clinoi n1 = c4 is an instructional message about
n2 = c3 with contents c2 intended for audience
n4 = c1.
clira [lir] x1 (event) is early by standard x2.
clite [lit] x1 is polite/courteous/civil in matter x2 according to standard/custom x3. (Also formal, ritual. cliva [liv li’a] x1 leaves/goesaway/departs/parts/separates from x2 via
route x3. (Also: x1 leaves behind/takes leave ofy
clugau g1 (agent) fills c1 with c2
clupa [cup] x1 is a loop/circuit of x2 [material]. (Also noose (= skoclupa, saljgeclupa; there
is no indication of shape, but merely that the ends
join/meet); closed curve defined by set of points(= cuptai
cmabatci b1 nibbles b2 at locus b3 with b4
cmabi’o b1 = c1 decreases in size/becomessmall to b2 under conditions b3
cmacai ca1 = cm1 tiny/miniature/diminutive/very small in property ca2 = cm2 to observer ca3 = cm3
cmaci x1 is a mathematics of type/describingy
cmacku cu1 is a booklet/brochure about cu2,written by cu3 for intended audience cu4 inmedium cu5=cm1
cmacma c1 is tiny/miniature/diminutive/verysmall in property c2 with criterion c3
cmacnrekursi x1 is a recursive function with arguments x2
cmactatci t1 is a microscope used by t2 = ca1
for looking at small things t2 = ca2 = cm1 which
are small in property/dimension(s) cm2 (ka) ascompared with standard/norm cm3
cmafi’a f1=c1 is a short story aboutplot/theme/subject c2 by author c3
cmajamblo b1 = c1 is a destroyer of
type/carrying b2, propelled by b3
cmajdikygau g1 causes j1 = c1 to decrease in
the smallness of property/dimension c2 (ka) byamount j3
cmalinsi l1 is a mountain chain consisting of
mountains c1 projecting from landmass c2
cmalu [cma] x1 is small in property/dimension(s) x2 (ka) as compared with
29cmatcetce cmeveigau
cmama’a cman1 = cman1is a hill in terrain
cman2, small by standard cmal3
cmamau z1 is smaller than z2 in dimension c2
by margin z4
cmame’a m1 is bigger/[less small] than m2 in
dimension c2 by margin m4
cmamudyspi s1 = m1 = c1 is a woodchip/splinter of wood type m2, small as compared
with standard/norm c3
cmananba n1 is a roll/bun/biscuit/bun madefrom grains n2.
cmana [ma’a] x1 is a mountain/hill/mound/[rise]/[peak]/[summit]/[highlands]projecting from land massy
cmaplini p1 is an asteroid revolving around p2
with planetary characteristics p3, orbital parameters p4
cmarai t1 = c1 is the smallest among set/ranget4 in property/dimension c
cmari’e r1 is a creek/stream in land mass r2,draining watershed r3 into r4/terminating at r4.
cmaro’i c1 = r1 is a small rock of type r2 fromlocation r3, small by standard c3. c1 is gravel
hituziniku ookiji b tk flkstea o ou erta det na kotr we dea
cmastani c1 = s1 is a/the sprout/shoot of
plant/species s2 by standard/norm c
cmatca x1 is a village in administrative area x3
serving hinterland x4 small by standard x
cmatcema’a cman1 = cmal1 is a
hillock/mound/rise/knoll in terrain cman2,
small by standard cmal
cmatceri’e r1 = cmal1 is a rivulet on surface/terrain r2 draining r3 terminating at r4 smallby standard cmal
cmatcetce m1 = c1 is
tiny/miniscule/diminutive in property/dimension(s) c2 (ka) as compared withstandard/norm c3
cmato’a t1 is a tone low in pitch/frequencyfrom source t3
cmatricu t1 is a brush/bushy vegetation ofspecies/type t
cmavo [ma’o] x1 is a structure word of grammatical class x2, with meaning/function x3 in usage (language) x4. (x4 may be a specific usage(with an embedded language place) or a massified

language description; x3 and x4 may be merelyan example of cmavo usage or refer to an actual
expression; cmavo list, if physical object (= (loi)ma’oste); referring to the mental construct (e.g.
propose adding a new cmavo to the cmavo list= ma’orpoi, ma’orselcmi, ma’orselst
cmaxi’a xi1 = c1 is a pony of species/breed xi2
cmazda z1 is a hut of/for z1, small as comparedwith standard/norm c3
cmaze’a z1 = c1 shrinks/decreases in property
c2 (ka) by amount z3
cmazengau g1 causes z1 = c1 to decrease in
property/dimension b2 (ka) by amount z3
cmebasti b1 is a pseudonym/pronoun, replacing real name b2 = c1 of x3 = c2 in circumstance
x4 = b3
cmeclax Nameless. (Anonymous remailer software)
cmene [cme me’e] x1 (quoted word(s))
is a/the name/title/tag of x2 to/used-by
namer/name-user x3 (person). (Also: x2 is
called x1 by x3 (= selcme for reordered places).
cmesanji s1 identifies s2 = c2 by name c1 usedby namer/name-user c3 (person
cmeste l1 is an onomasticon of names l2 = c1 inorder l3 in medium l4
cmetcita t1 is a name tag/nameplate of t2 = c2
showing text c1.
cmeveigau g1 = v3 registers c2 with user-name
c1 on system/application c
cmevla x1 is a morphologically defined name
word meaning x2 in language x3. (In Lojban, such
words are characterized by ending with a consonant. Examples: lojban, jegvon, camgusmis.)
cmibi’o b1 = c1 becomes a member of groupb2 = c2 under conditions b3
cmicu’akrali k1 is suffrage entitled to k2 = cu1by standard k3. (It is a civil right, selcemkrali
cmicu’a cm1 = cu1 votes for cu2 among choices
cu3 in voting group cm2. (Applies to any election,not just public ones
cmigau g1 puts together c1 into group c2
cmila [mi’a] x1 laughs (emotional expression). (x1 laughs at x2 (= mi’afra
cmima [mim cmi] x1 is a member/elementof set x2; x1 belongs to group x2; x1 is
amid/among/amongst group x2. (x1 may be a
complete or incomplete list of members; x2 is normally marked by la’i/le’i/lo’i, defining the set in
terms of its common property(ies), though it may
be a complete enumeration of the membership.

cmisau s1 = c1 is logged into system/application s2 = c
cmiveigau g1 = v3 registers c1 as a member of
c2, registration preserved in medium x3 = v

cmizu’e z1 = c1 participates in employing
means/taking action z2 for purpose/goal z3.
cmoni [cmo co’i] x1 utters
moan/groan/howl/scream [non-linguistic utterance] x2 expressing x3 (property). (Also shriek,
most animal sounds, e.g. bark, cackle, meow,
neigh, moo, honk, baa, crah
cmuxu’i x1 is an element of kind x2 with purity
cnadakfu d1 = c1 is a chisel for carving d2 = c2with blade of material d
cnano [na’o] x1 [value] is a norm/average in
property/amount x2 (ka/ni) among x3(s) (set) by
standard x4. (Also mean, normal, usual; (x3 speci-
fies the complete set
cnebo [neb ne’o] x1 is a/the neck [bodypart] of x2; [metaphor: a relatively narrow point

cnemu [nem ne’u] x1 (agent) rewards x2 [recipient] for atypical x3 (event/property) with reward/desserts x4. (Differs from earned payment
because of atypical nature; rewards need not be
positive but are in some sense deserved from the
point of view of the rewarder: positive reward
(= zanyne’u), punishment, penalty, demerit (=
malne’u, sfane’u); x4 may be a specific object, a
commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity
(= posne’u, posyvelne’u for unambiguous semantic
cneparbi x1 is the derivative of x2 with respecttoz
cnici [nic] x1 is orderly/neat/ordered inproperty/quantity x2 (ka/ni
cnicro co1 = ci1 hurts emotionally due to ci3.
cnida’o d1 = c1 is far/distant from d2 in feeling
d3 = c2.
cnija’o j1 = c1 shows emotion j2 = c2 (ka)
about c3 to audience j3
cnijicla j1 = c3 excites j2 = c1
cnikansa x1 empathizes with x2 in feeling x3.
cnima’o v1 is an attitudinal meaning v2 = c1 inlanguage v3.
cnino [nin ni’o] x1 is
new/unfamiliar/novel to observer x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4; x1 is a novelty
cnirango r1 is the sense/feeling in c1 of emotion
c2 about c3
cniri’a x1 = r1 (event) moves/touches x2 = c1
(person), causing emotion x3 = c2 about object of
emotion x4 = c3 with causation conditions x5 =r3; x1 = r1 (event) is moving/touching
cnisa [nis] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of lead (Pb); [metaphor: heavy, malleable,soft metal
cnise’i s1 is the heart (emotional self) of s2 = c1.
31cpacu cpinytsapi
cnita [nit ni’a] x1 is directly/vertically beneath/below/under/underneath/down from x2
in frame of reference x3. (Also underside, nether.
cnitcini t1 = c2 is the mood experienced by t2 =c1 about c3
cniva’u v1 sighs due to emotion c2 (ka) about c3
breathing/respiring v2
cnixai xr1 offends xr2 = c1 affecting emotion c2
(ka) about c3 resulting in xr4 (state
co’acfa x1 = cf1 [state/event/process] commences/initiates/starts/begins to occur from its
natural start; (intransitive verb). (See co’a cfari. x1
starts from the very beginning. Also in the sense
of ’starting anew’ or ’starting from scratch’.)
co’asku c1 (agent) starts to express/say c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience c3 via expressive medium c4
co’a [co’a] [ZAhO] interval event contour:
at the starting point of ...; initiative ¿―¡ ―.
co’e [com co’e] [GOhA] elliptical/unspecified bridi relationship.
co’i [ZAhO] interval event contour: at the instantaneous point of ...; achievative; point event
co’o [COI] vocative: partings/good-bye.
co’urdu’u d1 is relieved from stress/discomfort
d2 (Cf. surla, kufra, snura, gleki.)
co’u [co’u] [ZAhO] interval event contour:
at the ending point of ... even if not done; cessative
― ¿¡ ―.
coico’o [COI*] vocative: greetings in passing.
coi [COI] vocative: greetings/hello.
cokcu [cko] x1 soaks up/absorbs/sucks up
x2 from x3 into x4; x1 is an absorbant
condi [con cno coi] x1 is deep in extent in
direction/property x2 away from reference point
x3 by standard x
corgau g1 (agent) hurts/causes pain for c1 at locus c2

co [col] [CO] tanru inversion operator; ”...
of type ...”; allows modifier trailing sumti without
sumti links.
cpacu [cpa] x1
gets/procures/acquires/obtains/accepts x2
from source x3 [previous possessor not implied].
(Also fetch; accept a gift (= seldu’acpa
cpana x1 is upon/atop/resting on/lying on
[the upper surface of] x2 in frame of reference/gravity x3. ((x1 may be object or ev
cpanygau g1 causes c1 to [rest on]/[be on top
of]/[lie on] c2 in frame of reference c3
cpanygle g1 = c1 rides/mounts/has sexual intercourse on top of g2 = c2, in frame of reference/gravity c3
cpapro f1 = c1 refuses f2 = c2 from c3
cpare [par] x1
climbs/clambers/creeps/crawls on surface
x2 in direction x3 using x4 [limbs/tools
cpazau z1 = c1 approves the receipt of c2 fromc3
cpedu [cpe] x1 requests/asks/petitions/solicits for x2 of/from
x3 in manner/form x4. (Also demand (= mi’ecpe);
x4 is a means of expression See also ve cusku.: a
request may be indicated in speech, in writing, or
by an action (e.g. petitions are often in writing,
while begging/panhandling may be indicated by
an action or even demeanor
cpesku cu1 = cp1 pleas/[expresses request] cu2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to cu3 = cp3 via expressive medium cu4
cpetinbe x1 complies with/accedes to request
x2 made byz
cpezu’e x1 complies with request x2 from x3.
cpicinfo x1 is a gryphon/griffin/griffon
cpina x1 is pungent/piquant/peppery/spicy/irritating to sensex2. (Also prickly (= pecycpina
cpinyspa s1 is a sense-irritating plant/thistle ofspeciesy
cpinytsapi t1 = c1 is a hot/pungent spice
causing flavor/effect t2 (event/property
32cretro crujva
cpizda z1 is a nest of bird z2=c1 of
genus/species/etc. c2
cpumi’i l1 = m1 is a tractor pulling l2
cpumuvgau g1 = l1 pulls m1 = l2 to destination m2 from origin m3 over path/route m4 at handle/locus l3. cradi x1 broadcasts/transmits [using radio
waves] x2 via station/frequency x3 to [radio] receiver x4. (Also x1 is a broadcaster
cradyvelcradi c1 is a radio transceiver transmitting/receiving c2 on frequency c3 to/fromtransceiver c4. (The x3 place may specify more
than one frequency, for instance in cases where different frequencies are used for transmission and
crakla k1 = c1 advances to k2 from k3 = c2 via
k4 using means/vehicle k5
craku’a k1 is an anteroom of/in structure k2
surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor k3
(mass/jo’u). (Cf. balku’a.)
crale’u l1 is an initial letter in
alphabet/character-set l2 representing l3.
crane [cra] x1 is anterior/ahead/forward/(in/on) the front of x2
which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3. (Also: x3 is
the standard of orientation fory
cravro v1 = c1 is a front door/gateway/access
between v2 and v3 of structure v4
craxra p1 is the front-cover picture/image/illustration showing p2 made by
artist p3
crebi’o c1 = b1 becomes expert at c2 = b2 under
conditions b3 by standard c3. (Coined because cilre
makes it hard to talk about just learning about a
crejibri j1 = c2 is a profession (job) of person
j2 = c1. (Especially a job requiring a high level of
skill or training
creka [cek] x1 is a shirt/blouse/top [upperbody garment - not necessarily sleeved or buttoned], materialy crepu [rep] x1 (agent) harvests/reaps/gathers crop/product/objects x2
from source/areaz
cretro j1 = c1 skillfully handles j2 = c2 in eventj3
crexalbo c1 = xa1 is a geek/nerd of field c2 =
xa2 (event/activity) by standard c3.
crezenzu’e x1 practices/exercises/drills/trains
in/for action/event/performancey
cribe [rib] x1 is a bear/ursoid of
cribyjba x1 is bearberry of species/variety x2.
crida [rid] x1 is fairy/elf/gnome/brownie/pixie/goblin/kobold
[mythical humanoid] of mythos/religion x2. (Also
orc, giant, demon or devil (when humanoid-form
is presumed by the mythos/religion), bugbear, bogeyman. (cf. ranmi, especially for non-humanoid
creatures of myth, lijda))
cridyske s1 (mass of facts) is the science
of fairies/elves/pixies [mythical humanoid] of
mythos/religion c2 based on methodology s3
crino [ri’o] x1 is green/verdant [color adjective
cripu [rip] x1 is a bridge/span over/across
x2 between x3 and x4 [unordered, typically destination first
crisa [cis] x1 is summer/summertime [hot
season] of year x2 at locatiz
critu x1 is autumn/fall [harvest/cooling season] of year x2 at locatioz
crogau g1 (agent) hurts/causes pain for c1 at locus c2
crogle g1 practices sadomasochism with g2 = c1
with pain at locus c2
crori’a r1 (event/state) hurts/causes pain for
x2 = c1 at locus x3 = c2
crotsapi t1 is hot spice
crovu’i v1 is a hot/spicy taste/flavor of/emitted
by v2

crujva x1 = j1 = c1 is a rule permitting/allowing x2 = j2 = c2 (event/state) withinsystem/community x3 = j3 under conditions
33ctile ctunoi
x4 = c3 (The use of c1 there is perhaps a bit iffy;
the point here is that it’s non-agentive.)
crutcini t1 is a situation / condition / state /
position that allows / is sufficient for event c2 = t2
under conditions c3. (As the whole point of this
word is to ignore the agentive nature of c1, c1 has
been dropped
cruvei v1 is a permit allowing c2 (event) under
conditions c3, preserved in medium v4
ctakamni k1 = c1 is the audit committeeof k3
ctaru x1 is a tide [cyclical/periodic expansion]
in x2 caused byz
ctebi [teb] x1 is a/the lip [body-part]/rim of
orifice x2 of body x3; (adjective:) x1 is labial
ctecmocpi x1 is a nightjar/goatsucker/whippoorwill of genus/speciesy
ctecpi c1 is an owl of species c2
ctejau d1 is dew.
cteki [tek ce’i] x1 is a tax/levy/duty ongoods/services/event x2 levied against x3 by authority/collector x4. (Also custom, toll, tariff, tribute
ctemanku m1 is dark of night of day n2 at location n3.
ctemidju m1 is the midnight of n2 at location n3.
ctesa’acpi x1 is a nightingale of species/varietyy
ctesai s1 is a supper composed of dishes including s2
cticinza cin1 is a/are chopstick(s) for eating
cticpe cp1 orders food ci2 for cp2 from cp3 inmanner/form cp4
ctidakfu d1 is a table knife for cutting food d2 =
c2, with blade of material d3
ctigau g1 feeds c1 with food c2
ctiku’a k1 is a dining room in structure k2
surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor k3
(mass/jo’u). (Cf. ckaku’a.)
ctile x1 is a quantity of petroleum/oil from
ctilytergu’i x1 is an oil lamp using petroleumbased products, illuminating x2 with light x1.
ctilyvau v1 is a fuel tank
ctino [ti’o] x1 is a shadow/the shade of object x2, made by light/energy sourcz
ctipla p1 sets up diet p2 for c1 consisting of food
ctiru’egau g1 digests food p2 = c2 with
output p3 passing through stage p4 of person/animal/plant c1
ctiru’e p1 is the digestion of food p2 = c2
with output p3 passing through stage p4 of person/animal/plant c1
ctisla s1 celebrates s2 with a banquet/feast
ctitci t1 is cutlery for eating c2
ctona’a x1 is x2 centuries in duration by standard x3. (The default x2 is 1
ctuca [ctu] x1 teaches audience x2
ideas/methods/lore x3 (du’u) about subject(s) x4
by method x5 (event). (Also instruct, instructor,
educate, educator, teacher, professor, pedagogue;
(adjective:) x1/x5 is pedagogical
ctuci’e ci1 is an education system interrelated
by administrative policies ci2 among institutions
ci3 = ct1 displaying quality ci4
ctucku cu1 = ct1 is a textbook for teaching
ideas/methods ct3 (du’u), by author cu3 for audience cu4 = ct2 about subject(s) ct4 by method ct5,
preserved in medium cu5
ctufau f1 is a lesson by c1 for teaching audience c2 ideas/methods/lore c3 (du’u) about subject(s) c4 by method c5 (ev
ctunoi n1 are instructions by c1 teaching audience c2 ideas/methods/lore c3 (du’u) about subject(s) c4 by method c5 (ev
34cukmirvelvei cumymu’efi’a
ctununta’a n1 = c5 is a lecture / an event of verbal teaching by t1 = c1 to audience t2 = c2 about
subject t3 = c4 in language t4 with facts taught c3.
cu’acmi cm1 = cu1 is a member of electorate cm2, which votes/selects cu2 [choice] fromset/sequence of alternatives cu3. (Gismu deep
structure is ”cuxna gi’e cmima
cu’arkubli k1 = c1 is a gaming die, with sidesk3 = c3, with side c2 facing up and having dimensions k2. cu’a [VUhU3] unary mathematical operator:
absolute value/norm ―a―.
cu’e [CUhE] tense/modal question.
cu’i [CAI] attitudinal: neutral scalar attitude
cu’o [MOI] convert number to probability selbri; event x1 has probability (n) of occurring under
cond. x2.
cu’u ko’a [BAI*] tagged sumti: can be used for
embedded: it-1 said, ”...”, with editorial unquoteand insert.
cu’upre p1 is a businessman/business woman
involved in business c1
cu’u [BAI] cusku modal, 1st place (attribution/quotation) as said by source ...; used for quotation.
cucma’e m1 is a skate carrying m2 on surface/medium m3
cucti’e t1 is the heel of shoe t2 = c1 for covering/protecting feet c2, and of material c3
cucycau cl1 is barefoot/not wearing shoes
cucyxelkla x1 = k5 is a roller skate to destination k2 from origin k3 via route k4, transporting
x5 = k1
cukla [cuk] x1 is round/circular
[2-dimensional shape/form]; x1 is a
disk/circle/ring. (Normally used for a filledin circle/disk, but emphasis on roundness means
that the concept may include ’ring
cukli’u l1 goes/moves around/[in a circle] using means l3
cukmakyvelvei v4 = m1 = c1 is a computer disk/hard disk/floppy disk storing v2
(data/facts/du’u) about v3 (object/event) in file(s)
cukmirvelvei v4 = m1 = c1 is a compact disc/optical disc storing v2 (data/facts/du’u)
about v3 (object/event) in file(s) v1
cukmu’o m1 = c1 (object) is completely
cukrerkavjvi j1 plays ultimate frisbee against j2
in competition j3 for prize/title j4
cuktai t1 = c1 is a circle
cukta [cku] x1 is a book containing work x2by author x3 for audience x4 preserved in medium
x5. ([x1 is a manifestation/container A physical
object or its analogue. of a work/content, not necessarily using paper (= selpapri
cukygu’ivelvei v4 = g2 = c1 is a compact disc/optical disc storing v2 (data/facts/du’u)
about v3 (object/event) in file(s) v1
cukyku’ovelvei v4 is a gramophone record of
cukyxratci x1 is a compass for drawing circlesy
culcpe cp1 humbly asks for/implores cp2 from
cp3 in manner/form cp4
culno [clu] x1 is full/completely filled withy
cumki [cum cu’i] x1 (event/state/property)
is possible under conditions x2; x1 may/might occur; x1 is a maybe. (Also possibility
cumla [cul] x1 is humble/modest about x2
(abstraction); x1 displays humility abouty
cumnunve’u n1 is a sales lead/opportunity forv1 to sell v2 to v3 for amount v4
cumselpei x1 = p2 = c1 (subject/concept) is
conceivable under conditions c2
cumymu’efi’a cf1 is science fiction about possible universe cu1 = m1 by author cf3
cundinkei k1 gambles/plays the lottery k2.(Gambling/lottery = nuncundinkei.)
cunfaigau g1 shuffles/randomly distributes/cuts x2 = f1 among x3 = f2 with
shares/portions x4 = f3. (Cf. cunfai, karda, kelci.)
cunfai f1 is shuffled/randomly distributed/cut
among f2 with shares/portions f3
cunmi x1 is a quantity of millet [grain] of
cunpe’i p1 bumps into/randomly encounters p2
at/in location p3.
cunso [cun cu’o] x1 is random/fortuitous/unpredictable under conditions
x2, with probability distribution x3. (Also accidental, chancy, by chance, adventitious, arbitrary
(also = cuncu’a, cunselcu’a, cunjdi, cunseljdi;
based on ”unpredictable
cuntu [cu’u] x1 is an affair/organized activity involving person(s) x2 (ind./mass); x1 is x2’s
business. (Also matter, concern; x2 is engaged in
x1 (which is usually an abstraction) (= selcu’u for
reordered places
cunyna’u n1 = c1 (li) is a random number
(noun), random under conditions c2, with probability distribution c3
cupli’u l1 makes a round trip via route l2 using
means/vehicle l3.
cupra [pra] x1 produces x2 [product] by processz
cupypoi p1 = c1 is a circularly ordered sequenceby rule p2 on unordered set p3
curfi’e c1 = f1 is an eel of species/breed c2 = f2.
curmi [cru] x1 (agent) lets/permits/allows
x2 (event) under conditions x3; x1 grants privilege x2. (Sufficient condition (= crutcini), agent
that permits a situation (= tcinycru
curnu [cur] x1 is a worm/invertebrate animal of species/breed x2. (Also mollusk, snail (=
cakcurnu), shellfish (= xaskemcakcurnu, xaskemcakydja); the generalization to invertebrate is because almost all multicellular invertebrates are indeed wormlike
curve [cuv] x1 is
in property x2 (ka). (x1 is simply/purely/unmitigatedly/solelyy
cusku’i x1 edits/revises/adapts text x2 by x3
for audience x4 in medium x5
cusku [cus sku] x1 (agent) expresses/says
x2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience x3 via
expressive medium x4. (Also says. See also
custerzi’e z3 is a condition for free expressive
activity z2 by agent z1 = c1
cutci [cuc] x1 is a shoe/boot/sandal for covering/protecting [feet/hooves] x2, and of material
x3. (Also boot (= tupcutci
cutne [cut] x1 is a/the chest/thorax/upper
trunk/[rib cage/breast] [body-part] ofy
cutybo’u b1 is a rib of body b3 = c2
cutygreku g1 = c1 is the ribcage of c2
cutyti’e t1 is the upper back [body-part] of c2
cuvjumske s1=j1=c1 is bacteriology of bacteria s2 based on methodology s3. (Bacteriology
is the study of bacteria. Because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms
other than bacteria, there has been a tendency for
the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology
(=jumske). Bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science.)
cuvjurme j1=c1 is an (eu)bacterium of
species/defining property j2. (Bacteria are
a large domain of single-celled, prokaryote
(=pruslemijyji’e) microorganisms
cuxna [cux cu’a] x1 chooses/selects x2
[choice] from set/sequence of alternatives x3
(complete set). (Also prefer (= nelcu’a
cuxselgre p2 = c1 filters p1 = c2 to destination
side p3 from origin side p4
cu [CU] elidable marker: separates selbri from
preceding sumti, allows preceding terminator elision.
cy [BY2] letteral for c.
da’acre c1 = d2 is a fighting expert in fighting
against c2 over issue c3 (abstract), expert by standard c3
da’amoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: converts allbut-(1) to ordinal selbri; x1 is penultimate among
x2 by rule x3.
da’aremoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: converts
all-but-2 to ordinal selbri; x1 is antepenult. among
x2 by rule x3.
da’arsi’u s1 fight [each other] over issue d3 (abstract
da’arta’a t1 = d1 quarrels with t2 = d2 about
issue t3 = d3 in language t4
da’asnu c1 (mass normally, but 1 individual/jo’u possible) argues/quarrels about
topic/subject c2 = d3 with opponent x3 = d2
da’a [daz] [PA4] digit/number: all except n;
all but n; default 1.
da’e [KOhA2] pro-sumti: remote future utterance; ”He’ll tell you tomorrow. IT will be a
da’inai [UI*3] discursive: supposing - in fact.
da’i [UI3] discursive: supposing - in fact
4 da’oi [DOI] attitudinal attribution (Whereas dai simply marks an attitudinal as applying to
someone other than the speaker, da’oi explicitly
attributes the preceding attitudinal. In particular,
dai is equivalent to da’oi na’e bo mi.)
da’o [DAhO] discursive: cancel pro-sumti/probridi assignments.
da’u [KOhA2] pro-sumti: a remote past utterance; ”She couldn’t have known that IT would be
dabycalku c1 is armor around c2 composed of
c3 against opponent x4 = d2
dabysmifau f1 (event) is a wargame, simulating
combat by d1 against d2 over issue d3 (abstract).
dabytadji t1 is a fighting technique / martial art
used under conditions t3 by d1. (t2 subsumed. d2
and d3 not usually relevant to technique. Made
damba + tadji.)
dacru [dac] x1 is a drawer/file in structure x2,
a [sliding compartment] container for contents x3.
dacti [dai] x1 is a material object enduring in
space-time; x1 is a thing
dadgau g1 hangs/suspends d1 from d2 with/bymeans d3.
dadjo [daj] x1 pertains to the Taoist culture/ethos/religion in aspecty
dadne’ota’u t1 is a necktie for wearing by t2 =
c2 serving purpose t3. (Cf. nebysrijge.)
dadycatra c1 hangs/lynches c2 = d1 by hanging
them from/on d2 by means of d3. (x2 is killed by
this action. Use dadgau if x2 is already dead.)
dadycka c1 = d1 is a hammock of material c2
hung from d2
dadysli s1 = d1 is a pendulum oscillating at
rate/frequency s2, suspended from d2 by/at/with
joint d3.
dafsku c1 (agent) answers x2 = d1 to question/problem x3 = d2.
dagysfe s1 is pavement of road/highway x2 =
dagysni s1 is a road sign meaning s2 to observer/driver/pedestrian s3
dai [UI5] attitudinal modifier: marks empathetic use of preceding attitudinal; shows another’s feelings. dakfu [dak] x1 is a knife (tool) for cutting x2,
with blade of materialz
dakli x1 is a sack/bag with contents x2, and of
daklycka c1 = d1 is a sleeping bag of material
c2 = d3 for holding c3 = d2
dakyxa’i x1 = d1 is a dagger / knife weapon for
use against x2 = d2 by x3 with blade of material
dalcange c1 is a ranch at c2, of rancher c3 raising
animals c4 = d1
dalpe’o p1 = d1 is a pet belonging to p2 of
species d2
dalske s1 is zoology concerned with animals of
type d2 based on methodology s3
damba [dab da’a] x1fights/combats/struggles with x2 over issue
x3 (abstract); x1 is a fighter/combatant. (Use x3
tu’a for fight over an object/objective
37danvau darsyze’a
damri x1 is a drum/cymbal/gong [percussion
musical instrument] with beater/actuatory
damtu’u t1 is a chimney made of
of material t2 for emitting/expelling
smoke/gas/steam/magma t3 = d1 from source
damtubnu t1 is a chimney made of
of material t2 for emitting/expelling
smoke/gas/steam/magma t3 = d1 from source
damva’u v1 smokes/inhales v2. v1 is a smoker.
(not necessarily tobacco
dandu [dad] x1 hangs/dangles/is suspended
from x2 by/at/with joint x3. (Pendant (= dadja’i);
also dependent (original meaning
danfu [daf] x1 is the answer/response/solution/[reply] to question/problemy
for agentive response/reply, cpedu))
danlu’a p1 is a trajectory of ballistic projectile d1
fired by gun/launcher d2, to destination p2 from
p3 via p4
danlu [dal da’u] x1 is an animal/creature of
species x2; x1 is biologically animate
danmark Denmark.
danmo [dam] x1 is made of/contains/is a
quantity of smoke/smog/air pollution from
source x2. (x2 may be a fire
danre [da’e] x1 (force) puts pressure
on/presses/applies force to x2. (Agentive
press/depress (= da’ergau, da’erzu’e
danske s1 is ballistics with methodology s2
dansu x1 (individual, mass) dances to accompaniment/music/rhythmy
dansycu’u c1 is a dance/ball involving participants c2 = d1, to accompaniment/music/rhythm
danti [dan] x1 is a ballistic projectile [e.g.bullet/missile] for firing by [gun/propelling
launcher] x2. (Also cannonball, catapult stone,shot pellet(s
danvau x1 is a quiver/magazine for arrows/bullets x2.
daplu [plu] x1 is an island/atoll/key of [material/properties] x2 in surroundings/body x3; x1
is insular
dapma [dap] x1 curses/damns/condemns x2
to fate (event) x3. (Curse with a specific expression
(= dapsku
dapsodi x1 is an armadillo of species/breed x2.
daptutra t1 = d2 is a hell/cursed territorycursed by t2 = d1

darbei b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo
b2 far away to b3 = d1 from b4 = d2 over path b5.
darbevri b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports
cargo b2 far away to b3 = d1 from b4 = d2 over
path b5
darctatci t1 is a telescope for examining c2 =d1 which is far from d2
dargu [dag] x1 is a road/highway to x2 from
x3 with route x4 (x2/x3 may be unordered). (A
regularly used, improved-for-use surface for travelling
darji’o j1 = d1 is the end of j2 at j3 far from d2
darlu [dau] x1 argues for stand x2 against
stand x3; [an opponent is not necessary
darmau z1 = d1 is farther from z2 = d2 in property z3 = d3 by amount z4
darno [dar da’o] x1 is far/distant from x2 in
property x3 (ka
darpi’ejvi j1 = p1 long jumps with opponent(s)
j2 in contest/competition j3 (event) for gain j4.
darpi’e p1 long jumps to p2 from p3 reachingheight p4
darsi x1 shows audacity/chutzpah in behavior x2 (event/activity); x1 dares to do/be x2
(event/ka). (x1 is bold
darsta s1 = d1 stays/keeps back with s2, distant
from d2
darsygau x1 encourages x2 to do/bez
darsyze’a z1 = d1 becomes bolder/more audacious in behaviour d2 (event/activity) by amount
darusLAM Darussalam
darvistci t1 is a telescope for seeing v2 = d1
which is far from d2
darxi [dax da’i] x1 hits/strikes/[beats] x2
with instrument [or body-part] x3 at locus x4
daski x1 is a pocket/pouch of/in garment/itemy
daskybu’u b1 is a handkerchief of type/material
b2 in pocket x3 = d1. (For example worn in suit
front pockets
daskycizborda’u c1 = da1 is Pokemon/Pocket Monster of species ´ da2
daskycribe x1 = c1 is a koala (Phascolarctos
cinereus) of breed x2 = c2
daskymabru m1 is a marsupial mammal of
species m2
dasni [das] x1 wears/is robed/garbed in x2
as a garment of type x3. (x2 need not be intended
for use as a garment (unlike taxfu
daspo [spo] x1 (event) destroys/ruins/wrecks/despoils x2; x1 is destructive. (See also spofu, dasri [sri] x1 is a ribbon/tape/strip/band/stripe of material x2.
datcinselta’u x1 = t2 is a
cross-dresser/transvestite wearing
dress/garment/clothing x2 = t1 serving purpose t3
datcme c1 = d1 is an alias/nickname of c2 used
by c3 instead of name d2, differing from it by standard d3
datka x1 is a duck/[drake] of species/breed x2.
datkypi’u p1 is eiderdown/feather/plume ofduck species/breed d2
datmau z1 = d1 is a plurality of/more than all
other subgroups of z2 as seperated/classified by
property z3 = d3 by amount z4. (Made from drata
+ zmadu. Seems like both this and xabmau should
have klesi in them, but it can be argued that the
combination imports the idea of classification
datni x1 (du’u) [fact/measurement] is
data/information/statistic(s) about x2 gathered by method x3. (Evidence (= velji’i datni or
just velji’i, sidydatni
datnyfle x1 is a pipe carrying data x2 to x3 from
datnynoi n1 = d1 is a report about n2 = d2 fromreporter n3 to intended audience n4
datnysri x1 = das1 is a signal recording and
playback tape-type medium (cassette/DAT/tape
drive) containing data/sound/image x2 = dat1
with data storage mechanism/method x3 (analog/digital
datnyvaugunma g1 is computer memory, consisting of parts x2 = g2 = v1
datnyvau v1 is a computer variable/register/memory cell with contents v2 = d1.
datnyveiste l1 = v1 is a directory of files l2 in
order l3 in medium l4 = v4
datnyvei x1 = v1 is a file consisting of information x2 = d1 = v2 about x3 = d2 = v3 in medium
x4 = v4
datnyxle n1 is a socket connecting n3 to n2 along
route n4 carrying data x5 = d1. (x1 is the end
opened with listen
datpavycinglepre pr1 is (a) heterosexual
datru x1 (event) is dated/pertaining to day/occurring on day x2 of month x3 of year x4 in
calendar x5 (We felt that detri just didn’t work as
a culturally-independent date system. The use of
pi’e or joi as date mechanisms was insufficient and
having the date components built into the place
structure seems far more elegant
datygugvi’e v1 is a tourist/foreign visitor, visiting v2 at place/event v3 from country x4 = g1
4 dau’i [CAI2] attitudinal: equal intensity attitudinal relativizer (Specifies an equal intensity -
relative to any previously specified intensity of thesame UI/cmavo. See also mau’i, me’ai, cu’i )
dausnu c1 debate on topic/subject c2
39dejru’a demtse
dau [PA2] digit/number: hex digit A (decimal
10) [ten].
daxfli f1 = d1 fails to hit d2 with instrument d3
at locus d4
da [dav dza] [KOhA1] logically quantified
existential pro-sumti: there exists something 1
(usually restricted).
de’a [ZAhO] event contour for a temporary halt
and ensuing pause in a process.
de’emni x1 is denim of material x2. (Cf. bukpu.)
de’e [KOhA2] pro-sumti: a near future utterance.
de’i [BAI] detri modal, 1st place (for letters)
dated ... ; attaches date stamp.
de’o [VUhU3] binary mathematical operator:
logarithm; [log/ln a to base b]; default base 10 or
de’u [KOhA2] pro-sumti: a recent utterance.
debysamcu x1 is a jicama of species/variety x2.
(Cf. samcu, dembi.)
decti [dec] x1 is a tenth [1/10; 110
] of x2 in
dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
degja’i j1 is a ring on finger j2 = d1
degja’o j1 = d3 points to j2 (property) to audience j3 with finger x4 = d1
degji [deg] x1 is a/the finger/digit/toe
[body-part] on limb/body site x2 of body x3;
[metaphor: peninsula]. (Finger (= xandegji), toe
(= jmadegji
degycauglu g1 = c1 = d2 is a mitten of material
degycidni c1 is a knuckle on limb d2 of body
c3 = d3. (Cf. bircidni.)
degycpu l1 = d3 plucks l2 at locus l3. (For example also pizzicato etc.)
degygai g1 is a thimble
degygutci g1 is g2 inch/inches (length unit).
dei [KOhA2] pro-sumti: this utterance.
dejni [dej] x1 owes x2 in debt/obligation to
creditor x3 in return for x4 [service, loan]; x1 is a
debtor. (See also jbera, janta, zivle.)
dejnoi n1 is an invoice/bill to debtor d1 = n4
for amount owed d2 to creditor d3 = n3 for
goods/services d4. (Cf. dejni, notci, janta.)
dejru’a s1 = d1 wagers d2 to creditor d3 on s2
dejyterze’a z3 is the interest on debt z1 = d2 of
debtor d1 to creditor d3
dekpu x1 is x2 (default 1) local volume unit(s)
[non-metric; e.g. bushel], standard x3, x4 subunits.
(Gallon (= likydekpu), quart (= likseldekpu), barrel (wet = likybradekpu, dry = sudbradekpu),
bushel (= sudydekpu), peck (= sudyseldekpu),
cupful (= kabrydekpu), tablespoon (= mucydekpu); teaspoon (= mucyseldekpu); (all of these
lujvo may need gic- to distinguish the English
measurement system in contrasting with some local system; the English system is otherwise presumed to be the default non-metric system). (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6,
dekto [dek] x1 is ten [10; 1 10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
delfinu x1 is a dolphin of species/breedy
delno [del de’o] x1 is x2 candela [metric
unit] in luminosity (default is 1) by standard x3.
dembi [deb] x1 is a bean/pea/leguminous
seed from plant [legume]y
dembrciceri x1 is a garbanzo/chickpea of
species/variety x2. (see also boldembi)
demcarvi c1 = d1 pours to c2 from c3. c1 = d1 is
torrential rainfall.
demri’a r1 (event/state) compacts/compresses/concentrates/packs/condenses
x2 = d1 in property x3 = d2 (ka) at location/locus
x4 = d3. (Cf. lunsa.)
demspa d1 = s1 is a bush of
species/strain/cultivar s2. (Cf. dzitricu.)
demtse z1 crouches/cowers/squats on surface

darbei b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo
b2 far away to b3 = d1 from b4 = d2 over path b5.
darbevri b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports
cargo b2 far away to b3 = d1 from b4 = d2 over
path b5. (Cf. darno, bevri.)
darctatci t1 is a telescope for examining c2 =
d1 which is far from d2
dargu [dag] x1 is a road/highway to x2 from
x3 with route x4 (x2/x3 may be unordered). (A
regularly used, improved-for-use surface for travelling
darji’o j1 = d1 is the end of j2 at j3 far from d2
darlu [dau] x1 argues for stand x2 against
stand x3; [an opponent is not necessary
darmau z1 = d1 is farther from z2 = d2 in property z3 = d3 by amount z4
darno [dar da’o] x1 is far/distant from x2 in
property x3 (ka
darpi’ejvi j1 = p1 long jumps with opponent(s)
j2 in contest/competition j3 (event) for gain j4.
darpi’e p1 long jumps to p2 from p3 reaching
height p4. (Cf. darpi’ejvi, xadyplijvi, zajba.)
darsi x1 shows audacity/chutzpah in behavior x2 (event/activity); x1 dares to do/be x2
(event/ka). (x1 is bold. See also virnu.)
darsta s1 = d1 stays/keeps back with s2, distant
from d2. (Cf. darno, stali.)
darsygau x1 encourages x2 to do/be x3. (Cf.
darsi, gasnu, e’e.)
darsyze’a z1 = d1 becomes bolder/more audacious in behaviour d2 (event/activity) by amount
38datni dausnu
z3. (Cf. darsi, zenba.)
darusLAM Darussalam. (see bruNAIS)
darvistci t1 is a telescope for seeing v2 = d1
which is far from d2. (Cf. darno, viska, vistci, darctatci, cmactatci, le’otci, barkalyle’o.)
darxi [dax da’i] x1 hits/strikes/[beats] x2
with instrument [or body-part] x3 at locus x4. (See
daski x1 is a pocket/pouch of/in garment/item
x2. (See also dakli, taxfu, bakfu.)
daskybu’u b1 is a handkerchief of type/material
b2 in pocket x3 = d1. (For example worn in suit
front pockets. Cf. zbibu’u.)
daskycizborda’u c1 = da1 is a
Pokemon/Pocket Monster of species ´ da2
daskycribe x1 = c1 is a koala (Phascolarctos
cinereus) of breed x2 = c2
daskymabru m1 is a marsupial mammal of
species m2. (Cf. daski, mabru, daskycribe, kanguru.)
dasni [das] x1 wears/is robed/garbed in x2
as a garment of type x3. (x2 need not be intended
for use as a garment (unlike taxfu). See also taxfu.)
daspo [spo] x1 (event) destroys/ruins/wrecks/despoils x2; x1 is destructive. (See also spofu, dasri [sri] x1 is a ribbon/tape/strip/band/stripe of material x2.
datcinselta’u x1 = t2 is a
cross-dresser/transvestite wearing
dress/garment/clothing x2 = t1 serving purpose t3. (Cf. cingafpre, palku, pastu, dadne’ota’u.)
datcme c1 = d1 is an alias/nickname of c2 used
by c3 instead of name d2, differing from it by standard d3. (Cf. drata, cmene, cmebasti.)
datka x1 is a duck/[drake] of species/breed x2.
datkypi’u p1 is eiderdown/feather/plume of
duck species/breed d2. (Cf. datka, gunse, cipni,
datmau z1 = d1 is a plurality of/more than all
other subgroups of z2 as seperated/classified by
property z3 = d3 by amount z4. (Made from drata
+ zmadu. Seems like both this and xabmau should
have klesi in them, but it can be argued that the
combination imports the idea of classification. See
datni x1 (du’u) [fact/measurement] is
data/information/statistic(s) about x2 gathered by method x3. (Evidence (= velji’i datni or
just velji’i, sidydatni). See also fatci, saske, vreji.)
datnyfle x1 is a pipe carrying data x2 to x3 from
x4. (Cf. datnyxle, skami.)
datnynoi n1 = d1 is a report about n2 = d2 from
reporter n3 to intended audience n4. (Cf. datni,
datnysri x1 = das1 is a signal recording and
playback tape-type medium (cassette/DAT/tape
drive) containing data/sound/image x2 = dat1
with data storage mechanism/method x3 (analog/digital) (Cf. srimakyvelvei, veisri.)
datnyvaugunma g1 is computer memory, consisting of parts x2 = g2 = v1
datnyvau v1 is a computer variable/register/memory cell with contents v2 = d1
datnyveiste l1 = v1 is a directory of files l2 in order l3 in medium l4 = v4
datnyvei x1 = v1 is a file consisting of information x2 = d1 = v2 about x3 = d2 = v3 in medium
x4 = v4
datnyxle n1 is a socket connecting n3 to n2 along
route n4 carrying data x5 = d1. (x1 is the end
opened with listen(); Cf. datnyfle.)
datpavycinglepre pr1 is (a) heterosexual

datru x1 (event) is dated/pertaining to
day/occurring on day x2 of month x3 of year x4 in
calendar x5 (We felt that detri just didn’t work as
a culturally-independent date system. The use of
pi’e or joi as date mechanisms was insufficient and
having the date components built into the place
structure seems far more elegant
datygugvi’e v1 is a tourist/foreign visitor, visiting v2 at place/event v3 from country x4 = g1
4 dau’i [CAI2] attitudinal: equal intensity attitudinal relativizer (Specifies an equal intensity -
relative to any previously specified intensity of the
same UI/cmavo. See also mau’i, me’ai, cu’i )
dausnu c1 debate on topic/subject c2
dau [PA2] digit/number: hex digit A (decimal
10) [ten].
daxfli f1 = d1 fails to hit d2 with instrument d3
at locus d4. (Cf. fliba, darxi.)
da [dav dza] [KOhA1] logically quantified
existential pro-sumti: there exists something 1(usually restricted).
de’a [ZAhO] event contour for a temporary halt
and ensuing pause in a process
de’emni x1 is denim of material x2
de’e [KOhA2] pro-sumti: a near future utterance.
de’i [BAI] detri modal, 1st place (for letters)
dated ... ; attaches date stamp.
de’o [VUhU3] binary mathematical operator:
logarithm; [log/ln a to base b]; default base 10 or
de’u [KOhA2] pro-sumti: a recent utterance.
debysamcu x1 is a jicama of species/variety x2.
decti [dec] x1 is a tenth [1/10; 110
] of x2 in
dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
degja’i j1 is a ring on finger j2 = d1. (Cf. djine,
degja’o j1 = d3 points to j2 (property) to audience j3 with finger x4 = d1. (Cf. farja’o, farsni.)
degji [deg] x1 is a/the finger/digit/toe
[body-part] on limb/body site x2 of body x3;
[metaphor: peninsula]. (Finger (= xandegji), toe
(= jmadegji). See also nazbi, tamji, tance, xance.,)
degycauglu g1 = c1 = d2 is a mitten of material
g2. (Cf. gluta.)
degycidni c1 is a knuckle on limb d2 of body
c3 = d3. (Cf. bircidni.)
degycpu l1 = d3 plucks l2 at locus l3. (For example also pizzicato etc.)
degygai g1 is a thimble. (Cf. degji, gacri, tajgai.)
degygutci g1 is g2 inch/inches (length unit
dei [KOhA2] pro-sumti: this utterance.
dejni [dej] x1 owes x2 in debt/obligation to
creditor x3 in return for x4 [service, loan]; x1 is a
debtor. (See also jbera, janta, zivle.)
dejnoi n1 is an invoice/bill to debtor d1 = n4
for amount owed d2 to creditor d3 = n3 for
goods/services d4. (Cf. dejni, notci, janta.)
dejru’a s1 = d1 wagers d2 to creditor d3 on s2
(du’u). (Cf. sruma, smadi, kanpe.)
dejyterze’a z3 is the interest on debt z1 = d2 of
debtor d1 to creditor d3. (Cf. dejni, zenba, terdejni, kagyseldejni, ze’i zei seldejni, ze’u zei seldejni,
paurseldejni, fairprali, jbera, jdini, banxa.)
dekpu x1 is x2 (default 1) local volume unit(s)
[non-metric; e.g. bushel], standard x3, x4 subunits.
(Gallon (= likydekpu), quart (= likseldekpu), barrel (wet = likybradekpu, dry = sudbradekpu),
bushel (= sudydekpu), peck (= sudyseldekpu),
cupful (= kabrydekpu), tablespoon (= mucydekpu); teaspoon (= mucyseldekpu); (all of these
lujvo may need gic- to distinguish the English
measurement system in contrasting with some local system; the English system is otherwise presumed to be the default non-metric system). (additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6,
dekto [dek] x1 is ten [10; 1 10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
delfinu x1 is a dolphin of species/breed x2
delno [del de’o] x1 is x2 candela [metric
unit] in luminosity (default is 1) by standard x3.

dembrciceri x1 is a garbanzo/chickpea of
species/variety x2. (see also boldembi)
demcarvi c1 = d1 pours to c2 from c3. c1 = d1 is
torrential rainfall.
demri’a r1 (event/state) compacts/compresses/concentrates/packs/condenses
x2 = d1 in property x3 = d2 (ka) at location/locus
x4 = d3. (Cf. lunsa.)

emspa d1 = s1 is a bush of
species/strain/cultivar s2. (Cf. dzitricu.)
demtse z1 crouches/cowers/squats on surface
z2. (Cf. cidytse, mipypu’i, dzibi’o, krosa’i.)

emspa d1 = s1 is a bush of
species/strain/cultivar s2. (Cf. dzitricu.)
demtse z1 crouches/cowers/squats on surface
z2. (Cf. cidytse, mipypu’i, dzibi’o, krosa’i.)

derba’o detcartu
denburcu b1 is a toothbrush with bristles b3. (Cf.
denjisygau, denpesxu, brulu’i.)
denci [den de’i] x1 is a/the tooth [bodypart] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is dental. ((for
metaphor: see dakfu, pagre, jgalu); See also
moklu, dakfu, pagre, jgalu, batci, bongu.)
dencro c1 = d2 has a toothache in tooth d1 = c2.
denjisygau g1 (agent) brushes/cleans the teeth
of d2. (Cf. denburcu, denpesxu, denmikce.)
denmikce m1 is a dentist treating patient m2
with dentistry m4. (Cf. densrumikce.)
denmi [dem] x1 is
dense/concentrated/packed/intense in property x2 (ka) at location/locus x3. (See also carmi,
midju, viknu.)
denpa bu [BY*] letteral: Lojban ”.” character.
denpa [dep de’a] x1 awaits/waits/pauses
for/until x2 at state x3 before starting/continuing
x4 (activity/process). ((x2 is an event, usually a
point event); also: resuming x4. See also dicra,
denpesxu p1 is a quantity of tooth-paste, of
composition p2. (Cf. denburcu, denjisygau.)
densrumikce m1 is a periodontist treating patient(s) m2 for ailment m3 involving cure m4. (Cf.
denmikce, densru.)
densru x1 is the gum/cementum of animal x2.
denstela s1 = d2 is a zip fastener for sealing s2
by mechanism d1. (Cf. stela, tolfendi.)
depcni c1 feels patience about c3. (Cf. o’o.)
depkumfa k1 is a waiting room/break
room in structure x2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x3 (mass/jo’u
depri’a x1 causes x2 to wait for x3 at x4 beforecontinuing x5
depsna s1 is a hesitation sound produced by
s2 = d1 while for/until d2 at state d3 before starting/continuing d4 (activity/process
depstu s1 is a waiting room/place where d1waits for d2
depyjdari j1 = d1 is patient, unyielding to force
j2 = d2 under condition j3 = d3. (Cf. jdari, denpa,
depypoi p1 is a waiting queue ordered by rules
p2 on unordered set p3 waiting for x4 = d2. (Cf.
derba’o b1 initially grows b2 beyond the soil; b1
sprouts b2 from the ground. (dertu+banro
derdembi x1 is a peanut of variety x2.
derjbe j1 sprouts from x2 = d1
derpanxu’i x1 is geosmin
derpesxu d1 = p1 is a quantity of mud of composition d3 = p2, made from dirt from source d2
(Water soaked soil, soft wet earth
derse’a s1 buries/sinks/embeds s2 in grounds3 = d1
derske s1=d1 is soil science [science about
earth/soil] based on methodology s3. (dertu2,
dertu3 and saske2 subsumed. Soil science
studies the soil that occupies the pedosphere,
one of Earth’s spheres. This is not the same
as geology (the lujvo for this should mean
planetary+composition+science). The two main
branches of soil science are pedology (=terderske; the study of soil in its natural setting) and
edaphology (the study of soil in relation to soildependent uses). See also tedske, rokske and
dertu [der de’u] x1 is a quantity
of/contains/is made of dirt/soil/earth/ground
from source x2 of composition x3. (Also: x1 is
earthen; x3: composition including x3, whichneed not be exhaustive of composition
derxi [dre] x1 is a
heap/pile/stack/mound/hill of materials yat locationz
desku [des] x1
from force x2. (Also (expressible either with desku
or slilu): side to side, to and fro, back and forth,
reciprocal motion. See also slilu, janbe.)
desmi’i m1 is a vibrator/vibrating device for
use/function m2. (not necessarily sex toy; could
for example also be a ”Jumping Jack” compactor;
Cf. runpinji, gletci. See xremi’i for shaking machines with the purpose of mixing.)
desygau g1 (person/agent) shakes x2 = d1
desyzu’e z1 shakes
detcartu x1 is a calendar showing dates x2 and
events x3. (x2 is normally a time interva
41dicfle dikni
detci’e x1 is a calendar with rules x2,
days/weeks/months/years x3, and properties x4.
(e.g. Gregorian calendar, Hebrew calendar; see
detfukcru x1 allows copying/has copyright of
x2 under conditions x3 dated x4.
detke’u k1 is the k3’rd anniversary (date recurrence) of event k2 = d1 that took place at locationd3 by calendar d4
detrgregori x1 is the date
[day,week,month,year] of event/state x2, at
location x3, by the Gregorian calendar.
detri [det] x1 is the date
[day,week,month,year] of event/state x2, at
location x3, by calendar x4. ((time units in x1 are
specified as numbers separated by pi’e or are unit
values massified with joi
detytcikygau g1 schedules time t1[hours, minutes, seconds] and date d1[day,week,month,year]
for event t2 = d2 at location d3
de [KOhA1] logically quantified existential
pro-sumti: there exists something 2 (usually restricted).
4 di’ai [COI] vocative: well-wish - curse (Used
to express well-wishes/curses
di’a [ZAhO] event contour for resumption of apaused process.
di’e [KOhA2] pro-sumti: the next utterance
di’inai [TAhE*] tense interval modifier: irregularly/aperiodically; tense/modal; defaults as time
di’i [TAhE] tense interval modifier: regularly;
subjective tense/modal; defaults as time tense.
di’o [BAI] diklo modal, 1st place at the locus of
di’uzbe z1 is/are the foundation(s) of building/edifice/structure d1 of/for type/purpose d2,made of/with materials/properties z3
di’u [KOhA2] pro-sumti: the last utterance.
dibrai t1 = d1 is dearest/most precious to d2
among set/range x3 = t4.
dicflecru c1 is a transistor / electrical regulator
which allows electric current c2 = df1 to flow under conditions c3 in / on / through df2 flowing in
direction to / towards df3 from direction/source
df4. (Cf. dicfle, dicka’u.)
dicfle f1 = d1 is an electrical current / flow in /
on / through f2 = d2 flowing in direction to / towards f3 from direction/source f4. (Cf. dicflecru,
dicka’u. dicka3 is not sensical.)
dicka’u x1 is an electron
dicra [dir] x1 (event) interrupts/stops/halts/[disrupts] x2 (object/event/process) due to quality x3. (Also
disturbs (one sense
dictergu’i g3 = d2 is an electric lamp illuminating g2 with light g1
dicycau d1 = c1 is electrically uncharged
dicyselsna s2 is a loudspeaker emitting sounds1
dicysro s1 is a battery in containment s3.
digyligykamju k1 is a dropstone/stalagmite/stalactite/icicle/rusticle ofmaterial k2 = s2 = d2
dijbartu b1 is outdoors
dijypanka p1 is a plaza managed by community/polity/company p2 for purpose p3.
dijysenta s1 is a story/level/floor of building
x2 = s3 = d1.
dikca [dic] x1 is electricity [electric charge
or current] in/on x2 of polarity/quantity x3 (def.
negative). ((x3, a quantifier, can be expressed as
a simple polarity using the numerals for positive
and negative ma’u and ni’u); (explicitly) negative (= dutydikca), positive (= mardikca); current
(= (sel)muvdikca; again default negative/electron
current), charge (= klodikca, stadikca
dikcti c1 consumes c2 as part of their staple diet.
dikle’i p1 regularly pays salary p2 to p3 for
goods/services p4.
diklo [klo] x1 is local to x2; x1 is confined to
locus x2 within range x3; x1 is regional (Indicates
a specific location/value within a range; e.g. a hits
b. What is the locality on b that a hits? Thus x1 is
associated with a specific narrow region/intervalx2 of wider space/rangez
dikni [dik] x1 is regular/cyclical/periodic in
property (ka)/activity x2 with period/interval x3.(Also uniform; resonant (= dikslicai
42dirgo djaselcrepu
dilcu x1 is a quotient of ’x2/x3’ [dividend x2 divided by divisor x3], leaving remainder x4
dilis Dilli.
dilnu [dil] x1 is a cloud/mass of clouds of
material x2 in air mass x3 at floor/base elevationx4
dimna [dim] x1 is a fate/destinyof x2; [doom, curse are mabla-forms];
x2 is fated/predestined/doomed to x1.
(Fated/destined/doomed (= seldimna
dincu’u c1 is a monetary affair involving c2
dinjbera jb1 borrows money jb2 = jd1 from
jb3 for interval jb4
dinju [dij di’u] x1 is a building/edifice forpurposey
dinko [di’o] x1 is a nail/tack [pointed
driven/frictional fastener] of type/size x2 (ka),
made of material x3. ((x2 also can be ni abstractio
dinkrnite x1 is a rivet of type x2 made of x3
dinsauru x1 is a dinosaur of type x2 living in eraz
dinsefygundi g1 is a/the industry sector in
which s1 provides financial services g2 = s3 to s2
by process g3 (From jdini, selfu, gundi. Omit j2.)
dinsro s1 is a treasury of money d1 = s2.
dintrocu’u c1 is a/the financial management
function/activities involving persons c2 = ji1, of
money/currency issued by jd2; c1 is finance. (Cf.
dinveicu’u c1 is an/the accounting function/activities involving persons c2, using currency issued by j2, recording v2 (data/facts/du’u)about v3 (object/event); c1 is accounting
dirba [dib] x1 is dear/precious/darling to x2;
x1 is emotionally valued by x2. (x1 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a
property; pedantically, for objects/commodities,
this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posydirba for unambiguous
dirce [di’e] x1 radiates/emits x2 under conditionsz
dircyjinme x1 is radium
dirgo [dig] x1 is a drop [small, cohesive
shape] of material [liquid/vapor] x2 in surrounding materialz
dirtadji t1 is an interrupt causing d1 to happen,
interrupting d2 due to quality d3, hooked onto conditions t3.
dirva’u v1 chokes on/because of d3
4 ditcu x1 is the timeduration/interval/period/[elapsed time] ofevy
dizlo [diz dzi] x1 is low/down/downward
in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3. (Also lower; x3 is
generally some defined distance above a zero
point/baseline, or is that baseline itself
di [KOhA1] logically quantified existential prosumti: there exists something 3 (usually restricted).
dja’aza d1 is jazz music performed at/by z2
(event) with characteristics z3
djabeipre p1 = b1 is a waitress/waiter serving
food b2 = c1 to x3 = c2 = b3
djabei b1 is a waiter, carrying food c1 = b2 to b3
from b4 over path b5.
djacaumro m1 = c2 starves to death from lack
of food/nutrition c1
djacpi cip1 = cid1 is an edible bird of speciescip2
djacu [jac jau] x1 is made of/contains/is quantity/expanse of water; (adjective:) x1 is aqueous/[aquatic]. (Aquatic (= jaupli
djagru g1 = c1 is grain from plant/species g2,
edible/giving nutrition to x3 = c2
djakartas Jakarta
djarunta r1 = c1 (food) is digested in solvent r2.
djaruntygau g1 = c2 digests food x2 = r1 = c1
in solvent x3 = r2
djaruntyrango ra1 is a stomach/digestive organ of body/species ra2 = c2 for digesting
food/feed/nutriment x3 = ru1 = c1
djaselcrepu x1 = cr2 is a crop/harvest, harvested by x2 = cr1, for use as food x3 = ci1, to
43djusku dotygu’e
be eaten by x4 = ci2.
djaspi s1 is a morsel/piece of food s1 = c1 for
x3 = c2.
djaule g1 is g2 joule(s) of energy (default is 1)
by standard g3. (Cf. Cf. klanrdjuli, klanrniut,ni,
djaZAIR Algeria. (see also jerxo)
djedi [dje dei] x1 is x2 full days in duration (default is 1 day) by standard x3; (adjective:)
x1 is diurnal. (Today (= cabdei); tomorrow (=
bavlamdei); yesterday (= prulamdei). See also
donri, detri, jeftu, masti, nanca, nicte, tcika.)
djekarni k1 is a daily newspaper with content k2
published by k3 for audience k4.
djica [dji] x1 desires/wants/wishes x2
(event/state) for purpose x3. (If desire is for an
object, this is sumti-raising; use tu’a in x2 (or use
lujvo = po’edji). See also taske, xagji, mukti, nitcu,
nelci, pacna, prami, rigni, trina, xebni, xlura.)
djicni c1 = d1 is/feels eager for d2 = c3
(event/state) for purpose d3. (Cf. djica, cinmo, sutydji.)
djine [jin] x1 is a ring/annulus/torus/circle
[shape/form] of material x2, inside diam. x3, outside diam. x4. (Also ellipse, oval (= jincla); (usage has been for near-circles, such as tight spirals,
even if not closed loops). Also band, belt, encircle
(= jinsru). See also clupa, cukla, dasri, karli, sovda,
djiotis Jyoti.
djisku x1 = d1 = c1 wants to say/express
x2 = c2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience
x3 = c3 via expressive medium x4 = c4, and this
is desired for purpose x5 = d3. (Generally used
to correct another’s perceived mistake, i.e. ”mi
klami” followed by ”.i pe’i du djisku zo klama”.
djobau m1 = b1 is the Saudi Arabic language
used by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u,
not quote). (Cf. sadjo, bangu, rabybau, bangaru’a,
djoguro x1 is a quantity of yogurt made from x2
milk by process x3. (Cf. ladru, cirla, kruji.)
djunguos China. (Cf. jungo, jugygu’e, gugdecunu.)
djunoi n1 is an instruction/advice from
x2 = n3 to help/assist/aid x3 = s2 = n4
do/achieve/maintain event/activity x4 = s3.
djuno [jun ju’o] x1 knows fact(s) x2 (du’u)
about subject x3 by epistemology x4. (Words usable for epistemology typically have a du’u place;
know how to - implying knowledge of method
but not necessarily having the ability to practice
(= tadjyju’o). (cf. know/familiar with: se slabu,
djusku c1 = s1 gives advice c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to c3 = s2 about
doing/achieving/maintaining s3, on medium c4.
do’anai [UI*3] discursive: generously - parsimoniously.
do’a [UI3] discursive: generously - parsimoniously. (See also dunda.)
do’e [BAI] elliptical/unspecified modal.
do’i [KOhA2] pro-sumti: elliptical/unspecified
utterance variable.
do’o [KOhA3] pro-sumti: you the listener &
others unspecified.
do’u [DOhU] elidable terminator: end vocative
(often elidable).
doido’u [DOI*] generic vocative address to intended listener;.
doi [DOI] generic vocative marker; identifies
intended listener; elidable after COI.
donma’o c1 is a second person pronoun in language c4. (Cf. do, do’o, cmavo, mibma’o.)
donri [dor do’i] x1 is the daytime of day x2
at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is diurnal (vs. nocturnal). (See also nicte, djedi, tcika.)
dorkada x1 is a gazelle of species x2. (see also
bajbakni, antilope)
dormidju m1 is the noon (midday) of day d2 at
location d3. (djemidju is too vague. Cf. donri,
midju, ctemidju.)
dormijbalvi b1 is later than noon of day d2 at
location d3. (donri+midju+balvi; see also vanci,
lerci, cerni, nicte, dormidju, lecydo’i)
dormijysai s1 (mass) is a lunch composed of
dishes including s2. (Cf. cersai, vacysai, dormidju,
dotco [dot do’o] x1 reflects German/Germanic culture/nationality/language
in aspect x2. (See also ropno.)
dotybau d1 = b1 is the German used by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf.
dotco, bangu, bandu’e’u.)
dotygu’e g1 is Germany. (Cf. dotco, gugde,
do [don doi] [KOhA3] pro-sumti: you listener(s); identified by vocative.
draci x1 is a drama/play about x2
[plot/theme/subject] by dramatist x3 for audience x4 with actors x5. (x2 may also be a
convention. See also finti, cukta, lisri, cfika.)
dracydi’u di1 is a theater for performing plays
with theme di2 = dr2 for audience x3 = dr4 with
actors x4 = dr5. (Cf. tsina, tigni.)
dracykei x1 = d1 = k1 is a role-player / player
of role playing game / RPG / LARP or dramatic /
acting game x2 = d5 = k2 about x3 = d2 created
by author/ company x4 = d3 for audience x5 = d4.
(Audience defaults to the players themselves. See
also draci, kelci, dracyselkei.)
dracyselkei x1 = d1 = sk1 is a role-playing
game/ RPG/ LARP or dramatic/ acting game
played by performer(s)/ player(s) x2 = d5 = sk2
about x3 = d2 created by author/ company x4 =
d3 for audience x5 = d4 . (Audience defaults to
the players themselves. See also draci, kelci, dracykei.)
draga’i g1 (event) corrects g2 into g3 = d1, correct in property/aspect x4 = d2 (ka) in situation
x5 = d3 by standard x6 = d4. (Cf. dragau,
draga’igau, drari’a.)
dragau g1 (person/agent) corrects d1. (Cf.
draga’i, drari’a, draga’igau, cusku, fapro, sidju,
drani [dra] x1 is correct/proper/right/perfect in property/aspect
x2 (ka) in situation x3 by standard x4. (See also
srera, mapti.)
drata [dat] x1 isn’t the-same-thing-as/is
different-from/other-than x2 by standard x3; x1 is
something else. (See also mintu, frica.)
drezdn Dresden.
drijdikygau g1 comforts j1 = b1 about b2 (from
badri jdika gasnu)
driomedeida x1 is an albatross [member of the
family Diomedeidae] of species/breed x2
drudi [rud dru] x1 is a roof/top/ceiling/lid
of x2. ((cf. bitmu, stedu, galtu, gapru, loldi,
marbi, gacri, mapku; a drudi is (designed to be)
over/above something and shelters it from other
things above the drudi, mapku))
du’a [FAhA1] location tense relation/direction;
east of.
du’emei [MOI*] quantifier selbri: convert too
many to cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with too many
members x2.
du’eroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: too
many times objective tense, defaults as time tense.
du’e [PA4] digit/number: too many; subjective.
du’i [BAI] dunli modal, 1st place (equalled by)
equally; as much as ...
du’o [BAI] djuno modal, 1st place (info source)
authoritatively; according to ...; known by ...
du’u [dum] [NU] abstractor: predication/bridi abstractor; x1 is predication [bridi]
expressed in sentence x2.
dugri [dug] x1 is the logarithm of x2 with base
x3. (See also tenfa.)
dujmi’i m1 is a freezer/freezing machine for
freezing x2 = d1 at temperature x3. (Cf. lekmi’i,
dujyku’a, bisli, lenku, kelvo.)
dujricyblu x1 = d1 = c1 is a quantity of amber (fossilized resin) of plants x2 = c2 = t1 (Good
quality amber is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewelry. Although not mineralized, it is often classified as a gemstone. See also
dujro’i x1 = d1 = r1 is a fossil of
type/composition/traces x2 = r2 from location
x3 = r3 (Preserved remains or traces of animals,
plants, and other organisms may be expressed as
dujyku’a k1 is a cooling room for cooling x2 =
d1 at temperature x3 = d2. (Cf. dujmi’i, lekmi’i.)
dukri’a r1 (event/state) anguishes/causes distress to x2 = d1. (Cf. seldu’u.)
dukse [dus du’e] x1 is an excess of/too
much of x2 by standard x3. (Cloying (= maldu’e,
tolpu’adu’e). See also bancu, banzu, ricfu,
dukti [dut] x1 is polar opposite
from/contrary to x2 in property/on scale x3
(property/si’o). (See also ranxi, ragve, fatne.)
dunav Danube.
dunda [dud du’a] x1 [donor] gives/donates
gift/present x2 to recipient/beneficiary x3 [without payment/exchange]. (Also grants; x3 is a receiver (= terdu’a for reordered places); the Lojban doesn’t distinguish between or imply possession transfer or sharing; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a
property; pedantically, for objects/commodities,
this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posydu’a, posyseldu’a for un-
ambiguous semantics). See also benji, muvdu,
dunja [duj] x1 freezes/jells/solidifies at temperature x2 and pressure x3. (See also febvi, lunsa,
runme, sligu.)
dunku [duk du’u] x1 is anguished/distressed/emotionally
wrought/stressed by x2. (See also fengu, surla.)
dunlei x1 is an equivalence class within x2 de-
fined by equivalence relation x3.
dunli [dun du’i] x1 is equal/congruent
to/as much as x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3. (Same in quantity/quality (not necessarily in identity); ’analogy’
may be expressed as the equivalence of two
properties of similarity (ka x1 simsa x2) and (ka
x3 simsa x4). See also cmavo list du’i, satci, frica,
simsa, mintu.)
dunra [dur] x1 is winter/wintertime [cold
season] of year x2 at location x3. (See also citsi,
durkuli x1 is a douroucouli of speciesy
dusfri x1 is satiated/overwhelmed by x2 with
property x3 by standard x4; x2 is too much for x1
in property x3 by standard x4. (See also be’unai)
duslirpai p1 is prejudiced about matter p2 (abstract).
dusta’i t1 is exhausted by effort/situation t2
dutcinse c1 is heterosexual/bisexual in situation c2 by standard c4. (For strict heterosexuality,
see pavdutcinse. Cf. relcinse, mitcinse, nakcinse,
dutsinso x1 is the trigonometric cosine of angle/arccosine x2. (Cf. sinso, tanjo, selsinso,
seltanjo, seldutsinso.)
duvma’i x1 is October/tenth month of year x2
in calendar x3. (Note: Based on experimental rafsi
for dau (duv). Use with caution. Alternative:
du [dub du’o] [GOhA] identity selbri; =
sign; x1 identically equals x2, x3, etc.; attached
sumti refer to same thing.
dy [BY2] letteral for d.
dzejdasratrusi’o si1 is a conservative political ideology as applied by t1 = sa1 = d2 =
l2 among/in people/territory/domain t2 based
on the works of thinker si3 (From dzena, lijda,
sarji, turni, sidbo. Cf. dzejdasra, ka’irtrusi’o,
vricykricrutrusi’o, fairpaltrusi’o, guntrusi’o, natpamtrusi’o, tsarainaitrusi’o.)
dzejdasra s1 = d2 = l2 is a conservative in beliefs l3 against opposition s3 by means s4 (From
dzena, lijda, sarji. Cf. vricykricru, dzejdasratrusi’o.)
dzeklu k1 is classical. (Cf. dzena, kulnu, nolzgi.)
dzeko’o s1 = d1 is Celtic in aspect s2.
dzena [dze] x1 is an elder/ancestor of x2 by
bond/tie/degree x3; x1’s generation precedes x2’s
parents. (See also patfu, rirni, tamne.)
dzibi’o b1 = d1 crouches/squats/hunkers
down. (Cf. diklo, binxo, krosa’i, demtse.)
dzipo [zip zi’o] x1 reflects Antarctican culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2. (See
also ketco, friko, sralo, terdi.)
dzip Antarctic Ocean.
dzitogytci x1 is a bass instrument (bass guitar, contrabass, bass horn, keyboard bass, washtub
bass) of type x2 (Possibly also bass drum.)
dzitricu t1 = d1 is a shrub/bush of species t2.

yonjuu woah uoa oah

dzizani x1 is tares of species/variety x2. (see
also cicyrismi)
dzuga’a g1 is a walking stick of material g2. (Cf.
cadzu, grana, sarji)
dzuklaji k1 = c2 is a footpath at k2 accessing k3.
dzukla x1 is a walker-come with destination
x2 with starting point x3 with route of going x4
with transportation means -walking limb x5 with
walked on x6.
dzupoi p1 is a procession with participation ordered/sequenced by rules p2. (Cf. cadzu, porsi.)
dzusoi s1 = c1 is a foot/infantry soldier of army
s2. (Cf. cadzu, sonci, xirsoi.)
e’anai [UI*1] attitudinal: permission - prohibition.
e’a [UI1] attitudinal: granting permission - prohibiting. (See also curmi.)
e’enai [UI*1] attitudinal: competence - incompetence/inability.
e’e [UI1] attitudinal: competence - incompetence/inability. (See also kakne, certu.)
e’icu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: feeling constraint -
independence - challenge/resistance against constraint.
46fa’irgau fagytabno
e’inai [UI*1] attitudinal: feeling constraint - independence - challenge/resistance against constraint.
e’i [UI1] attitudinal: feeling constraint - independence - challenge/resistance against constraint. e’onai [UI*1] attitudinal: request - negative request.
e’o [UI1] attitudinal: request - negative request.
e’ucu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: suggestion - abandon
suggest - warning.
e’unai [UI*1] attitudinal: suggestion - abandon
suggest - warning.
e’u [UI1] attitudinal: suggestion - abandon suggest - warning. (See also stidi, kajde.)
ebu [BY*] letteral for e.
einai [UI*1] attitudinal: obligation - freedom.
еи ei [UI1] attitudinal: obligation - freedom. (See
also bilga, zifre.)
enai [A*] logical connective: sumti afterthought x but not y.
enri g1 is g2 henry/henries of inductance (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. klanrxenri, klanrvolta, xampo.)
enzima x1 in an enzyme that catalyzes chemical
reactions x2. (Cf. selfusra, sutri’a.)
eris Eris (Cf. jdikyplini.)
ermine x1 is a stoat/ermine of subspecies x2.
ernace x1 is a hedgehog of species x2. (see also
ersokso x1 is a pike of species/breed x2
ertso g1 is g2 hertz of frequency (default is 1) by
standard g3. (Cf. klanrxertsi.)
esperanton Esperanto (Cf. spranto,
estrema x1 is x2 dunams in area by standard
x3 (1000 m2
, except for the Iraqi dunam and the
former Turkish don¨ um.) ¨
estre x1 is an ester derived from acid x2 and alcohol x3 (c.f. xumsle,slami, xalka.)
e [A] logical connective: sumti afterthought
fa’a [FAhA4] location tense relation/direction;
arriving at/directly towards ...
fa’ergau g1 inverts/reverses/turns over f1 into
f3. (Cf. fatne, gasnu.)
fa’e [BAI] fatne modal, 1st place backwards; reverse of ...
fa’irgau g1 reveals to f1 f2 (du’u) about subject/object f3 (from facki gasnu c.f. jarco)
fa’i [VUhU2] unary mathematical operator: reciprocal; multiplicative inverse; [1/a].
fa’orma’o x1 is the terminator of structure originated by selma’o x2 in language x3. (See also
fanmo; cmavo; be’o; boi; do’u; fe’u; fu’o; ge’u;
ke’e; kei; ku; ku’e; ku’o; le’u; li’u; lo’o; lu’u; me’u;
nu’u; se’u; te’u; toi; tu’u; vau; ve’o)
fa’o [FAhO] unconditional end of text; outside
regular grammar; used for computer input.
фау fa’u [JOI] non-logical connective: respectively;
unmixed ordered distributed association.
facki [fak fa’i] x1 discovers/finds out x2
(du’u) about subject/object x3; x1 finds (fi) x3 (object). (See also cirko, djuno, jijnu, smadi, sisku.)
fadni [fad] x1 [member] is ordinary/common/typical/usual in property x2
(ka) among members of x3 (set). (Also: x2 is
a normal/common/ordinary/typical property
among set x3 (= selterfadni for reordered places);
also regular, (mabla forms:) banal, trite, vulgar;
(x3 is complete set). See also cafne, rirci, kampu,
lakne, tcaci, cnano.)
fagdei x1 is Tuesday of week x2 on calendar x3.
fagjesyspa x1 is firethorn of species/variety x2.
fagju’e j1 is a fender/firescreen for a fireplace
using fuel f2 burning-in/reacting-with oxidizer
f3. (Cf. fagri, julne.)
fagma’a f1=c1 is a volcano projecting from land
mass c2. (Cf. je’erma’a.)
fagri’a r1 kindles f2 in atmosphere f3 under
conditions r3
fagri [fag] x1 is a fire/flame in fuel x2
burning-in/reacting-with oxidizer x3 (default
air/oxygen). (See also jelca, sacki.)
fagycfatci x1 is a tool for starting fire x2. x1 is a
lighter such as for cigarettes. (Cf. sacki.)
fagycpi c1 is a flamingo of species c2. (Cf. fagri,
fagyfesti x1 = fe1 is the ashes of x3 = fa2, combusted by fire x2 = fa1. (Cf. fagyfesyska.)
fagyfesyska s1 is/appears to be of ash
color/hue as perceived/seen by x2 = s3 under
conditions x3 = s4. (Cf. fagyfesti.)
fagyka’u k1 is a spark of fire x2 = f1.
fagystigau g1 extinguishes/puts out fire x2 =
s1 = f1. (Cf. fagysti.)
fagytabno x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made
of charcoal from source x2
47famyma’o fapro
fagytergu’i x1 = g3 is a torch illuminating g2
with fuel x3 = f2 reacting with oxydizer x4 = f3
(default air/oxygen). (Cf. dictergu’i, laktergu’i.)
fagzda z1 is a fireplace/hearth for fuel f2
burning in/reacting with oxidizer f3 (default
air/oxygen). (Cf. fagri, zdani, toknu.)
faidon Fido.
fairbei b1 distributes b2 to b3 from b4 over path
b5. b1 is a distributor. (Cf. benji, mrilu, xatra,
faircu’u c1 is/are a/the function/activities involving persons c2 distributing f1 among/to f2;
c1 is distribution (C.f. fatri, cuntu, selvensro,
fairgau g1 [person/agent] distributes/allots/allocates/shares f1 among f2
with shares/portions f3. (Cf. fatri, gasnu.)
fairpaltrusi’o s1 is a socialist ideology as applied by t1 in/among people/territory/domain
t2 = f2 based on the works of thinker s3
(From fatri, prali, turni, sidbo. Cf. sivypo’eci’e,
ka’irtrusi’o, dzejdasratrusi’o, vricykricrutrusi’o,
guntrusi’o, natpamtrusi’o, tsarainaitrusi’o.)
fairprali p1 = f 1 is/are the profit/dividends
shared/distributed from the earnings of company/corporation/firm p2 among f2 with
shares/portions f3. (Cf. fatri, prali, ra’erprali,
posyselfai, dejyterze’a.)
fai [FA] sumti place tag: tag a sumti moved out
of numbered place structure; used in modal conversions.
falbu’u b1 is a parachute of type/material b2.
falcru c1 (agent) drops f1 to f2 from f3.
falgau g1 makes f1 fall. (Cf. farlu, gasnu, cirko,
falkoni x1 is a falcon (genus ’falco’). (see cipnrfalko)
falnu [fan] x1 is a sail for gathering propelling material x2 on vehicle/motor x3. (Waterwheel (= jacfanxi’u). See also bloti.)
fampi’i x1 is the factorial of x2. (See also ne’o)
famsku c1 (agent) concludes by expressing/saying c2 = f1 for/to audience c3 via expressive medium c4 concluding f2. (From fanmo,
cusku. Cf. mulno, lojycpa, ni’i, ja’o.)
famti x1 is an aunt/uncle of x2 by bond/tie x3;
x1 is an associated member of x2’s parent’s generation. (See also bruna, mamta, mensi, patfu, famyma’o c1 is a terminator of class/part-ofspeech c2 in language c3.
fanbu’u b1 is canvas of material b2. (Cf. falnu,
bukpu, marnybu’u)
fancu x1 is a function/single-valued mapping
from domain x2 to range x3 defined by expression/rule x4. (See also mekso, bridi.)
fange x1 is alien/foreign/[exotic]/unfamiliar
to x2 in property x3 (ka). (See also cizra, jbena,
fanjacta’o t1=d1=f1 is a windsurfingboard
of material/property t2. (From tanbo, djacu,
falnu (f2, f3 subsumed). See also sufingboard
(=bonjacta’o), kitesurfingboard (=volfanjacta’o),
wakesurfingboard (=blobonjacta’o).)
fankla k1 sails to destination k2 from origin k3
via route k4 on sailing vehicle k5 = f3. (Cf. voikla.)
fanmo [fam fa’o] x1 is an
end/finish/termination of thing/process x2;
[not necessarily implying completeness]. (x1 is
final/last/at the last; x1 is a terminal/terminus of
x2; x1 is the final/terminated state of terminated
process x2; x2 terminates/ceases/stops/halts at
x1 (= selfa’o for reordered places). See also krasi,
cfari, mulno, sisti, denpa, jipno, kojna, traji, krasi.)
fanri x1 is a factory/foundry/industrial
plant/mill producing x2 from materials x3. (See
also molki, gundi.)
fanrygundi g1 is a/the manufacturing industry/sector, manufacturing/processing g2 = f2 at
factories/plants f1 from materials f3 using process
g3 (From fanri, gundi. )
fanrypanka p1 is an industrial park managed by community/polity/company p2 for factories/plants producing f2. (Cf. fanri, panka, zacpanka, zdipanka, gubypanka, kagnypanka.)
fanta x1 prevents/keeps/stops/restrains/constrains
event x2 from occurring. (See also pinfu, bandu,
zunti, rinju, jimte, bapli, rivbi.)
fanva x1 translates text/utterance x2 to language x3 from language x4 with translation result
x5. (See also cusku, bangu.)
fanza [faz] x1 (event) annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts x2. (Also: is
disruptive to. See also fengu, raktu, dicra, tunta,
fapro [fap pro] x1 opposes/balances/contends against opponent(s)
x2 (person/force ind./mass) about x3 (abstract).
(Also resists. See also bandu, bradi, darlu, damba,
jivna, lanxe, rivbi, sarji, xarnu.)
farcri c1 gets lost on the way to f2 (object/event)
in/near f3 = c3 (from farna cirko)
fardukti x1=d1 is the opposite direction from
x3=f3 that x2=f2 is.
fargau g1 = f3 aims at f1 with f2 (object/event).
(x3 can be x1 itself or an extra object/event such as
”weapon”, ”effort”, etc. Cf. farna.)
farja’o j1 shows the direction of f2 (object/event) to audience j3 from origin/in frame of
reference f3 (Cf. farsni, degja’o.)
farlu [fal fa’u] x1 falls/drops to x2 from
x3 in gravity well/frame of reference x4. (Note:
things can fall in spin, thrust, or tide as well as
gravity; (agentive ”drop” = one of two lujvo: falcru and falri’a). See also lafti, cpare, klama, farna [far fa’a] x1 is the direction of x2 (object/event) from origin/in frame of reference x3.
(x2 is towards x1 from x3 (= selfa’a for reordered
places). See also zunle, pritu, galtu, gapru, cnita,
dizlo, berti, snanu, stuna, stici, purci, balvi, lidne.)
farsni s1 = f3 non-agentively/inanimately
points at/directionally indicates s2 = f2 to observer s3 as being in the direction f1. (Direction
(i.e. x4) is relative to the x1 place. Cf. farja’o,
farvi [fav] x1 develops/evolves towards/into x2 from x3 through stages x4.
fasko’o s1 = f1 reflects Breton culture/language in aspect s2 = f2.
fasnu [fau] x1 (event) is an event that
happens/occurs/takes place; x1 is an incident/happening/occurrence. ((cf. cmavo list fau,
krefu, lifri, fatci, rapli; gasnu, zukte, if specifically
agentive, banli))
fasnyvla v1 is a verb meaning v2 in language v3.
fasybau f1 = b1 is the French language used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
quote). (Cf. fraso, bangu, banfuru’a.)
fasygu’e g1 = f1 is the country of France. (Cf.
fraso, gugde, gugdefuru.)
fatci [fac] x1 (du’u) is a
fact/reality/truth/actuality, in the absolute.
fatka’e f1 = k1 [sequence] is able to be / capable
of being reversed from / into sequence f2 by event
k2 under conditions k3 (event / state). (From fatne
+ kakne.)
fatne [fat fa’e] x1 [sequence] is in reverse
order from x2 [sequence]; x1 (object) is inverted
from x2 (object). (Also opposite (one sense). See
also cmavo list fa’e, dukti.)
fatpo’a s1 implodes into
pieces/energy/fragments s2.
fatri [fai] x1 is distributed/allotted/allocated/shared among x2
with shares/portions x3; (x2/x3 fa’u). (Also
spread, shared out, apportioned; agentive distribution (= fairgau, fairzu’e). See also cmavo list
fatysaclu x1 (me’o) is the p-adic representation
of number x2 in base x3. (can be infinitely long
to the left but not the right; for repeating p-adics
(krefu fatysaclu) use ra’e before pi)
faurtei f1 is an event that has time/temporal
duration t1 ranging from starting time/event t2 to
ending time/event t3. (Made from fasnu + temci.)
fau [BAI] fasnu modal, 1st place (non-causal) in
the event of ...
favgau g1 develops f1 into f2 from f3 through
stages f4.
favytcini t1 is a developmental / evolutionary
stage / state of t2 = f1 in its development towards
/ into f2 from f3 through stages f4. (First place
is intended for things like software version numbers. See also favytcinymupli (which is how you
talk about actual things that have a version associated with them). Made from farvi + tcini.)
favytcinymupli m1 is an example/instance of
developmental/evolutionary stage/state m2 = t1
of developing thing t2 = f1 in its development towards/into f2 from f3 through stages f4 = m3.
(Someone causing the development is neither implied nor denied; hence this word can be used
both for Darwinian evolution and software development. Made from favytcini + mupli.)
fazyta’a t1 chatters/gossips to t2 = f2 about
subject t3 in language t4.
fa [FA] sumti place tag: tag 1st sumti place.
fe’a [VUhU3] binary mathematical operator:
nth root of; inverse power [a to the 1/b power].
fe’eba’o [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
perfective in space; beyond the place of ...
49fegri’a fepri
fe’eca’o [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
continuative in space; throughout the place of ...
fe’eco’a [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
initiative in space; on this edge of ...
fe’eco’i [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
achievative in space; at the point of ...
fe’emo’u [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
completive in space; at the far end of ...
fe’enoroi [ROI*] location tense interval modi-
fier: never in space; objectively quantified tense.
fe’epu’o [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
anticipative in space; up to the edge of ...
fe’eroroi [ROI*] location tense interval modi-
fier: always in space; objectively quantified tense.
fe’eza’o [ZAhO*] location event contour tense:
superfective in space; continuing too far beyond ...
fe’e [FEhE] mark space interval distributive aspects; labels interval tense modifiers as locationoriented.
fe’i [VUhU1] n-ary mathematical operator: divided by; division operator; [(((a / b) / c) / ...)].
fe’o [COI] vocative: over and out (end discussion).
fe’ucmo c1 = f1 growls/snarls/roars c2 [nonlinguistic utterence] in anger at f2 for f3 (action/state/property). (Cf. fengu, cmoni, fegba’u,
fe’u [FEhU] elidable terminator: end nonce
conversion of selbri to modal; usually elidable.
febgau g1 (person/agent) boils x2 = f1 at temperature x3 = f2 and pressure x4 = f3. (Note that
this means simply to evaporate a liquid; to cook
something by boiling is febjukpa. Also c.f. jukpa,
djacu, ladru, cidja, patxu.)
febjukpa x1 = j1 cooks/prepares food-foreating x2 = j2 by sitting it in boiling liquid x3 = f1
at temperature x4 = f2 and pressure x5 = f3
febvi [feb] x1 boils/evaporates at temperature x2 and pressure x3. (Roil (= febjicla). See also
dunja, lunsa, runme.)
fegba’u b1 = f1 roars/snarls/growls angrily atterance b2 at f2 because of f3 (action/state/property). (Cf. fengu, bacru, capsidba’u, fe’ucmo.)
fegmliba’u m1 = f1 = b1 grumbles with sound
b2 at f2 because of f3 (action/state/property). (jvajvo definition; Gismu deep structure is ”milxe le ka
fengu kei gi’e bacru”)
fegmli m1 = f1 is irritated/[mildly angry] at f2
for f3 (action/state/property). (Cf. fengu, milxe.)
fegri’a r1 (event) angers f1. (Cf. fengu, rinka)
fegycau f1 = c1 is without anger/mild/meek
regarding f2 for f3 (action/state/property).
fei [PA2] digit/number: hex digit B (decimal
11) [eleven].
felma’i x1 is November/eleventh month of year
x2 in calendar x3. (Note: Based on experimental
rafsi for fei (fel). Use with caution. Alternative:
femti [fem] x1 is 10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (See also grake,
mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo,
gradu, litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, gigdo, gocti,
gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso,
picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
fendi [fed] x1 (agent) divides/partitions/separates x2 into sections/parts/ind. x3 by method/partition x4.
(Also segments. See also sepli, bitmu, fatri, dilcu,
katna, frinu.)
fengidmo’a m1 is a sewing pattern of forms m2
according to structure m3.
fengu [feg fe’u] x1 is angry/mad at x2
for x3 (action/state/property). (See also fanza,
fenki [fek] x1 (action/event) is
crazy/insane/mad/frantic/in a frenzy (one
sense) by standard x2. (See also bebna, racli,
fenra [fer fe’a] x1 is a
[shape/form] in x2. (See also kevna, cfila, jinto.)
fenso [fen fe’o] x1 sews/stitches/sutures
materials x2 (ind./set) together with tool(s) x3, using filament x4. ((x2 if a set must be a complete
specification); See also cilta, jivbu, jorne, nivji, pijne, lasna.)
fepni [fep fei] x1 is measured in
kopeck/cent money-subunits as x2 [quantity], in
monetary system x3. (Also pfennig, paisa, sen,
fen, dinar, etc.; x1 is generally a price/cost/value.
(additional secondary, tertiary, etc. subunit places
may be added as x4, x5, x6, ...); See also sicni, jdini,
jdima, vecnu, rupnu, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli,
bunda, kramu.)
fepri x1 is a/the lung [body-part] of x2;
[metaphor: breathing/respiratory apparatus/bellows]. (Also (adjective:) x1 is pulmonary.

e gojuu
fetspe filmau
fepsi’i s1 is a cent coin issued by s2 in monetary
system f3.
fertis x1 is Virgo [constellation/astrological
sign]. (From ferti. The Greeks and Romans
associated Virgo with their goddess of wheat,
Demeter-Ceres who is the mother of ProserpinaPersephone. For this reason the constellation became associated with fertility (in both Babylonia,
Greece and Rome). Alternatively, she was sometimes identified as the virgin goddess Iustitia or
Astraea, holding the scales of justice in her hand
as the constellation Libra. Since ferti in lojban covers both potential and actual/realized fertility, the
original meaning of the constellation have been
chosen, but you could probably still interpret the
name in both senses (as a deity of fecundity or as
a fertile virgin).)
ferti [fre] x1 is fertile/conducive for supporting the growth/development of x2; x1 is fruitful/prolific. (Also fecund (note that the Lojban
covers both potential and actual/realized fertility). See also vanbi, sidju, rorci, farvi, banro,
fesli’a x1 = f2 = c1 abandons / forsakes /
leaves behind x2 = f1 = c2 (Cf. festi, cliva, tolcpa, radycru.)
festi [fes] x1(s) is/are waste product(s) [left
to waste] by x2 (event/activity). (Also shit, crap;
agentive wasting (= fesygau, fesyzu’e). See also
xaksu, kalci, pinca.)
fetcei c1 is a goddess of people(s)/religion c2
with dominion over c3 [sphere]. (Cf. fetsi, cevni,
lijda, krici, censa, malsi)
fetcinse c1 is gynophilous/bisexual/straight
male/lesbian in situation c2 by standard c4. (This
word is only about sexual interest in females; other
sexual interests are irrelevant. Cf. nakcinse, fetfetcinse, mitcinse, dutcinse.)
fetfetcinse c1 = f1 is female and
gynophilous/gay/bisexual in situation c2 by
standard c4 (This word is about female homosexuality and bisexuality. See also fetcinse,
naknakcinse, mitcinse, relcinse.)
fetnalspe f1 = n1 is an unmarried woman under law/custom/tradition s3. (Cf. nalspe, naknalspe, specfari’i, bavyspe, pruspe.)
fetpinji p1 is the clitoris of p2. (Cf. fetsi, pinji,
nakpinji, vibna, vlagi, plibu)
fetsi [fet fe’i] x1 is a female/doe of
species x2 evidencing feminine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1
is feminine. (See also nakni.)
fetspe x1 is a wife of x2 (spouse) according to
marriage tradition/custom/law x3. (Cf. nakspe,
pruspe, bavyspe, specfari’i.)
fetydzetru t1 is a matriarch of people/territory/domain/subjects t2. (Cf. nakydzetru, nolkantru.)
fetyganti x1 is an ovary of x2. (Cf. sovda, gletu,
fe [FA] sumti place tag: tag 2nd sumti place.
fi’a [FA] sumti place tag: place structure number/tag question.
fi’ecti c1 is a fish-eater of fish species f2. (Cf.
finpe, citka, re’ucti, stagycti.)
fi’e [BAI] finti modal, 1st place (creator) created
by ...
fi’inai [COI*] vocative: hospitality - inhospitality.
fi’i [COI] vocative: hospitality - inhospitality;
you are welcome/ make yourself at home.
fi’orxruki xr1 is a guineafowl of species/breed
fi’o [FIhO] convert selbri to nonce
modal/sumti tag.
fi’ure [PA*] half. (synonym pimu; see also
fi’urgau g1 [person/agent] confuses c1
(event/state) for c2 [observer] due to [confusing] property c3 (ka).
fi’u [PA3] digit/number: fraction slash; default
”/n” =¿ 1/n, ”n/” =¿ n/1, or ”/” alone =¿ golden
ficybi’o b1 becomes different/changes/transforms from f2 in property/dimension/quantity f3 under conditions b3.
figre [fig] x1 is a fig [fruit/tree] of
species/strain x2. (See also grute.)
fikcku cu1 = cf1 is a fictional book about
plot/theme/subject cf1 by author cu3 = cf3 for
audience cu4 preserved in medium cu5. (Cf. lisycku, ctucku, tadycku, ckusro, cesysku.)
filcina x1 is a fern of family/genus/species x2.
filgau g1 [person/agent] causes f1 to be easy for
f2 under condition(s) f3. (Cf. frili, gasnu, filri’a,
sutygau, sutri’a.)
filmau z1 = f1 (action) is easier than z2 (action)
for x3 = f2 (agent) by amount z4 under conditions
x5 = f3.
51fipma’i flari’a
filri’a r1 [event/state] causes f1 to be easy for
f2 under condition(s) f3. (Cf. frili, rinka, filgau,
filselga’e g2 = f1 is apparent to g1 via perceptual/cognitive faculty g3. (x3 includes reason or
critical thinking skills as well as discrete biological
organs such as eyes or ears. Cf. frili, sapselga’e,
sampu, klina.)
filseljmi f1=sj1 (du’u) is an easy to understand/clear fact/truth to f2=sj2 about subject sj3
under conditions f4.
filsmu s1 is easily understood/interpreted as
the meaning of s2 by (agent) s3=f2 under conditions f3. (From frili+smuni. The x1 of frili is subsumed into the overall sense of the word. See also:
filseljmi, klina.)
filso [fis] x1 reflects Palestinian culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also jordo,
filta’a t1 = f2 speaks fluently to t2 about subject
t3 in language t4 under conditions f3. (Cf. frili,
finfriti fr1 = fi1 dedicates invention/creation/composition/work fr2 = fi2
to fr3 with conditions fr4.
finpe [fip fi’e] x1 is a fish of species
x2 [metaphorical extension to sharks, non-fish
aquatic vertebrates]. (See also danlu.)
finprtruto x1 is a trout of species/breed x2
finprvandeli x1 is a candiru of species/variety ´
x2. (syn. kandiru, pincyfi’e; see also latfi’e)
finprxipoglosu x1 is a halibut of species x2.
(syn. polgosu; see also flundero, cucyzbefi’e,
finti [fin fi’i] x1 invents/creates/composes/authors x2 for function/purpose x3 from existing elements/ideas
x4. (x1 is creative/inventive. See also cmavo list
fi’e, ciska, pemci, zbasu, larcu, specific works of
authorship, prosa, skina.)
fiorso x1 is an aspect of / a part of The Force
connecting / within x2 (No attempt at good fu’ivla
making was harmed in the creation of this word.)
fipcange c1 is a fish farm at c2, farmed by c3,
raising/producing fish species x4 = f2.
fipfepri fi1 is a gill of fish fe2 = fi1 of species
x3 = fi2. (See also fipybirka, fipyrebla for other
fish-body related words.)
fipkalte x1 fishes for fish species x2. (see also
finpe, genxu, xlura)
fipma’i x1 is March of year x2 in calendar x3.
fipybirka b1 is a fin of fish x2 = f1 of species
x3 = f2. (Cf. fipyrebla, fipfepri, limna’i.)
fipygundi g1 is a/the fisheries industry/sector
producing fish products g2 from fish species f2 by
process g3 (Cf. finpe, gundi, nunjacycrepu. Omit
fipyrebla r1 is the tail fin of fish r2 = f1 of
species x3 = f2. (Cf. limna.)
firgai g1 is a mask covering the face of g2 = f2.
firkre k1 is the beard/moustace/facial hair of
f2 = k2.
firti’oxra p1 is a silhouette of f1 made by p3 in
medium p4.
fitytoltu’i x1 rejects x2 (offer, suggestion, proposal) from x3.
fitytu’i x1 accepts x2 (an offer/suggestion) from
x3. (Cf. friti, tugni, cpazau, radji’i, zarcpa.)
fi [FA] sumti place tag: tag 3rd sumti place.
flacau c1 = f3 [lacks law]/[is lawless with regard to] law(s) f1 specifying f2 (state/event) under conditions f4 by lawgiver(s) f5; c1 = f3 is lawless. (Cf. flalu, claxu.)
flacfatrugri g1 = t1 is the Lower House/House
of Representatives/House of Commons for territory t2 with members g3 = f5. (Cf. flalu, cfari,
turni, girzu, flazautrugri, truci’e, zuktruci’e, flatruci’e, pairtruci’e, vajraifla. )
flalu [fla] x1 is a law specifying x2
(state/event) for community x3 under conditions x4 by lawgiver(s) x5. (x1 is a legality; x2
is legal/licit/legalized/a legality (= selfla for
reordered places). See also javni, ritli, zekri, pulji,
flanaltinbe t1 is an outlaw not following the law
t2 made by t3.
flani x1 is a flute/pipe/fife/recorder [flutelike/air-reed musical instrument]. (See also
flanrdizi x1 is a dizi. (Cf. flani, pinflani, zgica’a.)
flapaizda z1 is a judicial court administering
lawsuit p2 = f2 for community f3. (Cf. zdani,
flapro fa1 rebels against/opposes law fl1,
which specifies fl2 (state/event) for community
fl3 under conditions fl4 by lawgiver(s) fl5.
flari’a r1 = f5 enacts r2 = f1
(law/legislation/treaties/act) for community
f3 under condition r3 = f4. (x1 is usually a
national parliament.)
flaselgu’e g2 is a/are citizen(s) of country g1 according to law f1 specifying f2 (state/event) for
community f3. (From flalu, gugde
flatruci’e c1 = t1 = f5 is the legislative branch of the government of people/territory/domain/subjects t2.
flaume x1 is a plum of variety x2. (see also persika, rutrprunu)
flaxa’u x1 is a/are legal resident(s) of location/country x2 according to law f1 specifying
f2 (state/event) for community f3
flazautrugri g1 = t1 is the Upper
House/Senate/House of Lords for territory
t2 with members g3 = f5 = z3
flecarvi c1 pours/intensely rains to c2 from c3.
flecu [fle] x1 is a current/flow/river of/in
x2 flowing in direction to/towards x3 from direction/source x4. ([x1 is a stream of x2; x2 is a
fluid Gas or liquid. (= selfle for reordered places);
x1 flushes toward x3; flush (= caifle, sukfle)]; See
also rirxe, senta where no directionality is implied,
rinci, xampo, dikca, sakci, gapci, litki, ciblu.)
fliba [fli] x1 fails at doing x2 (state/event);
x1 is a failure at its role in x2. (Baffled (= pesfli,
jmifli, dafspufli, menfli, among other senses); also
x2 ceases/does not complete/fails to continue due
to failure on the part of x
flira [fir] x1 is a/the face [head/body-part]
of x2; (adjective:) x1 is facial
flixru x1 bounces x2 back to x3 from x4 because
of failure x5.
flubisli b1 = f1 is an iceberg floating on f2 (water, sea etc.
flundero x1 is a flounder of speciey
fo’a [fo’a] [KOhA4] pro-sumti:
he/she/it/they #6 (specified by goi).
fo’e [fo’e] [KOhA4] pro-sumti:
he/she/it/they #7 (specified by goi).
fo’i [fo’i] [KOhA4] pro-sumti:
he/she/it/they #8 (specified by goi).
fo’o [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #9
(specified by goi).
fo’u [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #10
(specified by goi).
foi [FOI] terminator: end composite lerfu;
never elidable.
foldi [flo foi] x1 is a field [shape/form] of
material x2; x1 is a broad uniform expanse of x2.
(Also woods (= ricfoi), lawn/meadow (= sasfoi),brush (= spafoi, cicyspafoi
foldota x1 is a pangolin of species/breed x2.
fomcau x1 is foamless/unleavenedfomke’acirla c1 is a quantity/contains Swiss
cheese/cheese with holes from source c2fomsle s1 is a bubble of material f2 filled withf3
fomvanju v1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of sparkling wine from fruit/grapes v2
fomymledi x1 is yeast of species x2 growing on
x3. (see also nanba, birje, vanju)
fonjudri j1 is a telephone number of j2.
fonmo [fom fo’o] x1 is a quantity of
foam/froth/suds of material x2, with bubbles/vacuoles of materialz
fonta’a t1 talks on the phone to t2 about t3 in
language t4.
fonxa [fon] x1 is a telephone
transceiver/modem attached to system/networky
fonynoi n1 is an answering machine/voice mail
message about n2 from n3 to n4.
forca [fro] x1 is a fork/fork-type tool/utensil
for purpose x2 with tines/prongs x3 on
base/support x4
fo [FA] sumti place tag: tag 4th sumti place.
fragari x1 is a strawberry of species/breed x2.
fraksino x1 is an ash of species/variety x2.
frambesi x1 is a blackberry/raspberry/bramble
of speciesy
frangula x1 is a buckthorn of species/varietyy
fraso [fas] x1 reflects French/Gallic culture/nationality/language in aspecy
53fu’au fulta
frati [fra] x1 reacts/responds/answers with
action x2 to stimulus x3 under conditions x4; x1
is responsive. (x3 stimulates x1 into reaction x2, x3
stimulates reaction x2 (= terfra for place reordering); attempt to stimulate, prod (= terfratoi, tunterfratoi). See also preti, danfu, spuda, cpedu, tarti.)
fraxu [fax] x1 forgives x2 for
frebuari x1 is February in year x2 on calendar x3
fregau g1 (person/agent) fertilises g2 = f1 for
supporting the growth/development of x3 = f2.
frica [fic] x1 differs/is distinct
from/contrasts with/is unlike x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3. (Also other-than
(less common meaning
frigau x1 makes x2 undergo experience x3; x1
treats x2 in manner x3.
friko [fi’o] x1 reflects African culture/nationality/geography in aspecy
frikytu’a f1 = t1 is Africa (from friko
tumla c.f.zdotu’a rontu’a tcotu’a sralytu’a bemtu’a
frili [fil] x1 (action) is easy/simple/facile
for x2 (agent) under conditions x3; x2 does x1freely/easily
frinu x1 is a fraction, with numerator x2, denominator x3 (x2/x3
frinyna’u n1is a rational/fractional number.
friti [fit] x1 offers/proffers x2 [offering] to x3
with conditions x4. ((x4 may be nu canja, nu pleji,
etc.; an unconditional offering has the ’condition’
of acceptance); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity
(= posfriti, posyselfriti for unambiguous semantics). See also canja, dunda, rinsa, vecnu, jdima,
cnemu, pleji, vitke.)
frufengalu x1 is a bandersnatch of species x2
frufra fru1 = fra1 frowns/grimaces at/in reaction to fra3.
frumu [fru] x1 frowns/grimaces (facial expression). (x1 frowns/grimaces at/in reaction to
x2 (= frufra
4 fu’au [UI3] discursive: luckily - not pertaining to luck - unluckily. (Expresses fortune/misfortune of the speaker. Use dai to express
fortune/misfortune of the listener. See also funca.)
fu’a [FUhA] reverse Polish mathematical expression (mex) operator flag.
4 fu’ei [FUhE] begin within-context quote that
need not be grammatical; terminated by fu’oi
fu’esku c1 blames/holds responsible/accuses
f1 for action/state f2 from authority f3 to audience c3 with expression medium c4
fu’e [FUhE] begin indicator long scope.
fu’inai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: easy - diffi-
fu’ivla x1 = v1 = f1 is a loanword meaning x2 =
v2 in language x3 = v3, based on word x4 = f2 in
language x5
fu’i [UI5] attitudinal modifier: easy - difficult.
4 fu’oi [FUhO] terminates scope started withfu’ei
fu’o [FUhO] end indicator long scope; terminates scope of all active indicators.
fu’u [VUhU0] n-ary mathematical operator:
elliptical/unspecified mathematical expression
(mex) operator.
fukpi [fuk fu’i] x1 is a
copy/replica/duplicate/clone of x2 in
form/medium x3 made by method x4 (event).
(See also krefu, rapli, gidva.; Borrowing
fukpu’i f4 = p1 pastes (during editing) f2 = p2
from f3
fukra’e f4 = r1 copies (during editing) f2 = r2
from f3
fuksnacpi c1 = s2 is a mockingbird of species c2
which produces sound s1 that is a copy of f2
fukyzifpo’e f1 = z1 = p1 holds the copyright
for copying f2 = p2 under law p3. (”Copyright”
itself might be ”si’o fukzifypo’e”.
If you are actually translating something with
a copyright notice, you should leave the notice in
the original language.)
fultapla t1 = f1 is a raft of material t2 shape t3
floating on f2. (Cf. bloti, greblo.)
fulta [ful flu] x1 (passive) floats on/in fluid
(gas/liquid) x2; x1 is buoyant. (See also limna,
funca [fun fu’a] x1 (event/property) is determined by the luck/fortune of x2; (note
mabla/zabna not implied
funjdi j1 decides/makes a decision j2 (du’u)
about j3, whose outcome is determined by luck.
furfipsanso sa1 is fish sauce for use with sa2,
containing ingredients including sa3
furfuru x1 is dandruff in/on x2 caused by x3.
furtirse t1 = f1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of rust. (Cf. fusra, tirse.)
fusra [fur] x1 rots/decays/ferments
with decay/fermentation agent x2; x1 is rotten/decayed/fermented
fuzme [fuz fu’e] x1 is responsible/accountable for x2 (action/resulting state) to
fuzraikamni k1 = t1 = f1 is the board of directors/trustees of k3
fuzrai t1 = f 1 is a director/trustee on the board
of directors/trustees of f2
fu [FA] sumti place tag: tag 5th sumti place.
fy [BY2] letteral for f.
ga’arboijvi j1 plays baseball against j2 in competition j3 for prize/title j4
ga’arboiterjvi j3 is a baseball match/game with
j1 playing/competing against j2 for prize/title j4.
(From grana, bolci, jivna
ga’arpatlu x1 is a french-fried potato of variety/cultivar x2 cooked in fat/oil x3
ga’avro v1 is a grate between v2 and v3 of material g2 = x4.
ga’a [BAI] zgana modal, 1st place to observer ...
; witnessed by ...
ga’ezga g1=z1 perceives z2 to have quality g2 by
means/sense g3=z3 under conditions g4=z4.
ga’e [BY1] upper-case letteral shift.
ga’icu’i [UI*5] attitudinal modifier/honorific:
hauteur - equal rank - meekness; used with one
of equal rank.
ga’inai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier/honorific:
hauteur - equal rank - meekness; used with one
of higher rank.
ga’i [UI5] attitudinal modifier/honorific: hauteur - equal rank - meekness; used with one of
lower rank
ga’orgau gas1 shuts gan1, preventing passage/access to gan2 by gan3
ga’o [GAhO] closed interval bracket marker;
mod. intervals in non-logical connectives; include
ga’u [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
upwards/up from ...
gacri [gai] x1 is a cover/[lid/top] for covering/concealing/shelteringy
gadri [gad] x1 is an article/descriptor labelling description x2 (text) in language x3 with
semantics x4. (x2 is the noun phrase/sumti without the article/descriptor; description ((x1 with
x2) = gadysu’i); note: ’determiner’ has become
the accepted general linguistics term, displacing
’article’; however, ’determiner’ includes all words
that can introduce a noun phrase/sumti, whether
a description or not, such as pronoun possessives
like lemi, quantifiers (especially in indefinites) like
ci and su’o, and demonstratives like ti, ta, and
tu; the term ’descriptor’ in Lojban, is limited to
words that introduce descriptions (excluding indefinites), such as those of selma’o LA and LE,
their common compounds such as lemi, and possibly lenu. ’article’ typically refers only to a single
word; Lojban assumes the broader meaning
gairgau gas1 puts cover gac1 on gac2
gairjaudu’e d1 = g1 is a flood covering g2
gai [PA2] digit/number: hex digit C (decimal
12) [twelve].
galbirka g1 = b1 is a forearm of b2
galcatlu c1 looks up at c2 = g1
galfi [gaf ga’i] x1 (event) modififies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x2
into x3. (Causal, resultative change; agentive
modification (= gafygau, gafyzu’e). (cf. stika for
non-resultative, binxo for not-necessarily causal
change, cenba for non-resultative change; zasni))
galgau gas1 elevates/raises gal1 by height reference gal2 and height standard gal3.
55ganti gasta
galmu’u m1 rises to m2 = g1 from origin m3 =
g3 via path m4
galraipau p1 = g1 = t1 is the top (uppermost
part) of p2
galtu [gal ga’u] x1 is high/up/upward in
frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3. (Also upper; x3 is
generally some defined distance above a zero
point/baseline, or is that baseline itself
galxe x1 is a/the throat/gullet [body-part] of
x2; [metaphor: narrow(ing) opening of a deep
galxypunli g1 = p1 is the Adam’s apple (laryngeal prominence) of g2 = p2
gamguata x1 is a kumquat of species/varietyy
gamyma’i x1 is December/twelfth month of
year x2 in calendar x3. (Note: Based on experimental rafsi for gai (gam). Use with caution. Alternative: pavrelma’i)
ganai [GA*] logical connective: forethought all
but tanru-internal conditional/only if (with gi).
gancuktai t1 is an ellipse (geometric form)
of object/abstraction/manifestation t2 (object/abstract) wide in dimension x3 = g2
ganjdika z1 narrows/contracts/is diminiished
in dimension g2 by amount j3
ganlo [ga’o] x1 (portal/passage/entranceway) is closed/shut/not open, preventing passage/access to x2 by x3. (As a doorway, but also
perhaps a semi-permeable membrane
ganra [gan] x1 is broad/wide in dimension
x2 [2nd most significant dimension] by standardz
ganse [gas ga’e] x1 [observer]
senses/detects/notices stimulus property x2
(ka) by means x3 under conditions x4. (x1 is
sensitive to x2; also feels, spots, perceives, makes
out, discerns/recognizes (but only implyingreaction without necessarily any significant mental processing); note that the emphasis is on aproperty which stimulates x1 and is detected
(sanji is passive about the sensing, and is not
limited to sensory input, as well as presumingsome kind of discernment/recognition, while notbeing concerned with the means of detection);z
x3 sense/sensory channel
ganti x1 is a/thetestes/ovary/testicle/scrotum/balls/gonad/stamen/pistil
[body-part] of x2, gender x3.
(Egg/sperm/pollen/gamete producing/bearing
gantydakli d1 is a scrotum of g2
ganxo [gax] x1 is a/the anus/anal ori-fice/asshole/arsehole [body-part] of x2;
[metaphor: exit, waste exit]. (Also asshole/ass/arsehole; (adjective:) x1 is anal
ganze’a z1 broadens/widens in dimension g2
by amount z3
ganzu [gaz] x1 organizes x2 [relative chaos]into x3 [ordered/organized result] by system/principle(s) x4. (x3 is also a system; x4 couldbe merely a function which inherently serves to
dictate the organizational structure ofz

gapci [gac] x1 is gaseous/fumes/a
gas/vapor of material/composition including
x2, under conditions x3. (x3 includes temperature
and pressure
gapru [gap] x1 is directly/vertically
above/upwards-from x2 in gravity/frame of
reference z
gapselfa’a f2 is turned up from g2 in reference
frame g3. (Cf. gapru, farna.)
garna [gar] x1 is a rail/railing/bar [tool] supporting/restraining x2, of material z
gaskre k1 = g3 is a/are the whisker(s)/sensory
hair(s) /vibrissa(e) attached to k2 = g1 at body
part k3 for the detection of stimuli g2 under conditions g4. (Cf. ganse, kerfa, zbikre, runkre.)

gasnu [gau] x1 [person/agent] is an agentive
cause of event x2; x1 does/brings about y
gasta [gat] x1 is a quantity of/is made
of/contains steel of composition including x2.
gaurtcini t1 is an opportunity for t2 = g1 to do
gau [BAI] gasnu modal, 1st place agent/actor
case tag with active agent ...
gaxlumple p1 is toilet paper
gaxmolgle gl1 rims/performs anilingus on gl2.
gaxygle gl1 (giver) has anal sex with gl2 = ga2
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гахыкафкэ gaxykafke k1 = g2 farts.
gazykamni k1 = g1 the committee for steering/organizing g2 into g3 by system/principle(s)
g4 of body/organization k3. (From ganzu, kamni.
ga [GA] logical connective: forethought all but
tanru-internal or (with gi).
ge’a [VUhU0] mathematical operator: null
mathematical expression (mex) operator (used in
¿2-ary ops).
ge’e [UI6] attitudinal:
elliptical/unspecified/non-specific emotion;
no particular feeling.
ge’i [GA] logical connective: forethought all
but tanru-internal connective question (with gi).
ge’o [BY1] shift letterals to Greek alphabet.
ge’u [GEhU] elidable terminator: end relative/modal phrases; usually elidable in noncomplex phrases.
geirki’a k1 = g1 cheers with sound k2 about g2
(event/state). (Cf. gleki, krixa, ki’arzau.)
gei [VUhU2] trinary mathematical operator: order of magnitude/value/base; [b * (c to the a
gejrdauko x1 is a carrot of varietyy
gekpanpi g1 = p1 is blissful about g2 = p2
gendra d1 is grammatically correct in situation
d2 according to grammar d3 = g1.
genja [gej] x1 is a root [body-part] of
plant/species x2; [metaphor: immobile, supporting, nourishing
gento [get ge’o] x1 reflects Argentinian
culture/nationality in aspect y
genturfa’i x1 = f1 parses text x3 = g3 = f3
according to formal grammar x2 = g1.
genxu [gex] x1 is a hook/crook [shape/form]
of material x2. (See also kruvi, korcu.)
gercmo x1 = c1 = g1 barks expressing x2 = c3.
gerki’a k1 is the howl of a dog/canine of species
gerku [ger ge’u] x1 is a dog/canine/[bitch]
of species/breed x2. (See also lorxu, labno, mlatu.)
gerna [gen ge’a] x1 is the grammar/rules/defining form of language x2 for
structure/text z
gerzda z1 is a doghouse for dog z2 = g1.
getybau g1 = b1 is the Argentinian Spanish
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote) (Cf. gento, bangu, sanbau,
getygu’e ge1 = gu1 is Argentina. (Cf. gento,
gexnivji n1 crochets n2 from yarn n3 using crochet hooks g1 (g2 is dropped as being non germaine to this lujvo)
ge [GA] logical connective: forethought all but
tanru-internal and (with gi).
gi’a [GIhA] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought or.
gi’enai [GIhA*] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought x but not y.
gi’e [GIhA] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought and.
gi’i [GIhA] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought conn question.
gi’onai [GIhA*] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought exclusive or; Latin ’aut’.
gi’o [GIhA] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if.
gi’u [GIhA] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought whether-or-not.
gidva [gid gi’a] x1 (person/object/event)
guides/conducts/pilots/leads x2 (active participants) in/at x3 (event). (A guiding person advises/suggests/sets an example to be followed,
but does not necessarily control/direct/manage
actual execution of an event; an event may serve
as a guide by setting a pattern/example to be emulated
gigdo [gig gi’o] x1 is a billion [British milliard] [10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default
is units
ginka [gik] x1 is a
camp/encampment/temporary residence of
x2 at locationz
girzu [gir gri] x1 is group/cluster/team
showing common property (ka) x2 due to set x3
linked by relations x4. (Also collection, team, comprised of, comprising; members x3 (a specification
of the complete membership) comprise group x1;
cluster (= kangri). See also bende, ciste, cmima,
gismu [gim gi’u] x1 is a (Lojban) root word
expressing relation x2 among argument roles x3,
with affix(es) x4. (Gismu list, if physical object
(= (loi) gimste); referring to the mental construct
(e.g. propose adding a new gismu to the gismu list
= gimpoi, gimselcmi, gimselste
gitsko s1 is a string of instrument j1.
gitytortci x1 is a capo for guitar/banjo/mandolin x2.
gi [GI] logical connective: all but tanru-internal
forethought connective medial marker.
glabi’a b1 = g1 is feverish/has a fever, from disease b3, by standard g2 (from glare bilma)
glanejni n1 is the heat of n3 = g1
glangala x1 is galangal of variety x2.
glare [gla] x1 is hot/[warm] by standard x2.
(Warm (= mligla), feverish (= bi’agla). See also
glaske s1 (mass of facts) is the science of thermodymanics / science of / about heat / heating
based on methodology s3. (Made from glare and
saske. saske2 and all places of glare subsumed.)
glauka x1 is an owl of speciey
glebre x1 is in heat/estrus/musth; x1 is
horny/randy. (zoi gy. musth .gy steci lo xanto)
glefi’a c1 is pornography/erotica about
plot/theme/subject/under convention c2 byauthor c3
glefra f1 reacts with orgasm f2 to stimulus f3
under conditions f4; f1 orgasms
gleki [gek gei] x1 ishappy/gay/merry/glad/gleeful about x2
(event/state). (Adversity (= kamnalgei
glepe’o p1=g2 is a sexual partner of p2=g1
gletci t1 is a tool/toy/instrument used for sex.
gletu [let gle] x1 copulates/fucks/mates/has coitus/sexual intercourse
with x2. (x1 and x2 are symmetrical; mounts (=cpanygle
gleve’u x1 is a prostitute offering his/her services to x2 for x3 (paymen
glevi’i v1 (body) ejaculates v2 from source v3 via
means/route v4
gliban The English language
glibau g1 = b1 is the English language used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u,
not quot
glico [gic gli] x1 is English/pertains to
English-speaking culture in aspect x2. (Generally assume broadest sense of ’English’;
may refer to ’English’, pertaining to the country/people/culture of England (normally requiring constraint = gligu’e, or simply redundancy
= gligli-); British English, the norm language of
the UK (= gliglibau). (cf. brito which refers tothe United Kingdom as a whole or to the British
empire, merko, sralo, kadno, skoto))
glige’a ge1 is English grammar for structure/text ge2
gliglibau g1=b1 is the British English language,used by b2 to communicate with b3
gligu’e gu1 is England (countr
gligugde x1 is an England of peoples x2 with
territory x3, being English in aspect x4. glico + gugde.)
glipre x1 is an English person / is a person that
shows traits x2 related to England / English culture.
glixi’o x1 = g1 is Anglican in aspect x2 = g2.
gluta [glu] x1 is a mitten/glove [hand and
lower arm garment] of material x2. (Mitten (= degycauglu
go’a [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats a recent bridi
(usually not the last 2).
go’e [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats the next to last
go’ira’o [GOhA*] pro-bridi: preceding
bridi; repeats claim as true, updating for
speaker/listener change.
go’i [GOhA] pro-bridi: preceding bridi; in answer to a yes/no question, repeats the claim,
meaning yes.
go’o [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats a future bridi,
normally the next one.
go’u [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats a remote past
gocti [goc] x1 is 10 24 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is unit
goi [GOI] sumti assignment; used to de-
fine/assign ko’a/fo’a series pro-sumti; Latin
gombesa x1 is a gombessa (coelacanth) of
species x2. (see finpe, finprkoilakanto)
gonai [GA*] logical connective: forethought all
but tanru-internal exclusive or (with gi); Latin
gotro [got] x1 is 10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
go [GA] logical connective: forethought all
but tanru internal biconditional/iff/if-and-onlyif(with gi).
gradu [rau] x1 [magnitude] is a unit/degree
of/on scale/reference standard x2 (si’o) measuring property x3. (Also grade, level, point; x3 dimension. See also ckilu, kantu, kelvo, merli, ranti,
icles li iclanta bancu
grake [gra] x1 is x2 gram(s) [metric unit] in
mass (default is 1) by standardz
grana [ga’a] x1 is a
rod/pole/staff/stick/cane [shape/form] ofmaterialy
grasu [ras] x1 is a quantity of/is made
of/contains grease/fat/oil from sourcy
grebe’i b1 ferries b2 = p1 to b3 = p3 from b4 = p4
over barrier/medium/portal b5 = p2. (Cf. greblo,
greblo b1 is a ferry boat for carrying b2 over
barrier/medium/portal x3 = p2 to destination
x4 = p3 from origin x5 = p4
gredile x1 is a grill/grid/graticle consisting of
lines x2
gregau g1 makes x2 = p1 pass through x3 = p2
to destination side x4 = p3 from origin side x5 =
p4. (Cf. pijne, fenra, canko, greke’a.)
gregori zei nanca n1 is n2 years in duration by
the xrexorian calendar
greke’a x1 = k1 is a hole in x2 = k2 = p2
to/between x3 = p3 from/and x4 = p4 permitting passage by x5 = p1. (pagre + kevna. Precisely,
x2 is the barrier, x3 is the inside, and x4 is the outside, if distinguishable; loosely, x2 might be given
as the object consisting of both the barrier and the
greku [rek] x1 is a
supporting/load-bearing/determining the formofy
gricniselsa’a s2 is the anthem of g1
grupesxu p1 is dough made from grain g1 = p2
grupu’o p1 is flour made of grain plant/speciesg2
grusi [rus] x1 is gray [color adjective
grusko s1 is a noodle of grain species g2
grutersro t1 is a silo for grain/cereal t2 = g1
grute [rut] x1 is a fruit [body-part] of speciesy
grutrxananase x1 is a pineapple of
gubyternoi gugdecunu
gruxruba x1 is buckwheat of varietyy
gu’anai [GUhA*] logical connective: tanruinternal forethought conditional/only if (with gi).
gu’a [GUhA] logical connective: tanru-internal
forethought or (with gi).
gu’e [GUhA] logical connective: tanru-internal
forethought and (with gi).
gu’i [GUhA] logical connective: tanru-internal
forethought question (with gi).
gu’onai [GUhA*] logical connective: tanruinternal forethought exclusive or (with gi); Latin
gu’o [GUhA] logical connective: tanru-internal
forethought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if (with
gu’u [GUhA] logical connective: tanru-internal
forethought whether-or-not (with gi).
guanJOUS Guangzhou (Based on the Chinese
Mandarin pronunciation. For the name based on
the local Cantonese pronunciation see guonJAUS.)
gubgundi gun1 = gub1 is a/the public sector owned by community gub2 (mass) providing/producing gun2 by process gun3 (From gubni
gubjungau j1 advertises jg3 = g1 (du’u) to
jg2 = g2 (mass) about subject jg4. (not necessarily advertising for sale; (cf. jungau))
gubni [gub] x1 is public/unhidden/open/jointly available to/owned by
all among community x2 (mass
gubnoi g1 = n1 is an advertisement about subject n2 from author n3 to audience g2 = n4
gubycu’a c1 votes (in a public election) for c2
among choices c3 in electorate g2.
gubyka’iseltru s1 = k3 = g1 is a paliamentary
republic with representatives s2 = k1 representating community g2 = k2 (mass)
gubypanka p1 = g1 is a public square managed by/belonging to polity/community p2
gubyseltru s1 = g1 is a republic governed by
people s2 = g2
gubysizykai s1 = g1 is the reputation of c1 for
c2 (ka) known/imagined by s2 = g2 (mass) (From
gubni si’o ckaji. In English, usually ’x1 is the reputation for x3 that x2 has with x4’.)
gubyternoi n3 publishes about subject n2 with
message n1 = g1 to intended audience n4
gugbandu b1 defends country b2 = g1 from
threat/peril/potential b3
gugbinselnu’e n2 is a treaty between countries
n1 = n3
gugde’aru x1 is the country with the code ISO3166 AR (Argentina) for peopley
gugde’e’u x1 is the country with the code ISO3166 EU (European Union) for peopley (EU
is an exceptionally reserved ISO-3166 code
gugde’egu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 EG (Egypt) for peoply
gugde’esu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 ES (Spain) for peopley
gugde’idu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 ID (Indonesia) for people x2. (Cf. bidgu’e.)
gugde’ike x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 IQ (Iraq) for people x2. (Cf. raksygu’e.)
gugde’ilu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 IL (Israel) for people x2. (Cf. brogu’e.)
gugde’inu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 IN (India) for people x2. (Cf. xingu’e.)
gugde’iru x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 IR (Iran, Islamic Republic Of) for people x2.
gugde’itu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 IT (Italy) for peopley
gugde’u’a x1 is the country with the code ISO3166 UA (Ukraine) for people x2. (Cf. vurgu’e.)
gugde’usu x1 is the country with the code
ISO-3166 US (United States) for peopley
gugdebudu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 ”BD” (Bangladesh) for peopley
gugdeburu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 BR (Brazil) for people x2. (Cf. razgu’e.)
gugdecu’a x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 CA (Canada) for peopley
gugdecunu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 CN (China) for peoply
gugdecuxe x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 ”CH” (Switzerland) for peoply
gugdedu’e x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 DE (Germany) for peopley
gugdefuru x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 FR (France) for people x2. (Cf. fasygu’e.)
gugdegubu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 GB (United Kingdom) for people x2. (Cf. ritygu’e, gligu’e.)
gugdeguru x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 GR (Greece) for people x2. (Cf. xesygu’e.)
gugdejupu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 JP (Japan) for people x2. (Cf. pongu’e.)
gugdekupu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 KP (Korea, Democratic People’S Republic Of)
for people x2. (Cf. gugdrtcosena, gugdrgogurio.)
gugdekuru x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 KR (Korea, Republic Of) for peopley
gugdemuxu x1 is the country with the code
ISO-3166 MX (Mexico) for people x2. (Cf.
gugdenugu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 NG (Nigeria) for people x2. (Cf. gugdrnaidjiria.)
gugdepuku x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 ”PK” (Pakistan) for people x2. (Cf. kisygu’e.)
gugdepulu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 PL (Poland) for people x2. (Cf. gugdrpolska,
gugderu’u x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 RU (Russian Federation) for people x2. (Cf.
gugdesu’u x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 SU (USSR) for people x2. (SU is a ISO-3166
code exceptionally reserved from June 2008. Cf.
sofygu’e, softo, sesre)
gugdeturu x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 TR (Turkey) for people x2. (Cf. gugdrturkie.)
gugdetuve x1 is the country with the code ISO-
3166 TW (Taiwan) for people x2. (Cf. xa’anzu.)
gugdezu’a x1 is the country with the code
ISO-3166 ZA (South Africa) for people x2. (Cf.
gugde [gug gu’e] x1 is the country of peoples x2 with land/territory x3; (people/territory
relationship). (Also sovereignty, domestic (as opposed to foreign), nation (when not referring to
gugdrgogurio x1 is Korea. (Cf. gugdrtcosena,
gugdrnaidjiria x1 is Nigeria. (Cf. gugdenugu.)
gugdrnorge g1 is Norway.
gugdrpolska x1 is oland
gugdrtalia x1 is talie
gugdrtcosena x1 is orcd oréa
gugdrturkie x1 is Turkey (Cf. gugdeturu, kulnrturkie, kulnrturko.)
gugdrvietnama x1 is Vietnam
gugdrxanguke x1 is tord zo outh oz corea
gugdrxelvo g1 is Switzrland
gugdrxirana x1 is Iran
gugja’anunsnu n1 is a summit between j1 = c1
(heads of state/government) about topic/subject
c2. (x2 are usually presidents or prime ministers. x3 are points on an agenda (= snuselpla
gugja’a j1 is the president of people g2 in country g3
gugjonci’e c1 is a supranational union of member states g1 = j1 = c3
guglbon Google Wave
gugl Google.
gugmu’u x1 migrates to country x2 from country x3 over path/route x4.
gugyka’i k1 is a diplomat/ambassador representing country k2 = g1 in matter(s)/function(s)
gugykruca k1 is international in aspect x2
gugypausle s1 is a county/district/province
(second-level administrative division) of country
s2 = g1. (Cf. gugde, pagbu, selci. A province
can also be a first-level administrative division; for
this use gugypau, or optionally vipygu’e if it is in
a country with a federal government.)
gugypau p1 is a state/province/region (firstlevel administrative division) of country p2 = g1.
gukcanre g1 = c1 is sandy abrasive material.
gumgau ga1 combines individual gu2 into mass
gumgu’e gun1 = gug1 is a federative state consisting of states/lands gun2
gumjau d1 = g1 is a pool of water
gumri x1 is a mushroom of speciey
gundi [gud] x1 is industry/industrial/systematic manufacturing activity
producing x2 by process/means x
gungunma gunm1 is a project consisting of
tasks gunk2 done by gunk1 with goal/objective gunk3
gunka [gun gu’a] x1 [person] labors/works
on/at x2 [activity] with goal/objective x3. (Also:
x1 is a worker/laborer need not be labor; physics term
’work’ = ni muvyselbai, briju, jibri, lazni, selfu))
gunma [gum] x1 is a mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed of components x2, considered jointly. (A
description in x1 indicates of mass property(ies)
displayed by the mass; masses may reveal properties not found in the individual set members that
are massified, which themselves are not necessarily relevant to the mass property implicit in this
gunro [gur gu’o] x1 rolls/trundles
on/against surface x2 rotating on axis/axle
x3; x1 is a roller
gunse x1 is a goose/[gander] of species/breed
gunta [gut] x1 (person/mass) attacks/invades/commits aggression upon victim
x2 with goal/objective x
guntrusi’o s1 is a communist ideology (default: Marxist-Leninist) as it applies to the governance of people/territory/domain t2 based on
the works of thinker(s) s3 (From gunka, turni,
sidbo. Cf. trudjigri, ka’irtrusi’o, dzejdasratrusi’o,
vricykricrutrusi’o, fairpaltrusi’o, natpamtrusi’o,
guondjáu Canton
gurgau x1 = ga1 rolls object x2 = gu1
on/against surface x3 = gu2, with axis/ axle
of rotation x4 = gu3
gurni [gru] x1 is grain/[British: corn]/cereal
from plant/speciesy
gurnrtefi x1 is teff of varietyy
guska’u x1 is a photon
guska x1 blade/scraper/erosive scrapes/erodes/abrades x2 from x3. (Abrade,
abrasive (= mosyguska
gusminli x1 is x2 (default 1) light years
gusminra m1 = g2 is
shiny/gleaming/bright/reflective of light
g1 = m2 from source g3
gusni [gus gu’i] x1 [energy] is
light/illumination illuminating x2 from light
source x3. ([x3 illuminates/lights x2 with
light/illumination x1; x2 is lit/illuminated by
illumination x1 from source x3 (= selgu’i for reordered places); light/lamp (= tergu’i)](cf. dirce,
manku, solri, carmi, ctino, kantu))
gusnunsla n1 is Diwali (Deepavali) celebrated
by s1 with activities s3 (from gusni nu salci)
gusta x1 is a restaurant/cafe/diner serving
typeoffood x2 to audience x
gusybi’o b1 = g1 brightens under conditions
x2 = b3
gusycai x1 gleams/shines on to x2, the light
source beingz
gusycinki x1 is a lightning
bug/glowworm/firefly of genus/species x2.
gusydicra d1 extinguishes light g1 illuminating
g2, the light source being g3
gutci [guc] x1 is x2 (default 1) short local distance unit(s) [non-metric], standard x3, x4 subunits. (Foot (= jmagutci); yard (= cibjmagutci),
pace (= tapygutci), inch (= degygutci), cubit (=
birgutci). (additional subunit places may be added
as x5, x
gutra x1 is a/the womb/uterusbodypart of x2; [mephorx nourishing, protective, giving
gutrypilcri c1 = g2 = p2 menstruates
gutyjamkarce k1 is a tank propelled by k
guzme [guz zme] x1 is a melon/squash
[fruit/plant] of species/strainy
guzmrkukurbita x1 is a squash/pumpkin of species/strainy
gu [GA] logical connective: forethought all but
tanru-internal whether-or-not (with gi).
gy [BY2] letteral for eg
i’anai [UI*1] attitudinal: acceptance - blam
i’a [UI1] attitudinal: acceptance - blame
i’ecu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: approval - nonapproval - disapproval.
i’enai [UI*1] attitudinal: approval - nonapproval - disapproval.
i’e [UI1] attitudinal: approval - non-approval -
i’inai [UI*1] attitudinal: togetherness - privacy.
i’i [UI1] attitudinal: togetherness - privacy
i’onai [UI*1] attitudinal: appreciation - envy
i’o [UI1] attitudinal: appreciation - envy
i’unai [UI*1] attitudinal: familiarity - mystery.
i’u [UI1] attitudinal: familiarity - mystery
i,ov jjob iblical character
iacu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: belief - skepticism disbelief
iagis iaangi ne of the inventors of the YagiUda antenna; or the name of the antenna itself)
ianai [UI*1] attitudinal: belief - skepticism - disbelief.
iaves qahwehek
ia [UI1] attitudinal: belief - skepticism - disbelief
ibu [BY*] letteral for ie
iedra x1 is ivy of species/varietyy
ienai [UI*1] attitudinal: agreement - disagreement.
ieRUcaly’im iherusalamej
ie [UI1] attitudinal: agreement - disagreement.
iinai [UI*1] attitudinal: fear - security.
ii [UI1] attitudinal: fear - security
ijanai [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought: (preceding sentence) if this sentence.
ija [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought or.
ije’i [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought conn question.
ijenai [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought x but not y.
ije [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought and.
ijonai [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought exclusive or; Latin ’aut’.
ijo [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if.
iju [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought whether-or-not.
iklki x1 clicks (press and release) button/switch
x2 to cause x3 (nu
inaja [JA*] logical connective: sentence afterthought conditional/only if.
Indias India sse zatuioon siumizjanein neiqq dea dea
internet Internet
intranet Intranet
io’imbe x1 is yohimbe of variety x2.
ionai [UI*1] attitudinal: respect - disrespect.
ionti x1 is an ion of radical/(atom of element)x2
with x3 charges
io [UI1] attitudinal: respect - disrespec
iptsa x1 is a pizza with topping/ingredientsy
irci x1 is an IRC user on channel x2 in network
x3. (Add a me’e place for nickname, or a fi’o tcana
place for server, if needed. Erase x2 using zi’o if no
channel is involved.)
irk IRC (Internet Relay Chat) (An hiternetbased
realtime text communication system
island Iceland.
italian Italy itaaljanrvv dea
itlo x1 pertains to Italy/Italian culture/nationality/dialect in aspect x2. (From
the Italian prefix ”italo
iucu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: love - no love lost - hatred.
iunai [UI*1] attitudinal: love - no love lost - hatred.
iu [UI1] attitudinal: love - no love lost - hatred.
i sentence link/continuation; continuing
sentences on same topic; normally elided for new
ja’ai affirm last word: attached to
cmavo to affirm them; denies negation by nai
whenever it is applicable. (Suggested by Mark
Shoulson in 1999 as an affirmative of nai. By
analogy with the pairs na/ja’a, na’e/je’a, and
ja’aru’e [NA*] weak bridi affirmation; barely;
almost not at all.
ja’a [NA] bridi logical affirmer; scope is an entire bridi.
ja’enai [BAI*] jalge modal, 1st place (event
causal) nevertheless result ...
ja’e [BAI] jalge modal, 1st place resultingly;
therefore result ...
ja’i [BAI] javni modal, 1st place (by standard 1)
orderly; by rule ...
ja’orca’o c1 is a window displaying j2
ja’o [UI2] evidential: I conclude
ja’urjuknis x1 is Scorpius [astronomical constellation]/Scorpio [astrological sign]. (The Babylonians called this constellation the ’Scorpion’. In
Greek Mythology there are plenty of myths associated with Scorpio.)
ja’urjukni ju1 is a scorpion of species ju2.
ja’urxe’a j1 = x1 is a/the beak/talon-like jaw
(body part) of j2 = x2. (Made from jgalu + xedja.)
jabre x1 brakes/causes to slow motion/activity
x2 with device/mechanism/principlez
jabytu’u j1 = t1 is a tubular chime of material
t2, hollow with t3, producing sound/note j2.
jacfebmatra m1 is a steam engine driving m2.
jacke’o x1 is x2 degrees Celsius / centigrade in
temperature by standardz
jaclu’a p1 is a waterway to p2 from p3
via/defined by points including p4 (set
jacta’o t1=d1 is a board for use in water/(wind/kite)surfingboard/bodyboard/wakeboard
of material/property t2. (From tanbo, djacu. Also
sufingboard (=bonjacta’o), windsurfingboard
(=fanjacta’o), kitesurfingboard (=volfanjacta’o),
wakesurfingboard (=blobonjacta’o).)
jacyfepri fi1 is a gill of animal fe2=fi1 of
species x3=fi2 fipyrebla for fishbody related words
jacysenta x1 is a (water) puddle on surface x2
jadni [jad ja’i] x1 (object)
adorns/decorates x2; x1 is an adornment/decoration of x2; x2 is fancy/decorated.
(Fancy/decorated (= selja’i). See also jemna,
dirba, batke.)
jadycau c1 = j2 is plain/unadorned from c2 =j1(ob
jadypijne p1 is a brooch/fibula for fastening
to/piercing p2, of material/properties p3
jaica convert time tense (tagged) place to 1st place; 1st place moves to extra place (fai).
jaicpu l1 = j1 picks at l2 = j2 with l3 = j3
jaigau [SE*] makes x1 the agent of a bridi; old 1st place moves to extra place (fai
jaivi [SE*] convert location tense (tagged) place
to 1st place; 1st place moves to extra place (fai).
jai [JAI] convert tense/modal (tagged) place to
1st place; 1st place moves to extra FA place (fai).
jajgau g1 collects j1 (mass) at j2 from j3
jajycukla x1 is an accretion disk astronom
jakne x1 is a rocket [vehicle] propelled by jet
expelling x2 carrying payload x
jalge [jag ja’e] x1 (action/event/state) is
a result/outcome/conclusion of antecedent x2
(event/state/process). (Also: x2 gives rise to x1 (=
selja’e for reordered places); total (general meaning, but also = mekyja’e, pi’irja’e, sujyja’e
jalna x is a quantity of/contains/is made of
starch from source x2 of composition including x3.
jalra x1 is a cockroach/[orthopteran/termite]
of order/species/breed x2. (Also grasshopper (=
pipyjalra); cricket (= sagjalra); locust, termite (=
mantyjalra or mudyctijalra). (while cockroaches
are an order unto themselves, they are part of Orthoptera, which includes grasshoppers, crickets,
etc; termites are a closely-related non-Orthoptera,
more akin to cockroaches than to e.g. ants
jalsi’u s1 (set) collide with each other
jalsimgau g1 [agent/person] claps together/causes to collide/strikes together s1
jamblo b1 is a warship of type/carrying b2, propelled by b
jamfu [jaf jma] x1 is a/the foot bodypar of x2; phorx lowest portion] (adjective:) x1 is
jamji’a ji1 = ja1 conquers/wins ji2 from ja2 in
a war over territory/matter ja3
jamkarce k1 is an armoured fighting vehicle/AFV propelled by k
jamna [jam] x1 (person/mass) wars against
x2 over territory/matter x3; x1 is at war with x2.
jamvijgri g1 is a squadron of aircraft v
jamvinji v1 is a warplane of type/for carrying
v2, propelled by v3
janbe [jab] x1 is a bell/chime/[tuning
fork] [tuned percussion instrument] producing
sound/note x2. (Also: x1 rings/tolls (i.e. if it
rings, then it is a bell); resonates (one sense, =
jancaucreka cr1 = cl1 = j2 is a tube top of
material cr2. (A shoulderless, sleeveless ”tube”
that wraps the torso, generally very tight over
the breasts in order to prevent the garment from
falling. ”halterneck” (nebdadycreka) is its subtype. Suggested shortest fu’ivla form: ancrka
janco [jan] x1 is a/the shoulder/hip/joint
[body-part] attaching limb/extremity x2 to bodyz
janjaknyxa’i x1 is a bazooka for use against y byz
janli [jal] x1 collides
with/crashes/bumps/runs into x2. ((also collide
= simjanli for a collision between two moving
jansu [jas] x1 is a diplomat/consul representing polity x2 in/at negotiation x3 for function/purpose x4. ((for) x3 polity, (use tu’a); also
ambassador (= raljansu, trujansu
janta [jat] x1 is an account/bill/invoice for
goods/services x2, billed to x3 by x4
zhan drjang Jean/Zhang.
japkla j2 = k1 logs in to k2 with account j1
(username and password) from interface k3 he username and password may be connected with”joi
japyvla v1 = j1 is a password [issued to]/[used
by] j2 (person), issued/confirmed by authority j3
allowing j4 (activity), in language v3
jarbu x1 is a suburban area of city/metropolisy
vhalschtshilkk dea
jarco [ja’o] x1 (agent)
x2 (property) to audience x3. ([reveal (= tolmipygau, mipyja’o, sivja’o); also: x1 shows that x2, x1
shows off x2; showing an object is generally expressed with a tu’a x2, since the properties of the
shown object (other than its presence) intended
for observation are seldom specified (simple
presence could be expressed by leka Object. cu
jarki [jak] x1 is narrow in dimension x2 [2nd
most significant dimension] by standard x
jarmau z1 = j1 is firmer/tougher/harder/more
resistant than z2 by amount z
jarple p1 = j1 is cardboard from source p2
jaryrai j1 = t1 is the tallest among set/range t
jaspu [jap] x1 is a passport issued to x2 (person) by authority x3 allowing x4 (activity
jasybriju b1 is an embassy/consulate of j2 at b3.
(From jansu briju. Omit ambassador(s) b2 = j1)
jatna [ja’a] x1 is
of vehicle/domainy
jatnrpapa x1 is a pope of religion/patriarchy x2.
jaurbarflegaus x1 is Aquarius [astronomical
constellation/astrological sign]. (From djacu,
barfle, gasnu. Aquarius is identified as ”The Great
One” in the Babylonian star catalogues and represents the god Ea himself, who is commonly depicted holding an overflowing vase. In the Greek
tradition, the constellation became represented as
simply a single vase from which a stream poured
jaurbeima’i x1 is February of year x2 in calendar
x3. (Cf. relmasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
jaurdei x1 is Wednesday of week x2 on calendar
jaurflevau v1 is a pipe carrying v2 = f2 to f3
from f4 (fluid may be liquid or gas; see datnyfle
for the computer metaphor)
jaurgacmatra m1 is a steam engine driving m2.
jaursabji s1 irrigates/waters s
jaursabypatxu p1 is a watering can used by s1
to water/irrigate s3 made of p3
d sofho klee qis dea
jaurvasmro m1 drowns in body of water d1.
jau [PA2] digit/number: hex digit D (decimal
13) [thirteen].
javni [jva] x1 is a rule prescribing/mandating/requiring x2 (event/state) within
system/community x3. (Regulation, prescription
(also x2), principle, requirement (also x2), prescribe, require (conditions are usually contained
within x2); x1 is regulatory; x2, x3 are regulated.
ja [jav] [JA] logical connective: tanruinternal afterthought or.
jbama [bam] x1 is a bomb/explosive device
with explosive material/principley
jbari [jba] x1 is a berry (fruit/plant) of
plant/species x2. (See also grute, tsiju, narge,
jbedetnunsla s1 is the birthday celebration of
x2 = j1 born at time j3
aaristoon dea
jbedetri d1 = j3 is the birthday
[day,week,month,year] of j1 at location j4 = d3
according to calendar d4
jbena [jbe] x1 is born to x2 at time x3 [birthday] and place x4 [birthplace]; x1 is native to (fo)
x4. (x2 bears/gives birth to x1; also x3: natal day.
astriedie dea
jbera [jer] x1 (agent) borrows/temporarily
takes/assumes x2 (object) from source x3 for interval x4. (Credit (= jernu’e); borrow/assume a property or quality as a chameleon does (= zaskai, zasysmitra, zasysmitai
jbibi’o b1 = j1 approaches/nears/draws
nearer/closes in on j2
jbigau g1 makes j1 close to/approximate j2 in
property/quantity j3 (ka/ni
jbiji’o jip1 = jib1 is the end of jip2 at jip3 near
to jib2
jbikla x1 = j1 = k1 approaches x2 = j2 = k2
from x3 = k3 via route x4 = k4 by means of
transportation x5 = k5
jbimau j1 = z1 is nearer/closer to j2 than x3 =
z2 by amount z4
jbini [bin bi’i] x1 is between/among set
of points/bounds/limits x2 (set)/amidst mass x2
in property x3 (ka). (x2 (a complete set, generally ordered) defines the bounds/limits/range for
jbipu’i p1 puts p2 = j1 close to p3 = j2
jbirai t1 = j1 is nearest/closest to j2 in property/quantity j3 (ka/ni
jbixa’u x1 is a neighbo(u)r of / living close/near toy
jbize’a z1 = j1 gets nearer/closer to j2 in property j3 by amount z3
jboba’usnu c1 = b1 converses orally in loxiiban
about subject c2 using sound/expression l1 = b2.
jbobau l1 = b1 is Lojban used by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not quote).
jboce’u c1 is a Lojbanic community.
jbofi’e l1 is Jbofihe. (A computer program that
parses Lojban text
66jdazei jdini
jboge’a g1 is Lojban grammar for structure/text g2
jbogri x1 is a Lojbanic group/organization with
role/purpose/function x2.
jbogu’e x1 is Lojbanistan / Lojbanic country of
people x2
jboia x1 is a boa of speciesy
jbonobo x1 is a bonobo of species/breed x2.
jbonunsla n1 is Logfest. (An annual Lojban festival)
jbopli l1 = p1 uses Lojban for purpose p3; l1 =
p1 is a Lojbanist.
jbopre l1 = p1 is a Lojbanist in aspect l2
jbosnu c1 (mass normally, but 1 individual/jo’u
possible) discuss(es)/talk(s) about topic/subject
c2 in loxibaan
jbove’a l1 = v1 is a child who is a native speaker
of xojban
jbovlaste lo1 = li1 is Jbovlaste. (A web-based
ojban dictionary editing system, and the contents
of its dictionary
jdabe’e b1 is a congregation of believers of religion j1.
jdaca’i c1 is a priest/pastor/imam of community c2 adhering to religion l1
atmovvst kvhohii deara
jdacku x1 = c1 is a scripture/religious book of
religion x4 = c4 = l2 containing text x2 = c2 written by x3 = c3.
jdaja’a j1 is the head of religion j2 =
l1 including members l2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets including l3
jdara’a s1 pertains to religion of s2 = l2 (Cultural gismu replacement lujvo for religions: From
gismu lijda and srana.)
jdari [jar] x1 is
firm/hard/resistant/unyielding to force x2
under conditionsz sok i nerkaffe deisa dea
jdaselsku c2 is a prayer of believer c1 = l2 for
deity c3 in medium c4 according to religion l3.
jdasoi s1 is a paladin/holy warrior of army s2,
and with religion l1.
jdatro j1 is the bishop/archbishop of j2 of religion l1 ihaa ivkhvaii len det nm deis dea
jdazei z1 is a sin/blasphemy according to religion z2 = j1.
jdenoi x1 is a warning message to intended audience x2 about danger x3 from author x4
jdice [jdi] x1 (person) decides/makes decision x2 (du’u) about matter x3 (event/state
jdijmaji jd1 = jm1 assemble/meet/gather/[form a caucus] to make
decision(s) jd2 (du’u) about matter jd3
(event/state) at location jm2
jdika x1 (experiencer) decreases/contracts/is
reduced/diminished in property/quantity x2 by
jdikygau g1 reduces j1 in property/quantity j2
by amount j3
jdikyplini j1 is a dwarf planet revolving around
j2 with characteristics j3, orbital parameters j4.
In 2006, the International Astronomical Union
(IAU)reduced the status of Pluto and Eris from’planets’ to a new category: ’dwarf planets
jdima [di’a] x1 [amount] is the price of
x2 to purchaser/consumer x3 set by vendor
x4. (x2 may be a specific object, a commodity
(mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for
objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from
ownership of the object/commodity (= posydi’a,
posyseldi’a for unambiguous semantics); price
is something decided/set by the seller, and is
closely akin to offer (friti), which is what a buyer
may decide; (note that price is not he same as
cost/expense, which is the actual amount exchanged in a transaction; the latter is vecnu or
canja; neither is the same as ”value” or vamji;
in colloquial English, these are sometimes interchanged, at least partially because of the rarity of
barter and bargaining in the marketplace
jdini [din di’i] x1 is money/currency
issued by x2; (adjective:) x1 is financial/monetary/pecuniary/fiscal. (’currency’
sometimes is restricted to paper money (= pledi’i).
jditce x1 = m1 = j1 is unwavering/determined/resolute in making decision
x2 = j2 (du’u) about x3 = j3 (event/state
jduli [dul jdu] x1 is a quantity of
jelly/semisolid [texture] of material/composition
including x2. ((adjective:) x1 is gelatinous
je’abo [NAhE+BO ] negation sumti qualifier:
that which indeed is
je’a [NAhE] scalar affirmer; denies scalar negation: Indeed!.
je’enai [COI*] vocative: roger (ack) - negative
acknowledge; I didn’t hear you.
je’erjinto ji1 = je3 is a fountain expelling fluid
ji2 = je2 at location ji3
je’erma’a c1 = j3 is a volcano projecting from
land mass c2. (Cf. fagma’a.)
je’e [COI] vocative: roger (ack) - negative
acknowledge; used to acknowledge offers and
je’i [JA] logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought conn question.
je’o [BY1] shift letterals to Hebrew alphabet.
je’unai [UI*3] discursive: truth - falsity.
je’urja’o ja1 (agent) proves that je1 (du’u) is
true by standard/epistemology/metaphysics je2
to audience ja3 (from jetnu jarco)
je’u [UI3] discursive: truth - falsity. (See also
jecra’a x1 is political/pertains to the politics of
territory/domain x2.
jecta [jec je’a] x1 is a polity/state governing territory/domain x2; [government/territory
relationship]. ((adjective:) x1 is civil/political.
jedji’o x1 is the x3 pole of x2
jedjipli’i l1 is a meridian on celestial
body/sphere j2 (default Earth) (From jendu,
jipno, linji, jedji’o. Cf. plinyxabykoi, sunsicyjudri.
jeftu [jef] x1 is x2 weeks in duration (default
is 1 week) by standard x3. (Re. x3, a week may be
more or less than seven days, classically being tied
to the time between trips to the marketplace; this
week (= cabjeftu); next week (= bavlamjeftu); last
week (= prulamjeftu). See also detri, djedi, masti,
jefydiknalgundei x1 = di1 = dj1 is a regularlyoccurring period of days off work [weekend] lasting x2 = dj2 days, recurring every x3 = j2 = di3
weeks (default 1), for worker x4 = g1, at job x5 =
”Weekend” (the last two days in a week, presumed to be a rest from work) is a culture-specific
concept. It was felt more appropriate to make
a word meaning ”work holiday” and leave the
days/week[s] to be specified by the person.)
jegvon The Judeo-Christian-Muslim God
jegvo [jeg je’o] x1 pertains to the
common Judeo-Christian-Moslem culture/religion/nationality in aspect x2. (Also
jei [jez] [NU] abstractor: truth-value abstractor; x1 is truth value of [bridi] under epistemology x2.
jelca [jel] x1 burns/[ignites/is
flammable/inflammable] at temperature x2
in atmosphere x3. (Default x2/x3 to normal temperatures in air; ignite (= jelcfa),
flammable/inflammable (usually = jelka’e or
jelfrili). See also fagri, kijno, sigja, livla, sacki.)
jelgau g1 burns j1.
jelnanba n1 = j1 is toasted bread made from
grain(s) n2
jelspo d1 (event) burns down x2 = j1 = d2
jemja’a ja1 is a general of army je1 serving
country/nation/group je2 (mass) in function je3
(activity). (Cf. jenmi, jatna, vairsoi.)
jemna [jme] x1 is a gem/polished
stone/pearl of type x2 from gemstone/material/source x3. (Also jewel (= jmeja’i);
gemstone (= x2, x3, or jmero’i, jmekunra); pearl
(= selcakyjme - a gem found inside a shell,
tercakyjme - a gem made of shell material, boijme - any ball-shaped gem), mother-of-pearl (=
jempaupau x1 is an army division, a subdivision of army unit x2 which serves country/nation/group x3. jempausle x1 is an army brigade/regiment, a
subdivision of army unit x2 which serves country/nation/groupz
jempau x1 is an army corps, a subdivision ofarmy unit x2 which serves country/nation/groupz
jemyzda z1 is a military base for armed forces j1serving group/community j2 in function j3.
jenai [JA*] logical connective: tanru-internal
afterthought x but not y.
jenca [jen] x1 (event) shocks/stunsy
jendu [jed] x1 is an axle/spindle [tool] on
which x2 rotates, of material/propertiesxz
jenmi [jem jei] x1 (mass) is an army serving
group/community x2 (mass) in function x3 (activity
jerjelino x1 is sesame of species/variety x2.
jerna x1 (agent/person)earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay
x2 for work/service x3 (activity). (Also x2
earnings, reward (= zanseljerna or nemjerna),
punishment/comeuppance (= sfaseljerna, malseljerna); x3 behavior; job (= terjerna); x2 may be a
specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a
property; pedantically, for objects/commodities,
this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyjerna, posyseljerna for
unambiguous semantics
jersi [je’i] x1 chases/pursues/(physically)
follows after x2; volition is not implied for x1 or x2.
(x1 follows after x2. See also kavbu, rivbi, kalte,
jerxo [jex] x1 reflects Algerian culture/nationality in aspey
jesni [jes] x1 is a needle [pointed
shape/form, not tool] of materiay
jesycilta c1 is barbed wire
jesymabru x1 is a hedgehog/spiny anteater of
species x2. (general term for spiny mammals
jesyratcu x1 is a porcupine of species x2.
jesyspa s1 is a cactus of species s2.
jetce [je’e] x1 is a jet [expelled stream] of
material x2 expelled fromz
jetka’u x1 is a quantum.
jetlai x1 has truth-value x2 under metaphysics
x3 on scale x4. (See also jei)
jetnu [jet je’u] x1 (du’u) is true/truth by
standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2. (Words
usable for epistemology typically have a du’u
jetpai p1 judges the veracity of p2 = j1 by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x3 = j2
je [jev jve] [JA] logical connective: tanruinternal afterthought and.
jgalu [ja’u] x1 is a/the claw/nail/talon[body-part] of x2; [metaphor: pointed, penetrating, physical weapon
jganu [jga] x1 is an angle [2-dimensional
shape/form] from vertex x2 subtended by lateral
[segment] x3. (Also (adjective:) x1 is angular; x2
corner; (segment x3 can be defined by interval).
jgari [jai] x1 grasps/holds/clutches/seizes/grips/[hugs]
x2 with x3 (part of x1) at locus x4 (part of x2). (Hug
(= birjai, pamjai); embrace (= xadjai); handshake
(= xanjai, jikyxanjai), handle (= veljai, veljaitci).
jgegau g1 ties j1 in a knot.
jgenanba j1 = j2 = n1 is a pretzel made from
grains n2.
jgena [jge] x1 is a knot/tangle in/between
x2 (object/jo’u-objects). (Knot (verb = jgegau,
jgezu’e, jgeri’a, jgela’a), knot: fastening between
two or more cords (= jgeterjo’e). See also pluja,
jgicro c1 = j1 is offended/[feels hurt pride]
about j2 (abstraction
jgina [gin] x1 is a gene of creature [or locus on
creature] x2 determining trait/process x3. (Also
chromosome = (gincilta, ginpoi
jgira [jgi] x1 (person) feels/has pride
in/about x2 (abstraction). (An emotional combination of satisfaction and respect/esteem towards
property(ies) or action(s) of person/entity that
has a specific tie to emoter; self-pride (= se’ijgi,
tolcumla); use x2 tu’a for pride in non-specific
actions/properties of someone
jgita [git] x1 is guitar/violin/fiddle/harp[stringed musical instrument] with actua-
tor/plectrum/bow x2. (Also lute, viola, cello
jgitrgitara x1 is guitar with plectrumy
jgitrnikelarpa x1 is a nyckelharpa [traditional
swedish string instrument] with bow x2.
jgitrpipa x1 is a pipa
jgitrsita x1 is sitar with plectrumy
jgitrviolino zei konceto x1 is violin concerto
number x2 in key x3 composed by x4 performed
by/at x5( ev
jgitrviolino x1 is violin/fiddle/ with bow x2.
jgitrxu x1 is an erhu with bow y
jglandi x1 is a walnut of species y
ji’apro f1 = j1 defeats f2 = j3 in competition
f3 = j4
ji’a [UI3b] discursive: additionally
ji’efri l1 = j1 lives/experiences life.
ji’exru x1 resurrects/brings back to life x2 = j1
by standard j2. (From xruti and jmive.)
ji’e [BAI] jimte modal, 1st place limitedly; up to
limit ...
ji’ima’u [PA*] rounded up (appended after
string of digits indicating a rounded value).
ji’ini’u [PA*] rounded down (appended after
string of digits indicating a rounded value).
ji’isku j1 = c1 expresses/says opinion c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) about subject/issue j3
to audience c3 via expressive medium c4 on
grounds j4. (j2 is defined by x2 = c2)
ji’i [PA4] digit/number: approximately (default the typical value in this context) (number).
ji’o [BAI] jitro modal, 1st place (control) controlledly; under direction of ...
ji’u [BAI] jicmu modal, 1st place (assumptions);
given that ...; based on ...
jibmu’o j2 = m1 quits/retires from job j1
(Elided SE from se jibri mulno.)
jibni [jbi] x1 is near/close to/approximates
x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni
jibri [jib] x1 is job/occupation/employment/vocation (a type
of work regularly done for pay) of person x2.
(Working for another (= selplijibri). See also briju,
gunka, te jerna which is employment specifically
for pay and not specifically for another, te pilno
which is employment not necessarily for pay and
not necessarily regular or lasting but for another,
se gasnu and se zukte for incidental activities.)
jibycu’e c1 is a trade/vocational school at c2
teaching job skills c3 = j1 to audience/community
c4 = j2 operated by c5
jibypante p1 = j2 strikes (stops working), complaining about p2 = j1 to audience p3 with action
jicla x1 (object, or event: force)
stirs/mixes/[roils/agitates] fluid (gas/liquid)
x2. (Convection (= nenflejicla); agentive stirring (=
jiclygau, jiclyzu’e). See also fanza, tunta, mixre.)
jicmu [cmu] x1 is a basis/foundation/underlying or fundamental principle of x2; x1 is at the bottom of x2. (x2 is founded
on basis x1 (= selcmu for reordered places); (adjective:) x1 is basic/basal/fundamental); (generally
events and properties will be bases for events and
states, while objects may be bases/bottoms for

jicycma c1 is a twig/sprig of j2 (from jimca
jicyjutsi’o x1 is cladistics about organisms x2
according to x3.
jicymivykle k1=jm1=ji3 is a phylum [animals]/division [plants] within/of kingdom [biology] k2=ji2. (From jimca, jmive, klesi. For biological cathegory in general (=mivyske klesi), domain
(=?), kingdom (=seljimcymivykle), phylum (=this
definition), class (=xeljutsi), order (=veljutsi), family (=terjutsi), genus (=seljutsi), species (=jutsi).)
jifselbetfu x1 is a pseudocoelomate with pseudocoelom x2.
jifxu’a xu1 is wrong, falsely claiming xu2 = j1,
by truth standard xu3
jijnu [jij] x1 (person) intuits x2 (du’u) about
subject x3; [epistemology]. (Words usable for epistemology typically have a du’u place
jijyji’i jin1 = jij1 has intuition-based opinion
(suspicion) jin2 = jij2 (du’u) on subject jin3 =
This word coined when looking for a suitable
word for ”to suspect”, or ”suspicion”. Intended
to be neutral, however, rather than matching the
negative connotation in English.)
jikca [jik] x1 interacts/behaves socially with
x2; x1 socializes with/is sociable towardsy
4 jikni x1 consists of the economic system (production and distribution and consumption) of sector components x2; x1 is economic. (x2 may be a
country or other area, the labor, capital and land
resources, and the economic agents that socially
participate in the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of
that area; they may be joined with JOI. pavmomseljikni for ”primary sector”, relmomseljikni for
”secondary sector”, cibmomseljikni for ”tertiary
sector”, and vonmomseljikni for ”quaternary sector”; gubyseljikni for ”public/state sector”, sivyseljikni for ”private sector”, and jikseljikni for ”social/voluntary sector
jikru x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of
liquor/spirits distilled fromy
jiksei s1 = j1 is aloof/alone/solitary/a hermit,
separated from s2 = j1.
jiksre s1 commits faux pas (social error) s2,
which is wrong under conditions s3 according to
standard s4.
jiktru t1 is an institution governing social/cooperative human behaviour t2. (Use
x2 tu’a for e.g. educatio
jikykamxaujdi jd1 = ji1 is tactful in making decision jd2 in matter jd3 (event/state) in social interaction with ji2.
jilka [jil] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of alkali/base of composition including x2.
((adjective:) x1 is alkaline
jilra x1 (person) is jealous of/envies x2 (person)
about/for x3 (property - ka
jimbo’u j1=b1 is a prosthetic bone made of
metal, performing function b2 in body b3.
jimca [jic] x1 is a branch/bough/limb of
x2; x2 forks into branches x1; [preferred over
metaphorical birka]. (Also appendage
jimda’izbe z1 is an anvil for striking metal d2 =
j2 with instrument d3
jimdaxsna s1 is a zing/clang produced by
metal j1 = d2 = s2 being hit.
jimdei x1 is Friday of week x2 on calendar x3.
jimpe [jmi] x1 understands/comprehends
fact/truth x2 (du’u) about subject x3; x1 understands (fi) x3. (See also djuno, jijnu, morna, jimsko j1 = s1 is a wire/cable of metal j2 = s2
(This may be a single or multiple strand, but must
be metallic.)
jimte [jit] x1 is a
of x2 in property/domain x3. (Restrain/constrain
within limits (= jitri’u, jitygau, jityzu’e). See also
cmavo list ji’e, traji, korbi, kuspe, rinju, bapli,
curmi, fanta, jbini.)
jinci x1 is a pair of shears/scissors for cutting
x2. (See also katna.)
jinga [jig ji’a] x1 (person/team)
wins/gains prize x2 from/over x3 [competitors/losers] in competition x4. (Also: x1 is a
victor; x2 reward; x3 competitors here are opponents and in many situations, defeated/losers, vs.
the set of those competing for a goal; x2 may be a
specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a
property; pedantically, for objects/commodities,
this is sumti-raising from ownership of the
object/commodity (= posyji’a, posyselji’a for
unambiguous semantics). See also cirko, jivna,
jinku x1 is a vaccine/immune-system stimulant protecting x2 against disease x3 introduced
by method x4. (Also serum; inoculation (= jestu’u
jinkytoldu’e t1=j1 is an immune-system defi-
ciency of j2. (From jinku, toldu’e. t2, t3, j3, j4 based
on relative uselessness (you could use tanru to get
what type-of immune deficiency you’re referring
jinme [jim] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of made of metal of composition including
x2. ((adjective:) x1 is metallic
jinmrberilo x1 is beryllium
jinmrniobi x1 is niobium.
jinmrplati x1 is platinum.
jinmrtitani x1 is titanium (metal
jinmrtuli x1 is thulium.
jinmrxafni x1 is hafnium.
jinru [jir] x1 (object/person) is immersed/submerged/bathes in liquid x2. (Take a
bath/bathe (= jirsezlu’i). See also lumci, nenri,
jinsa [jis] x1 (object) is clean/pure of material/contaminant/dirt x2 by standarz
jinsru d1 = s1 is a ring/belt/band/girdle
around/circling/ringing s2 near total containment in some dimension(s).
jintitnanba n1 is a quantity of doughnut
jinto x1 is a well/spring of fluid x2 at location
jintyke’a k1 = j1 is a well in k2 containing fluid
j2 at location j3
jinvi [jiv ji’i] x1 thinks/opines x2 [opinion] (du’u) is true about subject/issue x3 on
grounds x4. (Words usable for epistemology typically have a du’u place
jinynanba n1 is a bagel
jinzi [jiz] x1 (property - ka) is an
innate/inherent/intrinsic/natural property/quality/aspect of x
jipci x1 is a chicken/[hen/cock/rooster]/small
fowl [a type of bird] of species/breed x
jipmokca x1 is a vertex of polytope x2 at locus
jipno [jip ji’o] x1 is a
tip/point/vertex/extremity/end [0dimension
shape/form] on object x2 at locus x
jirgau x1=g1 immerses x2=j1 in liquid x3=j2
jirlu’i l1 (agent) bathes l2 = j1 in liquid j2 = l4.
jirna x1 is a/the horn [bodypart] of x
vie eta _metaphor: pointed extremity o ken dea
jisra x is made of/contains/is a quantity
of juice/nectar from-source/of-type x2. (Waterbased extract from a (generally) biological source.
jitfa [jif] x1 (du’u) is false/is an untruth by
standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2. (Words
usable for epistemology typically have a du’u
place. See also fatci, stace, jetnu, cfika.)
jitro [tro] x1 has control
x2 in x3 (activity/event/performance). (x2 are
aspects/individuals controlled within activity/event x3; manage (= selzuktro, selzukfu’e,
gu’etro, gunfu’e, xaktro, xakfu’e) (as distinct from
manager/boss = gunterbe’e, gunja’a, gunmi’e,
gunca’i). (cf. cmavo list ji’o, bapli, te bende, gidva
- which does not necessarily control or command,

jivbi’o b1 = j1 comes to the conclusion that j2
[opinion] (du’u) is true about subject/issue j3 on
grounds j4, under conditions b
jivbu x weaves x from material/[yarn] x
jivna [jvi] x1 competes/vies with opponentx2 in contest/competition x3 (event) for gain x4;
x1 rivals x2. (Also x2 opponent(s), competitor(s),
rival(s); x3 competition, race; x4 prize, reward,
recognition (gain may be internal or external
jizyselpre p2 = j1 is the temperament (innate
personality) of p1 = j2
ji [A] logical connective: sumti afterthoughtconnective question.
jmacidni c1 is an ankle of j2 = c3
jmadegji j1 = d1 is a toe of j2 = d
jmadegycalku c1 is a toenail of toe c2 = d1 ofbody d
jmagutci g1 is g2 foot/feet (length unit
jmaji [jaj] x1 (mass/jo’u) gathers/collects at
location x2 from locations x3 (mass/jo’u). (Also
focus (= seljmaji). See also crepu.)
jmani’a j1 is a sole (part of foot) of j2
jmatajycalku c1 is the big toe nail of body t3 =
jmatamji t1 is the big toe of t3 = j
jmati’e t1 is a heel of j
jmavra v1 is a pedal with function v2, fulcrum
x3, and lever arm x4.
jmifa x1 is a shoal [shallow hazard]/reef of material x2 in body of water x3. (Rapids (= ri’erjmifa,
jmina [min] x1 adds/combines x2 to/with x3,
with result x4; x1 augments x2 by amount x
jmisre s1 = j1 misunderstands fact/truth j2
(du’u) about subject j3, an error under conditions
s3 by standard s4. (Cf. ki’a.)
jmive mivzhíe x lives/is alive by standard x2; x1 is an organism/living thing. ((adjective:) x1 is vital, organic
jo’a [UI3a] discursive: metalinguistic affirmer.
jo’e [jom] [JOI] non-logical connective:
union of sets.
jo’i [JOhI] join mathematical expression (mex)
operands into an array.
jo’o [BY1] shift letterals to Arabic alphabet.
jo’u [jo’u] [JOI] non-logical connective: in
common with; along with (unmixed).
joibu [BY*] letteral: ampersand character; especially used in standing for a mixed connective.
joi [jol joi] [JOI] non-logical connective:
mixed conjunction; ”and” meaning ”mixed together”, forming a mass.
jonai [JA*] logical connective: tanru-internal
afterthought exclusive or; Latin ’aut’.
jongau g1 causes j1 to be joined to/connected
to/united with j2 at common locus j
jonsi’u x1 are joined at/by x
jonsimgau g1 [person/agent] join s1 together.
jonsumji x1 is the union of sets x2 and x
jordo [jor jo’o] x1 reflects Jordanian culture/nationality in aspect x
jorne x is joined to/connects
to/is united with x2 at common locus x3; x1 and
x2 are a union. (Also joined/fastened/attached by
joint x3/by means of x3/with fastener x3; fastener
(= jo’etci, jonvelyla’a); train, sequence of joined objects (= jonpoi; porjo’e for a single object joined
into a sequence). See also lasna, fenso, kansa,
pencu, penmi.)
jo [jov] [JA] logical connective: tanruinternal afterthought biconditional/iff/if-andonly-if.
ju’aku’i [UI*] evidential: although, even
though, while, whilst
ju’a [UI2] evidential: I state - (default)
elliptical/non-specific basis
ju’e [JOI] vague non-logical connective: analogous to plain ”.i”.
ju’icu’i [COI*] vocative: attention - at ease - ignore me.
ju’inai [COI*] vocative: attention - at ease - ignore me.
ju’i [COI] vocative: attention - at ease - ignore
ju’ocai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: intense certainty.
ju’ocu’i [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: certainty -
uncertainty - impossibility.
ju’onai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: certainty -
uncertainty - impossibility.
ju’opei [UI*6] attitudinal: certainty question.
ju’o [UI5] attitudinal modifier: certainty - uncertainty - impossibility
ju’u [VUhU2] binary mathematical operator:
number base; [a interpreted in the base b].
jubme [jub jbu] x1 is a table/flat solid
upper surface of material x2, supported by
judgau x1 makes x2 pay attention to x3; x1 directs x2’s attention to x3.
judri x1 is an address of/are coordinates of x2 in
judrysni j1 = s1 is a hyperlink/URL of resource/web page j2 = s2 for browser s3
jufmei x1 is a paragraph about x2 including sentence(s)z
jufpau p1 is a phrase of sentence p2 = j1 about
j2 in language j3.
jufra [juf ju’a] x1 (text) is
a sentence/statement about x2
[topic/subject/predicate/focus] in language
x3. (Phrase (= jufpau, suzrelvla, suzvla, gensle).
vmikv dea
jufspi s1 is a fragment of sentence s2 = j1 about
j2 in language j3
juftogmo’a t1 = m1 is the intonation of sentence
j1 = m2 with characteristics t2 = m3
jugbau j1 = b1 is the Chinese-Mandarin language, used by b2 to communicate b3 (si’o/du’u,
not quote
jugle’u x1 is a Chinese character in writing system x2 (traditional/simplified/bopomofo/etc.)
meaning x3.
jugygu’e j1 = g1 is sinia
jukni [juk] x1 is a
spider/arachnid/[crustacean/crab/lobster/noninsect arthropod] of species/breedy
jukpa [jup] x1 cooks/prepares food-foreating x2 by recipe/method x3 (process). (Cook
with heat (= glajukpa, glaterjukpa), bake (=
tokyjukpa); fry (= rasyjukpa). See also cupra,
julne [ju’e] x1 is a net/filter allowing passage of x2, prohibiting passage of x3, netting properties x4. (Also sieve. See also komcu, ciste, jgena.)
julra’o x1 is x2 degrees in angular measure (default is 1) (Cf. junla, radno, cacryra’o, plinyxabykoi, jedjipli’i. pi’e used in x2 indicates a base
of 60. )
jumske s1=j1 (mass of facts) is microbiology
studying microorganisms x2 based on methodologyz
jundi [jud ju’i] x1 is attentive towards/attends/tends/pays attention to object/affair y
jungau x1 tells/makes known to x2 fact(s) x3
(du’u) about subject x4 by epistemology x5
jungo [jug] x1 reflects Chinese
[Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, etc.] culture/nationality/language in aspecy
junkace x1 is a rush of species x2.
junla [jul] x1 is clock/watch/timer measuring time units x2 to precision x3 with timing mechanism/method x4. (Also timepiece
junpero x1 is a juniper/cedar of species/variety
x2. (some trees called ”cedar” are actually juniper;
junri [jur] x1 (person) is serious/earnest/has
gravity about x2 (event/state/activity). (Also
solemn (= drijunri, ri’irjunri, tcejunri
junta x1 is the weight of object x2 in [gravitational or other force] field z
juntymre m1 (agent) weighs object j2 as m3
units on scale m4 (si’o) in field j3
jupku’a x1 = k1 is a kitchen, in which x2 = j1
cooks x3 = j2, in home/building/structure x4 =
k2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor
x5 = k3 (mass/jo’u).
juptansi t1 is a frying pan/wok used by cook
j1 for cooking/frying/sauteing ´ j2 = t1, made of
material t3
jupybadna x1 is a plantain (banana) of species
x2. (see also plantago, badna)
jupypatxu p1 is a pot used by j1 for cooking/boiling/steaming j2 = p2 with recipe j3; pot
made of material p3
jupypesxu p1 = j2 is a baked
dough/pie/macaroon/[cooked paste] made from
p2 prepared by j1 according to method/recipe j3
jupypexyboi b1 is a dumpling made from material x2 filled with material x3
jurme [jum] x1 is a bacterium/germ/microbe/protozoan/amoeba
[1-celled life] of species/defining property x2.
jurpei j1 = p1 considers / reflects on j2 = p2.
jursa [jus] x1 (event/action/state) is severe/harsh to x2 [victim/experiencer
jutsi [jut] x1 is a species of genus x2, family x3, etc.; [open-ended tree-structure categorization]. (Also subspecies, order, phylum; (places do
not correspond to specific levels in the hierarchy;
rather, x1 is at a ”lower” or ”bushier” part of the
tree than x2, x2 is ”lower” than x3, etc.; skipping a
place thus means that there is one or more knownand-unspecified levels of hierarchy between the
two); not limited to Linnean animal/plant taxonomy
jutske s1 is (biological) taxonomy based on
methodology s2.
juxre [jux] x1 (action) is clumsy/awkward by
ju [juv] [JA] logical connective: tanruinternal afterthought whether-or-not.
jvajvo l1 is a regular/predictable lujvo (compound predicate word) with meaning l2 and arguments l3 built from phrase l4 and having an argument structure according to rule j1. (A Lojbanspecific term. The approach of jvajvo is intended
to at least constrain what the x2, x3, x4... etc. of a
lujvo may be, and also to draw the semantic values of those places from the semantic values of
the places of the component brivla. The rationale
is that the place structure of an unknown lujvo
should not require memorization. This was previously known as “dikyjvo”; a mistranslation of
“regular lujvo”, as it used the wrong sense of “regular
jvicpe c1 = j1 wages a contest c2 = j3 on c3 = j2
for gain j4
jvinu [vin ji’u] x1 is theview/scene/panorama/sight/prospect of x2
(object/location) from point-of-view x3. (Also x1
is on display to x2/x3
jvixi’a xi1 is a racehorse of breed xi2 competing
in race j3.
jvokatna k1 separates affix compound k2 into
its constituent affixes k3; k1 does morphological
jycybyb James Cooke Brown.
JYTeborj Gothenburg (Gothenburg (orGoteborg in swedish), second largest city ofSweden
jy [BY2] letteral for j.
ka’amru m1 is an axe for cutting k2 with bladem3 = k1 propelled by m4.
ka’arde’i d1 is an incisor of d2
ka’a [BAI] klama modal, 1st place gone to by ...
ka’e [CAhA] modal aspect: innate capability;
possibly unrealized.
ka’irtrusi’o s1 is the concept of representative democracy (default: political representative
democracy) as it applies to the governance of
t2 based on the works of thinker(s) s3 (From
krati, turni, sidbo
ka’i [BAI] krati modal, 1st place represented by
ka’omlu s1 = k1 is sickly/appears healthy to
observer s3 by standard k2. (Cf. bi’amlu.)
ka’o [PA5] digit/number: imaginary i; square
root of -1.
ka’urji’a x1 scores/gains a point against x2 in
competition/game/contest x3.
ka’u [UI2] evidential: I know by cultural means(myth or custom
kabri x1 is a cup/glass/tumbler/mug/vessel/[bowl]
containing contents x2, and of material x3. (A
kabri is normally eaten from by lifting it; a palta isnot
kabrydekpu d1 is d2 cupful(s).
kabrylai k1 is k2 (quantifier, default: one) cupfuls in quantity. (Cf. kabri, klani.)
kacma x1 is a camera/photographic equipment
recording illumination type x2 images to mediumz
kacmyterxra p3 takes a photo/picture p1 depicting/representing/showing p2
kacmyxra p1 is a photograph of p2 taken by
photographer p3 in medium p4=k3.
kacpoi p1 is a sequence of numbers in ascending
kadno x1 reflects Canadian culture/nationality
in aspecy
kadnyfasybau k1 = f1 = b1 is the
Canadian French language used by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not quote).
(from kadno fraso bangu c.f. fasybau)
kadnyglibau k1 = g1 = b1 is the Canadian English language used by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not quote).
kadnygu’e k1 = g1 is Canad
kafke x1 coughs/farts/burps up/out x2 [predominantly gaseous] from orificz
kafxu’i x1 is caffeine with chemical purity x2
kagja’a j1 is the president/[chairperson of the
board] of j2 = k1

kakpa kambandu
kagni [kag] x1 is a company/corporation/firm/partnership chartered
by authority x2 for purpose x3. (Also enterprise/organization (if chartered
kagyfu’e f1 is a corporate officer
kagypanka p1 is a business park managed
by community/polity/company p2 for businesses/firms/corporations of type k3
kagysamseltcana t2 is a/the private computer
network that includes nodes/computers t1 = s1
whose function/purpose is s2, installed across organization k1 , internet, intranet. May or may not be an
kagyseldejni d2 is/are the indebtedness/liabilities of company/corporation/fifirmd1 = k1 to creditor(s) d3 for the provision ofgoods /services/loans d4
kagyselpo’e p2 is/are an/the asset(s) of company/corporation/firm/partnership p1 = k1 according to law p3
kagytruralju r1 is CEO (Chief Executive
Officer)/MD (Managing Director) of company/corporation/firm t2 = k1
kai [BAI] ckaji modal, 1st place characterizing
kajde [jde] x1 (event/experience)
warns/cautions x2 (person) of/about danger
x3 (event/state/property). (Agentive warning (=
jdegau, jdezu’e); an attempt to warn which may
not succeed (= jdetoi, jdegautoi, jdezuktoi
kajna x1 is a shelf/counter/bar in/on/attached
to supporting object x2, for purposez
kajnyta’e t1 = k2 is a cupboard for storing t2,
made of t3, with shelves k1
kakne [ka’e] x1 is able to do/be/capable ofdoing/being x2 (event/state) under conditions x3
(event/state). (Also: has talent; know how to;
know how to use (= plika’e
(in the time-free potential sense), cmavo list ka’e,
cmavo list nu’o, cmavo list pu’i, djuno, zifre))
kakpa x1 (agent) digs x2 [material] up/out of x3
[source/hole] with limbs/tool(s) x4. (Also x1 cuts
into x3 (with material removal
kakpyca’a c1 = k4 is an excavator/power
shovel for digging in k3, operated by k1 = c3. (Not
for pushing bulldozer.)
kakydirgo x1 is a teardrop wept by x2 for reason
kalboi b1 = k1 is an eyeball (body part) of k2.
kalci x1 is a/the feces/excrement/dung/shit of
x2 (animal/person); (adjective:) x1 is fecal (matter
kalcyvi’i v1 = k2 defecates/shits/poos
kalgaikre ke1 is an eyelash (body part) of ke2 =
kalgai g1 is an eyelid of eye k1 = g2.
kalmari x1 is a squid/cuttlefish of species x2.
kalmebykre ke1 is an eyebrow (supraorbital
ridge) of ke2 = ka2 = m2
kalri [kar] x1 (portal/passage/entrance-way)
is open/ajar/not shut permitting passage/access
to x2 by x3. (As a doorway
kalsa [kas] x1 is chaotic/disordered in property/aspect x2 (ka
kalselvi’i x1 = v2 is a tear/tear fluid of x2 = v1.
kalte [kat] x1 hunts/stalks
prey/quarry/game x2 for purpose x3. (Also
verb: to fish (= fipkalte). See also jersi, kavbu,
kalvi’i v1 = k2 weeps/lacrimates tear(s) v2 from
v3 via means/route v4
kamba’i k1 is the greatness/majesty/splendour/magnificence/grandeur
of b1 according to standard b3
kambandu k1 is a security condition of b1 protecting b2 from threat b3. (When used as ”security”, x3 is a planned threat. ”security” is com-
parable to ”safety” (kamnu’a), ”reliability” (kamylacri), and ”continuity” (kamra’i).)
kambebna k1 is quality/property exhibited by
b1 of being foolish/silly/stupid in event/action
/property (ka) b2
kamfora x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of
camphor (chemical compound)
kamjikca x1 is a society; x1 is social
kamjunmre m1 tests/evaluates/measures j1’s
knowledge of facts (du’u) j2 in subject area j3 as
m3 units on scale m4 with accuracy m5 (The x2
through x4 places are = m2 )
kamju x1 is a column/pillar of material x2.
(Spine (= bogykamju), vertebra (= kamjybo’u
kamjybo’u k1 = b1 is a vertebra of b3 ; b3 is a
kamjysunga x1 is a leek of varietyy
kamka’o kam1 is the health of kan1 by standard
kamni x1 (mass) is a committee with
task/purpose x2 of body x3. (Board of directors/trustees/cabinet (= trukamni, gritrukamni).
kamnolraitru k1 is the majesty of t1 = n1 being
a regent/monarch of t2 by standard n2
kampu [kau] x1 (property - ka) is common/general/universal among members of set x2
(complete set). (Only fully universal sense applies;
x1 must be found in all members of x2. For the
non-universal sense see fadni and zilfadni
kamra’a k1 is the relation of s1 to s2
kamro x1 reflects Welsh language/culture in
aspect x2.
kamsutra k1 is the speed of s1 doing/being/bringing about s2
kamtatpi k1 is the fatigue of t1 in being/doing
t2 (ev
kamtsa k1 is the strength of t1 in property/quality t2 (ka
kamvli k1 is the power of v1 in aspect v2 under
conditions v3. (Cf. ka, vlipa, trubasti.)
kamyzi’e x1 is the quality of whom/what is free
to do/be x2 = z2; x1 is freedom/liberty of x2 = z2
kanbas x1 is Capricornus [astronomical constellation]/Capricorn [astrological sign]. (From goat
(=kanba). Capricornus is Latin for ”horned male
goat” or ”goat horn”. Anyway, both male and female of the genus Capra have horns.)
kanba x1 is a goat/angora/[billy-goat/kid] of
kanbyma’i x1 is January of year x2 in calendarz
kancu [kac] x1 (agent) counts the number inset x2 to be x3 [number/count] counting [off] by
units x4. ((x2 is complete set); See also kanji, satci,
kandiru x1 is a candiru of species/variety ´ x2.
kandi [kad] x1 is dim/dull/pale/non-intense
in property x2 (ka) as received/measured by observer x3. (In colors, indicates unsaturated, pastel,
pale (though blabi can also indicate a kind of paleness). See also blabi, carmi, klina, linto, kanguru x1 is a kangaroo of species/breed x2.
kanji [kaj] x1 calculates/reckons/computes
x2 [value (ni)/state] from data x3 by process x4.
kanjunla j1 = k1 is a watch (portable timepiece)
measuring time units j2 to precision j3 with timing
mechanism j4. (Cf. junla, temci.)
kanla [kal] x1 is a/the eye [body-part] of x2;
[metaphor: sensory apparatus]; (adjective:) x1 is
ocular. (x1 is optic
4 kanpe x1 expects/looks for the occurence of
x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1, default li
so’a (i.e. near 1)); x1 subjectively evaluates the
likelihood of x2 (event) to be x3. (The value of
x3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according
to x1, and is the basic determinant of whether
kanpe means something like ”hope” or ”wish” or
”expect”, although kanpe never carries the connotation of desire; for that connotation see pacna.
kanpe with x3 not very close to 1 has no simple equivalent in English, but for objects/states
with negligible expectation it is something like
”wishing”; if the state is plausibly likely, it is
something like ”hoping”. In both cases, though,
the English implication of emotional desire is not
present. The value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers (”li piso’u” to ”li piro”); nondesirous wish (= ??), non-desirous hope (= ??
kanro [ka’o] x1 is healthy/fit/well/in good
health by standard y
kansa [kan] x1 is with/accompanies/is a
companion of x2, in state/condition/enterprise x3
(event/state). (x1 is together with/along with x2.
kansi’u x1 do x2 together
kantu [ka’u] x1 is a quantum/ray/elementary particle/smallest measurable increment of property/activity x2. (Quantum
ray (= bonka’u). (cf. selci for masses and most
objects; ratni, gradu, gusni, nejni, linji))
kanxa’u xa1 = k1 is a roommate of/lives with
k2 at location/habitat/nest/home/abode x3 =
kanxe [kax] x1 is a conjunction, stating that x2
(du’u) and x3 (du’u) are both true. (See also vlina.)
kapcikna cikna1 = skapi2 experiences goose
kapkevna k1 is a skin pore of
pelt/skin/hide/leather k2 = s1 from x3 = s2. (Cf.
nazbi, pilka, xasne.)
kapsiku x1 is a chili/bell pepper (Capsicum) of
species/variety x2. (cf. cpina, spatrpiperi, tamca,
patlu, tanko, mlongena)
kapxra x1 = p1 is a tattoo/body
art/brand/[image on the body] depicting x2 = p2
on animal/body part x3 = s2 made by artist
x4 = p3 (Cf. skapi, pixra.)
karbi [kab] x1 [observer] compares x2 with
x3 in property x4 (ka), determining comparison
x5 (state). (See also klani, mapti, sarxe, zmadu,
mleca, dunli.)
karce x1 is a car/automobile/truck/van [a
wheeled motor vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled
by x3. (See also carce, xislu, marce, sabnu.)
karcutci c1 is a sandal for protecting feet c2, and
of material c3. (Cf. tupcutci, smoka.)
karcycelxa’i x1 = c1 = k2 is a self-propelled
artillery gun for use against x2 by x3, launching
projectile c2 propelled by c3. (Cf. karce, cecla,
xarci, xumjimcelxa’i, gutyjamkarce, xiljamkarce,
karcycelxa’i, sorjaknykarce.)
karda x1 is a card [small nearly-2-dimensional
shape/form] of material x2, shape x3. ((x3 shape
default rectangular); See also matci, tapla, plita.)
karfigre f1 is in the genus Dorstenia, species f2
kargau g1 opens portal/passage/entranceway
k1, permitting access to k2 by k3. (Cf. kalri, gasnu,
kargu x1 (object/commodity/property/event)
is costly/expensive/dear to x2 by standard x3.
(x1 may be a specific object, a commodity
(mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for
objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from
ownership of the object/commodity (= poskargu
for unambiguous semantics). See also vamji,
dirba, vajni, jdima, pleji, canja, jerna, jinga, jemna,
sfasa, vecnu.)
karkade x1 is hibiscus of species/variety x2.
karkaju k1 is a wolverine of variety k2.
karli x1 is a collar/ring/belt/band
around/surrounding x2 made of material x3.
(Also sphincter. See also sruri, djine.)
karni x1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] with
content x2 published by x3 for audience x4. (x2
may be a subject, but not all journals have a single
subject; all have some sort of principle defining
what is included, so this need not be a list. See
also papri, pelji, tcidu.)
karnyke’u x1 is the x3’rd issue/number of
journal/periodical/magazine/publication x2
with content x4 published by x5 for audience x6 .
karpo’ijbe j1 = k3 hatches from eggshell j2 =
p1 = k1 (kalri+porpi+jbena This is based on the lujvo karpo’i, glossed as ”something breaks open”.
It is not obvious to me whether any of k2 (portal
destination), p2 (pieces of broken thing), j3 (birthdate), or j4 (birthplace) are appropriate to include
in this lujvo.)
karpo’i x1 is an open-break with broken piece
karsna s1 is a vowel sound. (Cf. zunsna.)
kartamo x1 is safflower of species/variety x2.
kartuli x1 is Georgian (Caucasus) in aspect x2.
(see also sakartulos)
karvana x1 is a caravan consisting of x2 traveling across/through x3 (Cf. bende, girzu, gunma.)
katkana x1 is a katakana (Japanese syllabary) of
sound x2. (Cf. lerfu.)
katna [ka’a] x1 (tool/blade/force) cuts
[through]/splits/divides x2 (object) into pieces
x3. (For x1 force, it is a force acting as a blade, not
acting upon a blade; agentive cutting (= ka’argau,
ka’arzu’e). (cf. kakpa, sraku for cutting into
without division; plixa, dakfu, jinci, porpi, spofu,
tunta, xrani, fatri, fendi, balre, dilcu))
kaurdata x1 is a salamander of family/genus/species x2. (Cf. banfi.)
kaurselju’o d2 = k1 is common sense to knowers d1 = k2 about subject d3 by epistemology d4.
kau [UI3a] discursive: marks word serving as
focus of indirect question: ”I know WHO went to
the store”.
kavbu [kav] x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with
trap/restraint x3. (Catch something thrown (=
rerkavbu). See also jersi, kalte, pinfu, sisku, se
ka [kam] [NU] abstractor: property/quality
abstractor (-ness); x1 is quality/property exhibited
by [bridi].
ke’a [KOhA7] pro-sumti: relativized sumti (object of relative clause).
ke’e [kep ke’e] [KEhE] elidable terminator: end of tanru left grouping override (usually
ke’i [GAhO] open interval bracket marker;
modifies intervals in non-logical connectives; exclude boundaries.
ke’o [COI] vocative: please repeat.
ke’unai [UI*3] discursive: repeating - continuing.
ke’usku x1 repeats x2 (sedu’u/text) to audience
x3 via expressive medium x4 for the x5th time.
ke’u [UI3] discursive: repeating - continuing.
kecti [kec ke’i] x1 (person) pities/feels
sorry for x2 (person) about x3 (abstraction). (See
keigri k1 = g1 is a team / play group together
playing / playing with plaything / toy / game
k2 = g2; members are from set g3 linked by relations g4. (Made from kelci + girzu.)
keirmu’u x1 is a moving piece used in a game
keirta’o x1 is a board used for playing the game
kei [kez] [KEI] elidable terminator: end abstraction bridi (often elidable).
kelci [kel kei] x1 [agent] plays with plaything/toy x2. (Play game (= ci’erkei), play competitively (= jvikei). See also jivna, jinga, zdile.)
kelcrkroke x1 plays croquet against x2 in competition x3 for prize/title x4. (Cf. krokete, kroke,
kriketi, ga’arboijvi, bolci, mruli. )
kelgi’a g1 is a game master/dungeon master for
players k1 = g2 in role-playing game g3.
kelka’u x1 is a turn/move by player x2 in game
kelkubli ku1 is a die/are dice for game x2 with
surfaces/sides ku3 (default 6). (Shortened from ke
nu kelci ke’e kubli. Omitted ku2 (dice have always
three dimensions). Cf. cu’arkubli.)
kelvo [ke’o] x1 is x2 degree(s) Kelvin [metric
unit] in temperature (default is 1) by standard x3.
kelvrfarenxaito x1 is x2 degrees Fahrenheit in
temperature by standard x3. (Cf. jacke’o, glare,
kenra [ken] x1 is a cancer [malignant disease]
in x2. (See also bilma, mikce, spita.)
kensa [kes] x1 is outer space near/associated
with celestial body/region x2. (See also canlu,
KEnydys Canada (Cf. kadnygu’e, kenyDAS,
kerfa [kre] x1 is a/the hair/fur [body-part]
of x2 at body location x3. (See also skapi, sunla,
kerlakse l1 is earwax/cerumen. (Cf. kerlo,
kerlo [ker] x1 is a/the ear [body-part] of x2;
[metaphor: sensory apparatus, information gathering]. ((adjective:) x1 is aural. See also kanla,
savru, smaji, tirna, ractu.)
kernerbo’o n1 = b1 is an eardrum (tympanic
membrane) of n2 = k2. (The tympanic membrane
separates the external ear from the middle ear. Cf.
kerlo, tirna, sance.)
kerza’u k1 = z1 is an earlobe of k2 = z2. (Cf.
kesyske x1 is astronomy based on methodology x2.
ketco [ket tco] x1 reflects South American
culture/nationality/geography in aspect y

ketlete x1 has a body mass index of x2 by standard x3.
kevna [kev ke’a] x1 is a cavity/hole/hollow/cavern in x2; x1 is concave
within x2; x2 is hollow at locus x1. (Also pit,
depression, concavity; hollow (= selke’a). See also
fenra, kunti, canlu, canko, galxe, tubnu.)
kevypracpi ci1 = cu1 is a woodpecker/wryneck/piculet/sapsucker of species ci2
(Family Picidae)
kevyxejyji’o k1 = xe1 = j1 is a cleft/dimple
chin of xe2. (Cf. flira, kevna, xedja, xejyji’o.)
kevzda k1 = z1 is a cave for housing x2 = z2,
located in x3 = k2.
ke [kem] [KE] start grouping of tanru, etc; ...
type of ... ; overrides normal tanru left grouping.
4 ki’ai [COI2] Converts following cmevla or
zoi-quote into a nonce interjection/attitudinal.
ki’anai [UI*6] non-question: understanding of
something said.
ki’arzau z1 = k1 applauds/acclaims/praises
loudly action z2 (object/event) with sound k2. (Cf.
krixa, zanru, xanvruzau, geirki’a.)
ki’asku c1 = k1 shouts/cries out c2 = k2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to audience c3 via expressive medium c4 (from krixa cusku)
ki’a [UI6] attitudinal question: confusion about
something said. (See also cfipu, kucli.)
ki’enai [COI*] vocative: thanks - no thanks to
ki’e [COI] vocative: thanks - no thanks to you.
ki’i [BAI] ckini modal, 1st place (related to) relatively; as a relation of ...
ki’ogra g1 is g2 kilograms in mass by standard
ki’otre x1 is x2 kilometres long in direction x3
by standard x4. (Cf. gusminli, darno.)
ki’o [PA3] digit/number: number comma;
ki’u ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a rational explanation/justification; why?.
ki’unai [BAI*] krinu modal, 1st place despite
reason ...
ki’u [BAI] krinu modal, 1st place (justified by)
justifiably; because of reason ...
kibdu’a d1 uploads d2 to d3 = k1. (Cf. kibro,
dunda, kibycpa.)
4 kibro x1 pertains to the internet/cyberspace
in aspect x2. (Proposed by xorxes. Short rafsi -kib-.
kibyca’o c1 is a web browser for retrieving/presenting/traversing information k1. (Cf.
kibro, canko, zgana, datni, kibycpa, kibdu’a.)
kibykarni ki1 = ka1 is an internet-journal/webarticle/blog (web-log) with content ka2 published
by ka3 for audience ka4 (Cf. kibro, karni, snukarni,
kibypapri p1 is a web page of site p2 = k1. (Cf.
kicne [kic ki’e] x1 cushions x2 with material x3; x1 is a cushion/pillow/pad [for x2] of
padding material x3. (See also ckana, matci.)
kijno [kij] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of oxygen (O); [metaphor: supporting
life/combustion]. (See also jelca, vacri, vasxu.)
kijycau c1 lacks oxygen k1; c1 is anaerobic. (Cf.
kilga’axa’i x1 = xa1 = g1 = k1 is a
lance/spear/javelin/pointed-rod weapon for use
against x2 = xa2 by x3 = xa3 of material x4 = g2.
(kinli grana xarci; this lujvo structure is from noralujv. The author of this definition is uncertain
that jesxa’i would not be a better lujvo for the purpose.)
kilga’a x1 spear/lance/assegai made of x2. (Cf.
kinli, grana, rerga’a.)
kilto [ki’o] x1 is a thousand [1000; 10
] of
x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (See
kinli [kil] x1 is sharp/keen at locus x2. (See
kinpei p1 = s3 = s4 thinks about subject p2 = s2
by imagining s1 which is like an imaginary movie
about that subject.
kinsle x1 = s1 is a frame from motion picture x2 = k1 about x3 = k2
[plot/theme/subject/activity] ((skina x3, x4 omitted for lack of usefulness.) Cf. skina for some
useful lujvo you can tanru-ize this with – eg
”selxraci’a skina” -¿ frame of drawn animation ,
kisto [kis] x1 reflects Pakistani/Pashto culture/nationality/language in aspect x2. (See also
kisybau k1 = b1 is the Pakistani Urdu language used by b2 to communicate b3 (si’o/du’u,
not quote) (from kisto bangu c.f. xurbau.)
kisyglibau k1 = g1 = b1 is the Pakistani English
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf. kisto, glico, bangu,
glibau, bangenugu, kisybau)
kisygu’e k1 = g1 is Pakistan. (Cf. kisto, gugde,
gugdepuku. The ’national’ language of Pakistan is
xurbau. )
kitselzba x1 is pottery made by x2 of clay x3.
(see also staku)
kitybli b1 is a clay-based building brick of composition k2, surfaces/sides s4. (Cf. kliti, bliku.)
kityzba x1 is a potter who makes x2 out of clay
x3. (see also kitselzba, staku)
ki [KI] tense/modal: set/use tense default; establishes new open scope space/time/modal reference base.
klacpe c1 calls/summons c3 = k1 to location k2
in manner/form c4. (Cf. cpedu.)
klaje’i j1 = k1 follows j2 to destination k2 from
origin k3 via route k4 by means k5. (Cf. klama,
klaji [laj] x1 is a
street/avenue/lane/drive/cul-desac/way/alley/[road] at x2 accessing x3. (Also
corridor; not typically a route between points,
but offers access to sites along it. See also naxle,
panka, pluta, dargu.)
klaku [kak] x1 weeps/cries tears x2 about/for
reason x3 (event/state). (See also badri, krixa.)
klama [kla] x1 comes/goes to destination x2
from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle
x5. (Also travels, journeys, moves, leaves to ...
from ...; x1 is a traveller; (x4 as a set includes points
at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly).
See also cadzu, bajra, marce, vofli, litru, muvdu,
cpare, cmavo list ka’a, pluta, bevri, farlu, limna,
klami’e m1 summons m2 = k1 to k2 from k3 via
route k4. (Cf. klama, minde, klacpe.)
klani [lai] x1 is a quantity quanti-
fied/measured/enumerated by x2 (quantifier) on
scale x3 (si’o). (Also count. See also cmavo list
la’u, namcu.)
klanrbeli x1 measures x2 bels on scale x3 (si’o).
(One bel is equal to 10 decibels. Cf. klani, sance,
klanrdjuli g1 is g2 joule(s) of energy (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. djaule, klanrniut,ni, klanrxuati.)
klanrfaradi g1 is g2 farad(s) of capacitance (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. terdikca, xampo.)
klanrniut,ni g1 is g2 newton (s) of force (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. niutni,
klanrpaskali x1 is x2 pascal(s) of pressure (default is 1) by standard x3. (Cf. klanrniut,ni.)
klanrtesla g1 is g2 tesla(s) of magnetic field B
(default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. maksi.)
klanrvolta g1 is g2 volt(s) of electromotive force
(default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. xampo, klanrxomi, klanrxuati, klanrdjuli, terdikca.)
klanrxenri g1 is g2 henry/henries of inductance
(default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. enri, klanrvolta,
klanrxertsi g1 is g2 hertz of frequency (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. ertso.)

klanrxomi g1 is g2 ohm(s) of electrical
impedance/resistance (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. omso, xampo, klanrvolta, klanrxuati,
klanrxuati g1 is g2 watt(s) of power (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. klanrdjuli, klanrvolta,
klanrzimenzi g1 is g2 siemens of electrical conductance (default is 1) by standard g3. (klanrxomi,
klanrvolta, xampo.)
klasazri x1 = s1 = k1 drives x2 = s2 = k5 to
x3 = k2 from x4 = k3 via route x5 = k4 (Used
to specify agentive operation of the transportation
vehicle, as opposed to simply being carried by it.
See also: sazri, klama, ma’ekla)
klaunji x1 is blackseed/nigella of
species/variety x2
klesi [kle lei] x1 (mass/si’o) is a
class/category/subgroup/subset within x2
with defining property x3 (ka). (Also type, kind,
classification, species, genus, family, order, phylum. See also cmavo list le’a, cmima, jutsi, ciste,
girzu, lanzu, vrici.)
klina [kli] x1 (object/medium) is
clear/transparent/without obstacle to in-theclear x2 [transmission]. (Also lucid; x2 remains
apparent/lucid/clear (figurative use for ’understandable’ is discouraged, better expressed as =
filseljmi or filsmu). (cf. kandi, zunti - nalzu’i is
kliru x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
halogen of type x2 [chlorine, fluorine, iodine, etc.].
(Also bromine; default chlorine. See also xukmi.)
klisodva x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity
of a clear/transparent carbonated beverage/soda
of sweet flavor, of brand x2. (Not any carbonated beverage, but one which is transparent and
with sweet flavor, like Sprite (=sprait), 7-up, Sockerdricka (=a soft drink that is consumed in Sweden) or similar. Another flavor may be added and
expressed as a tanru, as long as the combination
doesn’t differ too much from the characteristics of
kliti [kit] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of clay [moist, clammy dirt] of composition
including x2. (See also dertu, pesxu, staku.)
klubarcreka c1 = b1 = k1 is a jumper of material
c2. (A loose outer jacket (barcreka). Cf. creka.)
kluce’u c1 is a society of c2 = k2 with cultural
aspects k1. (Cf. cecmu, kulnu, jikca, kulnu.)
klupe [lup lu’e] x1 is a screw [fastener] for
purpose x2, threads [pitch, material] x3, frame
[size, material] x4. (Also bolt. See also korcu,
sarlu, tutci.)
klura’a s1 pertains to culture of s2 = k2 (Cultural gismu replacement lujvo for cultures: From
gismu kulnu and srana)
kluske s1 is social anthropology. (Cf. kulnu,
saske, jikske)
kluza [luz] x1 (obj.) is loose/bloused/not
tight on x2 (obj.) at locus x3. (See also tagji, trati,
kluzei z1 is a taboo in culture z2 = k1.
ko’a [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #1
(specified by goi).
ko’e [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #2
(specified by goi).
ko’i [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #3
(specified by goi).
ko’otli x1 is a coyote of subspecies/breed x2.
ko’o [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #4
ko’u [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #5
(specified by goi).
kobli [kob ko’i] x1 is a quantity of cabbage/lettuce/leafy vegetable of species/strain x2.
koblrsinapi x1 is mustard of species/variety x2.
(especially mustard greens; see also spatrsinapi,
tsijrsinapi, sansrmustardo)
koinka x1 is a cognac distilled from grapes x2.
koizva x1 = z1 is at an
edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2 = k2
next-to/bordering-on x3 = k3; x1 = z1 skirts
x2 = k2. (Cf. korbi, zvati)
koi [BAI] korbi modal, 1st place (bordered by)
bounded by ...
kojna [koj ko’a] x1 is a corner/point/atleast-3-dimensional [solid] angle [shape/form]
in/on x2, of material x3. (Also apex; a corner exists on three dimensions but need not be limited to
points; it suggests a discontinuity in slope in some
direction; i.e. in some planar cross-section. See
also jipno, konju, bliku, fanmo, jganu, krasi.)
kokaKOlys Coca-Cola.
kokcinela x1 is a ladybug/ladybird/lady beetle
of genus/species x2. (see cakcinki, spacivla)
kolbasa x1 is a sausage made of x2. (Not necessarily with a gut skin; see also tisycanti.)
KOLkatas Kolkata
kolmba x1 is a pigeon/dove of genus/species
x2. (more general than tcacpi)
kolme [kol ko’e] x1 is a
quantity of/contains/is made of
coal/peat/anthracite/bituminous from source x2.
komcu [kom] x1 is a comb [many-needled
shape] of material x2 with tines/needles x3. (See
also julne, forca, burcu.)
konceto zei pagbu p1 is a movement of concerto for solo instruments k2, number k3 in key
k4 composed by k5. (Cf. konceto, pagbu, zgike,
nolzgi, simfoni.)
konceto x1 is concerto number x2 in key x3
composed by x4 performed by/at x5( event). (Cf.
zgike, nolzgi, konceto zei pagbu, pipnrpaino zei
konceto, jgitrviolino zei konceto, simfoni, zgifi’i.)
kondomo x1 is a condom of x2 size for x3 sex
and x4 material
konfuzi x1 pertains to the Confucist culture/religion/ethos in aspect x2
konjaku x1 is konjac of species/variety x2. (see
also samcrtaro, samcu)
konju [kon ko’u] x1 is a cone [shape/form]
of material x2 with vertex x3. (Also ellipse, ellipsoid (= konclupa). See also jesni, djine, sovda, korbi [kor koi] x1 is an
edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2
next-to/bordering-on x3. (See also cmavo list koi,
greku, mlana, jimte, ctebi, bartu.)
korcu [kro] (adjective:) x1 is
bent/crooked/not straight or direct/[twisted]/folded. (See also cinje, klupe,
kruvi, polje, sarlu, sirji, bargu, genxu.)
korgretro t1 controls g1 = t2 who crosses g2 =
k1 to g3 = k2 from g4 = k2. (see also natmi, pagre,
korka [kok] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of cork/bark from tree/species x2; [material]. (See also tricu, calku, skapi, stagi.)
korsenta s1 = k1 is a cortex (outermost layer)
of structure s3 = k2. (x2 may be an organ, a cell, a
plant, or a rock. Cf. skapi, pilka, sefta.)
4 korvo s1 is a crow/raven of species s2.
kosta [kos] x1 is a
[extra outer garment] of material x2. (See also
kotledona x1 is a cotyledon of seed x2 of plantz
kotygu’e g1 is Scotlandcountry
ko [KOhA3] pro-sumti: you (imperative); make
it true for you, the listener.
krafamtei x1 is the duration ofy
kraga’igau gas1 resets/changes gal1 to its original value/content
4 krali x1 (NU) is a legal/moral entitlement of
x2 (individual/mass) by standard x3. (Normative principles, variously construed as legal, social, or moral freedoms or entitlements. rarkrali
for ”natural rights and flakrali for ”legal rights”;
xuskrali for ”claim rights” and zifkrali for ”liberty rights”; crukrali for ”positive rights” and
ri’urkrali for ”negative rights”; sepkrali for ”individual rights” and gumkrali for ”group rights”;
selcemkrali for ”civil rights” and seljeckrali for
”political rights”; jiknykrali for ”economic rights”,
jikykrali for ”social rights”, and klukrali for ”cultural rights”; remkrali for ”human rights” and
dalkrali for ”animal rights
krambola x1 is a starfruit/carambola of varietyy
kramu x1 is x2 local area unit(s) [non-metric](default 1) by standard x3, x4 subunits. ((additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...);
krasi [kra] x1 (site/event) is a
source/start/beginning/origin of x2 (object/event/process). (Also root (figurative
sense); (adjective:) x1 is initial
krastu s1 = k1 is the origin of s2 = k2
krataigo x1 is a hawthorn of species/varietyy
krati [ka’i] x1 represents/is an
agent/proxy/stands-in for [absent] x2 in matter(s)/function(s) x3. (Also: on behalf of
krebasti b1 is wig/toupee/mirkin worn by k2
on body location k3
krebu’u b1 is an amount of velvet/velour/towelling/tufted cloth oftype/material b2.
krefu [ref ke’u] x1 (event) is the x3’rd recurrence/repetition of x2 (abstract); x2 happens
again in [form] x1. (Also case, another, instance,
different, other, time, occasio
krekalsa ka1 = ke2 has disheveled/tousled hair
krelu’i x1 washes x2’s hair, removing x3 with
shampoo x4.
kresi’e s1 is dandruff on the head of k2
krevelylu’i x1 is a shampoo for washing x2’shair, removing x3, used by x4.
krevi’u x1 = v1 shaves/[removes hair] x2 =
k1 = v2 from x3 = k2 = v3 (Applies to any form ofhair removal, not necessarily with a blade
krici [kri] x1 believes [regardless ofevidence/proof] belief/creed x2 (du’u) is
true/assumed about subject x3. (”without
evidence” refers to objective external evidence;
also gives credence, has convictio
kriketi x1 plays cricket against x2 in competition
x3 for prize/title x4
krili x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
crystal of composition x2 in form/arrangement x3.
83ku’inai kukfusra
(x2: composition including x2, which need not be
complete specificatio
krinu [rin ki’u] x1 (event/state)
is a reason/justification/explanation
for/causing/permitting x2 (event/state
kriofla x1 is a clove bud/tree of species/varietyy
krixa [kix ki’a] x1 cries out/yells/howls
sound x2; x1 is a crier
kro’oke x1 croquets x2’s ball
krobi’o b1 = k1 bends under conditions b3
krogarna k1 = g1 is bow/arc supporting/restraining g2, of material g3.
krokete x1 plays croquet against x2 in competition x3 for prize/title x4
krokodilo x1 is a crocodile (family Crocodylidae) of breed x2
krori’a r1 (event/state) bends/flexes k1 under
conditions r3
krorinsa r1 = k1 curtseys in front of r2
krosa’i s1 = k1 bows/takes a bow on surface s2
supported by limbs/supports s3
krotofaga x1 is an ani of speciey
kruca [kuc] x1 intersects/crosses/traverses
x2 at locusz
kruji [ruj] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of cream/emulsion/puree [consistency] of
composition x2. ([x2: composition including x2,
which need not be complete specificatio
kruvi [ruv kru] x1 is a curve/turn/bend
in x2, at locus x3, and defined by set of
points/properties x4. ((adjective:) x1 is curved;
(x4 as a set of points is sufficiently specified to
identify the relevant properties of the bend
ku’a [kuz] [JOI] non-logical connective: intersection of sets.
ku’e [KUhE] elidable terminator: end mathematical (mex) forethought (Polish) expression; often elidable.
ku’inai [UI3b] discursive: hence/therefore.
(Used to draw conclusions in accordance with
what said previously, as opposed to ku’i (in contrast).)
ku’i [UI3b] discursive: however/but/in contrast. (See also karbi, dukti, nalpanra.)
ku’o [KUhO] elidable terminator: end NOI relative clause; always elidable, but preferred in complex clauses.
ku’u [BAI] kulnu modal, 1st place in culture ...
kuadragesim Lent
kuarka x1 is a quark with flavor y
kubli [kub] x1 is a cube/regular polyhedron/polygon of dimensions x2 (def. 3), surfaces/sides x3 (def. 6). ((cf. kurfa - needed for’cube’, bliku for a physical object; tanbo, tapla,
kuclanli l1 cross examines l2
kucli x1 is curious/wonders about/is interested
in/[inquisitive about] x2 (object/abstract). (Inquisitive (= retkucli
kucyga’asni x1 is a crucifix
kucyga’a x1 is a cross made ofy
kucysimgau g1 folds/crosses/intertwines
kucyvla x1 = v1 = k1 is a word/quotation
crossing other words/quotations, meaning/defined by x2 = v2, located at x3 = k3
(Across -¿ pinta, down -¿ sraji, crossword puzzle
-¿ ”kucyvla se namkei”. Example: ”12 across:
what you like -¿ beautiful” is ”zo melbi cu kucyvla
lu da poi do nelci li’u li pare poi pinta”. x1 may be
a non grammatical quotation. )
kufra [kuf] x1 feels comfort/is comfortable
with conditions/environmental property(ies) x2.
kuinke x1 reflects Seri culture/language in aspect x2
kujmikce m1 is a nurse to/nurses m2
kujyjai j1 = k1 nurses/holds with care j2 = k2
(object/event/person) with/in j3 (part of j1
kukfusra f1 = k1 is fermented with fermenting
agent f2, tasty to observer x3 = k2
84kumtrvalpaka kurki
kukselzbasu z2 = k1 is something made by z1
out of z3 that is pleasing/delightful to sense k2.
kukselzba z2 = k1 is something made by z1 outof z3 that is pleasing/delightful to sense k2
kukte [kuk] x1 is delicious/tasty/delightful
to observer/sense x2 [person, or sensory activity].
(x1 is a delicacy
kulcitsi ci1 is a term/semester with interval ci2
of year ci3 for school ck1. (x2 may be formed with
kulmu’o k4 = m1 graduates/completes coursework from k1 at location k2 in subject matter k3, by
the standards of the administration k5 = m3 (This
is really a dropped SE of velkulmu’o. m2 is the implied ”property of learning at k2 subject matter k3
from school k1”)
kulnrnorge x1 is Norwegian/pertains to Norwegian culture in aspect x2.
kulnrturkie x1 is Turkish/pertains to Turkish
culture in aspecy
kulnrturko x1 is Turkic/pertains to Turkic culture in aspecy
kulnu [klu] x1 [mass of ideas, customs, skills,
arts] is culture of nation/ethos x2 (mass); x1 is ethnic. ((note that x2 is NOT individual; culture is
what is shared among people and is not an individual trait
kulpikta p1 is a diploma entitling p2 to entitlement/privilege p3 (event/state) from
school/institute/academy x4 = c1 teaching
subject(s) x5 = c3
kumfa [kum ku’a] x1 is a room of/in structure x2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x3 (mass/jo’u qh chamber
kumte x1 is a camel/llama/alpaca/vicuna/dromedary
of species/breed x2. (Llama (= tcokumte), Bactrian
camel (= zdokumte); Arabian camel/dromedary
(= rabykumte
kumtrguanako x1 is a guanaco of breed x2.
kumtrlama x1 is a llama of breedy
kumtrvalpaka x1 is an alpaca of breed x2.
kumtrvikunia x1 is a vicuna of breed x2.
kumyzda z1 = k1 is an apartment for z2 in structure k2. (A complete domicile occupying only part
of a building. Cf. zdani, selxa’u.)
kungundi g1 is a/the metals and mining industry/sector producing/mining g2 = k1 of
type/metal k2 from location k3 by process g3
kunkakpa x1 = ka1 (agent) mines material/ore
x2 = ku1 = ka2 of type x3 = ku2 from
mine/source x4 = ku3 = ka3 using tool x5 = ka4.
(Used in Theodore Reed’s translation of A Princess
of Mars.)
kunra [kun] x1 is/contains/is made from a
mineral/ore of type/metal x2 mined from location/lode/mine z
kunrlazuli x1 is/contains/is made from lapis lazuli of type/grade x2 mined from location x3.
kunrmarmaro x1 is/contains/is made from marble of type x2 mined from location x3.
kunrxalabastre x1 is/contains/is made from alabaster of type x2 mined from location x3.
kunske s1=t1 is mineralogy [science about minerals] based on methodology s3. (kunra2, kunra3
and saske2 subsumed
kunti [kut] x1 [container] is empty/vacant of
x2 [material]; x1 is hollow. (Also vacuum (= kunti
be roda/so’ada
kurfa [kur] x1 is a right-angled shape/form defined by set of vertices x2, dimensions x3 (default 2). (Also rectangle, square, rectilinear; square
(= kubykurfa, pitkubykurfa), cube (= kurkubli),
rectangle (= clakurfa), rhombus/diamond (=
sa’orkurfa, sa’orpitkubli). See also bliku, kubli, tapla, salpo, tarmi.)
kurji [kuj ku’i] x1 takes-care-of/looks after/attends to/provides for/is caretaker for x2
(object/event/person). (Also tends, cares for,
keeps; x1 is a keeper/custodian ofy
kurki x1 is bitter/acrid/sharply disagreeable to
kurkuli x1 is a weevil of genus/species x2
kurkuma x1 is turmeric of species/variety x2.
kurmo’a m1 is a check/checkerboard pattern of
squares k1 = m2 arranged in structure m3 (x2
might be a set of colors, with x3 specifying their
kurtenfa t1 is the square of t2. (see tenfa)
kurtsapi x1 is a spice of the mint family, with
flavor x2. (see also tebrulspa, spatrbasiliko)
kusnkusu x1 is a quantity of couscous of ingredients including x2
kuspe [kup ku’e] x1
across/over interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range
x2. (Also continues. See also ranji, renvi, tcena,
kusru [kus] x1 (person) is
cruel/mean/unkind to victim x2. (See also
xendo, jursa.)
kustru k1 = t1 governs and oppresses k2 = t2.
kusyja’a x1 is a cruel-captain with object of
cruelty-captained x2.
kutyje’u x1 a tautology by standard/epistemology/metaphysics y
kutytu’a t1 = k1 is a desert located in/at t2
ku [KU] elidable terminator: end description,
modal, or negator sumti; often elidable.
ky [BY2] letteral for k.
la’anai [UI*3] discursive: probability - improbability.
la’a [UI3] discursive: probability - improbability
la’edi’u [KOhA*] pro-sumti: the referent of the last utterance; the state described: ”IT was fun”.
la’ei [LA] combines LA with DOI (used to
address someone in the 2nd person by name and
use that as a sumti at the same time, that is: do doi
la broda is equivalent to la’ei broda)
la’erji’i x1 expects x2 on groundsz
la’erlai x1 has probability/likelihood x2 of occurring under conditionsxz
la’e [LAhE] the referent of (indirect pointer);
uses the referent of a sumti as the desired sumti.
la’irze’a z1 = l1 gets closer to l2 in property l3
by amount z3
la’i [LA] name descriptor: the set of those named ... ; takes name or selbri description.
la’oi single-word non-Lojban name;quotes a single noloxjban word delimited by
pauses (in speech) or whitespace (in writing) and treats it as a name
la’ornacle’u le1 is a Roman numeral representing le3=n1.
la’ornai x1 is the Roman nation made up of people x2 (se la’ornai means the Roman people. The
term refers to the ancient Romans, not to modernday residents of the Italian capital, or small Wisconsin town.)
la’orxi’o x1 = l1 is oman atholic in aspect
x2 = l2
la’o [ZOI] delimited non-Lojban name; the resulting quote sumti is treated as a name.
la’u ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a
quantity; how many?.
la’u [BAI] klani modal, 1st place (amount)
quantifying ...; being a quantity of ...
labnanba n1 is white bread made from grains
labno x1 is a wolf/lupine of species/breed x2.
labybi’o bi1 turns pale/white under condition
labyblusle x1 is a white blood cell of theblut/pus x2 of animal x3.
labyblu c1 is lymph of animal c2
labyfi’e f1 = b1 is a whitefish of genus/species
f2. (Cf. blabi, finpe, merlanu.)

labyxu’e x1 is rose. (Cf. blabi, xunre, xunblabi.)
4 lacni x1 is an eyewear used/worn by x2 serving purpose x3. (It is a frame worn in front of the
eyes and bears or does not bear transparent/semitransparent/non-transparent shields for visual
correction, eye protection, fashion, or entertainment. The shields are not necessarily lenses.
which may include tidlacni for reading glasses and
xrelacni for bifocal and trifocal glasses; badlacni
for a protective type, which may include srulacni
for goggles and solylacni for sunglasses; jadlacni
86lampru lartodektu
for fashion glasses, which may include rekmeclacni for rimless glasses and solylacni; mincimdylacni for 3D glasses.)
lacpu [lap cpu] x1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags
x2 by handle/at locus x3. (Gravity (= ka maicpu,
maircpukai). See also catke, sakci, cokcu.)
lacri [lac] x1 relies/depends/counts
on/trusts x2 to bring about/ensure/maintain
x3 (event/state). (See also minde, nitcu, tinbe.)
lactergu’e l1 = g3 is a dependent territory relying on the sovereignty of l2 (state). (Examples are
British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles, and
American Samoa. Cf. gugde, zifyje’a.)
ladru [lad] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of milk from source x2; (adjective:) x1 is lactic/dairy. (See also lanbi, mabru, tatru, cirla, kruji.)
lafti [laf] x1 (force) lifts/applies raising/supporting force to x2 at locus x3 in gravity well x4. ((x1 may be an abstract); verb
lift/raise/elevate (= lafmuvgau). See also farlu,
lairka’e x1 is quantifiable by quantifier x2 on
scale x3.
lai [LA] name descriptor: the mass of individual(s) named ... ; takes name or selbri description.
lajre’e x1 is a train with train car x2 with train
system x3 propelled by x4.
lakne [la’e] x1 (event/state/property) is
probable/likely under conditions x2. (See also
cumki, jinzi, kampu, tcaci, cunso, cafne, fadni,
lakse [lak] x1 is quantity of wax [substance especially soft/moldable when warm] from
source x2. (Also paraffin. See also bifce, ranti,
laktergu’i g3 = l1 is a candle/wax light with
wax source l2. (Cf. fagytergu’i, dictergu’i.)
laldo x1 is old/aged [relatively long in
elapsed duration] by standard x2 ((= tolci’o) See
citno, slabu)
lalxu [la’u] x1 is a lake/lagoon/pool at
site/within land mass x2. (See also daplu, djacu,
lamji [lam la’i] x1 is adjacent/beside/next
to/in contact with x2 in property/sequence x3 in
direction x4. (Also touching, contiguous, against.
lampagre p1 = l1 passes by p2 to p3 from p4 by
l2. (Cf. lamji, pagre.)
lampru l1 = p1 is recent, immediately preceding
l2 = p2. (Cf. purci.)
lanbi x1 is a quantity of protein/albumin of type
x2 composed of amino acids (sequence/jo’u) x3 .
lanci x1 is a flag/banner/standard
of/symbolizing x2 with pattern(s) x3 on material x4. (See also gugde, jecta.)
landegmei m1 is a mass of set m2 with an even
number of members m3 (see also xirdegmei)
lanka x1 is a basket with contents x2, woven
from material x3. (See also vasru, baktu.)
lanli [lal] x1 analyzes/examines-in-detail
x2 by method/technique/system x3 [process/activity]. (See also catlu, zgana, jarco,
pensi, pinka.)
lanma’i x1 is April of year x2 in calendar x3. (Cf.
vonmasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
lanme [lan] x1 is a sheep/[lamb/ewe/ram]
of species/breed x2 of flock x3. (See also kanba,
lanpanzi p1 is a lamb of species/breed l2 (from
lanme panzi)
lante x1 is a can/tightly sealed/pre-sealed container for perishable contents x2, made of x3. (See
also botpi, baktu, tinci.)
lanxe [lax] x1 is in balance/equilibrium under forces x2 (mass). ((cf. midju, nutli; fapro for
balancing/opposing forces, nutli))
lanzu [laz] x1 (mass) is a family with members including x2 bonded/tied/joined according
to standard x3. (Also clan, tribe; x2 is in x1, a member of x1 (selylanzu for reordered places); relative
(= lazmi’u - xy mintu y’y leka cmima da poi lanzu).
larcu [lar] x1 (process) is an art [creative application] of craft/skill x2 (idea/activity). ((adjective:) x1 is artistic. See also finti, zbasu, stati.)
lardai x1 is a work of art created by an application of craft/skill x2. (See also larcu, dacti.)
larfi’i f1 is an artist creating work of art f2 = l1
in medium l2 for purpose f3 from elements/ideas
f4 .
larmuzga m1 is a gallery exhibiting m2 at location m3.
larpra x1 is-an-artist/produces x2 by artistic application of skill/craft x3. (See also larcu, cupra)
lartodektu l1 is a widow spider of species l2. (cf.
laryrakpra c1 sculpts/carves c2 = l1 from s2 using tool s1 (implied c3 is ”lo nu jai gau sraku s2 fai
s1” implied l2 would likewise be ”lo si’o nu jai gau
sraku s2 fai s1”)
lasna [la’a] x1 (agent) fastens/connects/attaches/binds/lashes x2 to
x3 with fastener x4. (No implication that result
is considered a single object; although x2 and
x3 may be reversible, x3 may be used for the
substrate, the fixed/larger object to which x2
becomes attached. See also jorne, fenso, jgena,
lastu x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
brass [copper/zinc alloy] of composition including x2. ((adjective:) x1 is brazen). See also jinme,
ransu, tunka.)
latcmo x1 = c1 = m1 meows expressing x2 =
c3. (Cf. mlatu, cmoni, latpukcmo.)
latcribe x1 is a panda of genus/species x2. (syn.
latfekspa x1 is catnip of species x2.
latfi’e x1 is a catfish of genus/species x2.
latmo [la’o] x1 reflects
Latin/Roman/Romance culture/empire/language in aspect x2. (See also
latna x1 is a lotus, plant/flower/herb of
species/strain x2 symbolizing x3 to culture/religion x4. (See also budjo, censa, lijda,
latpukcmo b1 = p2 purrs, expressing pleasure
at p1 (event/state). (Cf. mlatu, pluka, cmoni,
lauble r1 = c1 sounds quiet/weak at observation point c2 by standard c3 = t3. (Cf. cladu, ruble,
lauDZIS Laotze (aka. Laozi)
laurblesku cu1 = r1 (agent) whipers cu2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience cu3 via
expressive medium cu4. (Cf. cladu, ruble, cusku,
smasku, mliba’u.)
lausku cu1 = cl1 shouts cu2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e
concept) for audience cu3 via expressive medium
cu4, loudly by standard x5 = cl3. (Cf. laurba’u,
laus Laos. (Under some interpretations of the
morphology rules, not a valid word.)
lau [LAU] 2-word letteral/shift: punctuation
mark or special symbol follows.
laxma’i x1 is October of year x2 in calendar x3.
laxygau g1 balances l1 with force l2. (Cf. lanxe,
lazni x1 (person) is lazy/avoiding work/effort
concerning action x2. (See also nejni, vreta,
lazycange c1 is a family farm/ranch at c2,
farmed by family c3 = l1 (mass), raising, producing c4.
lazyzda z1 is the home of family members z2 =
l2. (Cf. lanzu, zdani.)
lazyzukykei k1 (agent) plays house. (A child’s
play to emulate parents.)
la [LA] name descriptor: the one(s) called ... ;
takes name or selbri description.
le go’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti: reuses
the value of the x1 of the previous bridi.
le jaica [LE*] description: marks description
extracting the time tense place of the description
le jaigau [LE*] description: marks description
extracting the agentive place of the description selbri.
le jaivi [LE*] description: marks description extracting the location place of the description bridi.
le sego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x2 of the previous bridi.
le tego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x3 of the previous bridi.
le vego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x4 of the previous bridi.
le xego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x5 of the previous bridi.
4 le’ai [LEhAI] replace recent mistakenly uttered text (The lo’ai ... sa’ai ... le’ai replacement
construct asks the listener to replace the text after
lo’ai with the text after sa’ai. The order sa’ai ... lo’ai
... le’ai is also allowed, and either or both parts can
be omitted and thus left up to context. When both
parts are omitted, the word le’ai on its own indicates that a mistake was made while leaving all
the details up to context.
It is also possible to attach SAI to a le’ai construct: le’ai dai (or le’ai da’oi ko’a) indicates
that someone else made a mistake; le’ai pei asks
whether someone else made a mistake; and sai,
ru’e and cu’i can be used to indicate the importance of the substitution. Furthermore, le’ai nai
can be used to explicitly deny mistakes instead of
acknowledging them (compare ”sic”).)
le’avla v1 is a loanword meaning v2 in language
v3 based on foreign-language word l2. (Old, deprecated synonym for fu’ivla. Could be considered
an u’ivla.)
le’axru xr1 = l1 takes back xr2 = l2 from xr4 =
l3. (Cf. lebna, xruti, xrube’i, xrucpa.)
le’a [BAI] klesi modal, 1st place (scalar set)
in/of category ...
le’e [lem] [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the
stereotype of those described as ...
le’ipli pi1 = pl1 employs pi2 = pl3 for a payment/compensation/salary/wage/reward of pl2
for the provision of goods/services pi3 = pl4.
le’i [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the set of
those described as ..., treated as a set.
le’ocu’i [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: aggressive
- passive - defensive.
le’onai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: aggressive -
passive - defensive.
le’otci t1 is a monocle/pair of
(eye)glasses/spectacles for observational activity t2. (Cf. lenjo, tutci, barkalyle’o, vistci.)
le’o [UI5] attitudinal modifier: aggressive - passive - defensive. (See also gunta, bandu.)
le’u [LEhU] end quote of questionable or outof-context text; not elidable.
lebna [leb le’a] x1
x2 (object/property) from x3 (possessor). (Also
confiscate, appropriate. Acquire with volition
such that x1 gains possession; x3 is possessor and
not merely source, alienation is implied. (cf. punji,
cpacu where volition or previous possession is not
necessarily implied, vimcu for alienation where
x1 need not gain possession, canci, cliva))
lecyde’i d1 is a/the wisdom tooth of d2 (See also
ka’arde’i, gerde’i, crazalde’i, zalde’i.)
lecydo’i d1 = l1 is the afternoon of day d2 at
location d3.
ledgrute g1 is a mushroom of species g2.
ledo [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
the one(s) described as, of yours.
leiske s1 is the taxonomy of s2 = k2 based on
methodology s3. (x2 may be subjects of biology,
semantics, economics, military science, safety science, etc. Cf. jutske, klesi.)
lei [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the mass of
individual(s) described as ...
lejbai x1 = p1 bribes x3 = p3 with x2 = p2 into
doing x4 = p4.
lekmi’i m1 is a fridge/air conditioner for cooling x2 = l1. (Cf. dujmi’i, dujyku’a, lenku, kelvo,
dunja, varmuvmi’i.)
leko’a [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
the one(s) described as, of it-1’s.
lektoni x1 is an electron in quantum state x2
lektu’a t1 = l1 is tundra at location t2, cold by
standard l2 (See also lenku, tumla)
4 lelxe x1 is a lily [Lilium] of species/strain x2
lemi [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
the one(s) described as, of mine.
lenjo [len le’o] x1 is a lens/glass [focussing shape/form] focussing x2 to focus/foci x3
by means/material x4. ((adjective:) x1 is optical;
focussing may be optical or otherwise, hence x2
which may be light, sound, X-ray, etc., default is
light/optical lens; ka is refraction. See also kacma,
lenku [lek] x1 is cold/cool by standard x2.
lerci [lec] x1 (event) is late by standard x2.
lercu’aca’a ca1 is a keyboard for entering letters/symbols l1 = cu2. (Cf. batkyci’a.)
lerfu [ler le’u] x1 (la’e zo BY/word-bu) is
a letter/digit/symbol in alphabet/character-set x2
representing x3. (Also x1 glyph, rune, character
(also me’o BY/word-bu), x2 symbol set; (adjective:) x1 is alphabetic/symbolic; ”letteral” used by
analogy with ”numeral”; sinxa is the more generic
symbol. See also mifra, namcu, sinxa, pandi.)
lerldjamo x1 is a jamo in syllable x2 in writing
system x3 (default Hangul)
lerpinsle s1 = p1 is a line in the text s2. (Cf.
vlali’i, lerseltcidu.)
lerseltcidu t2 is a text in medium t3 with character set l2.
lertermifra m3 is a character encoding for bytes
m2 with symbols/font m1. (Cf. lerfu, mifra,
leta [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
nearby demonstrative possessive; cannot use for
’THAT ...’.
leti [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
immediate demonstrative possessive; cannot use
for ’THIS ...’.
letu [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
distant demonstrative possessive.
leva [LE*] located descriptor: descriptive thatthere (non-demonstrative).
levi [LE*] located descriptor: descriptive thishere (non-demonstrative).
levu [LE*] located descriptor: descriptive thatyonder (non-demonstrative).
le [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the one(s) described as ...
li’anai [UI*3] discursive: clearly - obscurely.
li’avro v1 is an exit out of c2. (Cf. cliva, vorme,
li’a [UI3] discursive: clearly - obscurely. (See
also klina.)
li’erla’i li1 = la1 immediately precedes li2 = la2
in sequence li3 = la3.
li’e [BAI] lidne modal, 1st place preceded by ...;
non-time sequencing.
li’i [liz] [NU] abstractor: experience abstractor; x1 is x2’s experience of [bridi] (participant or
li’orkliru x1 is fluorine.
li’orklirysilna s1 is a fluoride of s3. (see also
li’orklirytau t1 is a fluoride of t3. (See also
li’o [UI3a] discursive: omitted text (quoted material).
li’u [LIhU] elidable terminator: end grammatical quotation; seldom elidable except at end of
libjo [lib] x1 reflects Libyan culture/nationality in aspect x2
lidne [li’e] x1 precedes/leads x2 in sequence x3; x1 is former/preceding/previous; x2
is latter/following. (Also x1 before, forerunner;
leading, as in ’leading indicators’; x2 after, trailing
(= selyli’e for reordered places
lidvilti’a t1 = v1 is a thunderstorm at
place/region t2
lidvru s1 is thunderous to s2
lidysna x1 is a sound with emit sound-lightning
líetuvas Lithuania
lietuvos Lithuania.
lifri [lif fri] x1 [person/passive/state] undergoes/experiences x2 (event/experience);
x2 happens to x1. (Also has/have (of
events/experiences); (adjective:) x1 is empirical; suggests passive undergoing but does not
exclude active (per zukte) intent; a deserved
experience: reward or punishment (= jernyfri,
zanjernyfri, maljernyfri). See also cmavo list ri’i,
jmive, fasnu, renvi.)
ligyfebvi x1 = f1 = s2 sublimates/evaporates
from the solid state at temperature x2 = f2 = s3
with vapor pressure x3 = f3. (From sligu febvi;
refers to a state change from solid to gas or vice
versa, at the solid surface.)
lizhda [jda] x1 is a religion of believers including x2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets
including x3. (Also mythos, creed, traditional beliefs, x2 people(s), adherents; (adjective:) x1, x2,
x3 are religious/ecclesiastic in nature; x2 is a believer in/of x1, an adherent/follower of x1 (=

seljda for reordered places); x2 is a practitioner
of x3 (= selterjda for reordered places); x3 is a
tenet/belief/ritual/creed of x1/x2 (= terjda for reordered places); priest/clerical (= jdaca’i, jdaka’i,
jdaja’a); organized church/religion (= be’ejda);
congregation (= jdabe’e, jdagri). See also budjo,
censa, cevni, crida, dadjo, jegvo, krici, latna, malsi,
marde, muslo, pruxi, ranmi, ritli, xriso, zekri.)
lijdrba’a,i l1 is the Bahai religion with beliefs/practices/tenets including l3
lijdrdjaina l1 is the Jain religion with beliefs/practices/tenets including l3
lijgri g1 is a row (group) showing common property (ka) g2 due to set g3 linked by relations g4. likpu’i x1 = p1 (agent)
onto/applies/lubricate/baptises x3 = p3
with liquid/semi-liquid/oil/cream/ointment
x2 = p2 = l1.
lilgundi g1 is a/the energy industry/sector producing fuel/energy source g2 = l1 for powering l2
based on process g3 (From livla, gundi.)
limla’u la1 is a pool where li1 swims in fluid li2.
limna’i n1 is a flipper [body-part] of n2
limna [lim] x1 (agent) swims in fluid x2
lindi [lid] x1 is lightning/electrical
arc/thunderbolt striking at/extending to x2
from x3. (Also thunder (= lidysna
linga’axa’i x1 is a nunchaku. (A Japanese
weapon consisting of two wooden sticks connected by a chain; also spelled “nunchuku”)
linji [lij li’i] x1 is a line/among lines [1-
dimensional shape/form] defined by set of points
x2. (Ray/vector (farli’i or porli’i). See also kruvi,
sirji, jganu, kantu, mokca.)
linlani x1 is a lily-of-the-valley / may-lily (Convallaria) of species/strain x2
linsi [lin] x1 is a length of chain/links of material x2 with link properties x3. (See also skori.)
linto [li’o] x1 is light in mass/weight by
standard x2. ((cf. junta, tilju; se xalbo, kandi for
lirgli g1 is Old English/pertains to Old Englishspeaking culture in aspect g2, early by standard
x3 = c2.
lirmau x1 is earlier than x2 by amount of time
x3. (cf. lecmau, temci)
liryraixa’u lr1 = xa1 is / are the earliest person(s) to dwell/live/reside/abide at/inhabit/be
a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode
xa2 among set / range lr2. (Made from liryrai +
liryrai c1 = t1 is the earliest among set / range
lisne’i n1 is in character (actions or speech to be
interpreted as part of a story/role-playing game)
(out of character: lisybartu)
lisnuntoi n1 is a drafting by author l3 = t1 of
story l1 = t2 using method t3.
lisri [lis] x1 is a story/tale/yarn/narrative
about plot/subject/moral x2 by storyteller x3 to
audience x4. (Also legend; a narrative need not
be fictional; x2 may be merely a convention rather
than a subject; also x3 tells/recounts story/tale x1
about x2 to x4 (= selterlisri for place reordering);
note that the storyteller need not be the author. See
also ranmi, cfika, skicu, prosa, pemci.)
liste [ste] x1 (physical object) is a
list/catalog/register of sequence/set x2 in order x3 in medium x4. (Also roll, log. (x2 is
completely specified); (cf. porsi, girzu, cmima
for mental objects wherein order is of varying
importance; some manifested order is intrinsic
to a physical list, but the specific order may be
incidental and not intentional/purposeful))
lisxra x1 = p1 is a comic strip about
plot/subject/moral x2 = l2 illustrated by x3 = p3
with story written by x4 = l3. (Cf. lisri, pixra.)
lisybartu b1 is out of character (actions or
speech not to be interpreted as part of a story/roleplaying game) (in character: lisne’i)
lisycku c1 is a story book containing
story/tale/yarn/narrative l2 by author c3 = l3 for
audience c4 = l4 preserved in medium c5
litce [lic] x1 is x2 liters) [metric unit] in volume (default is 1) by standard x3
litcreka cr1 is a dress shirt of material cr2, potentially formal by standard cl3. (A shirt with a
collar, a full-length opening at the front from the
collar to the hem, and sleeves with cuffs; normally
made from woven cloth, and are often accompanied by a jacket and tie, for example with a suit
or formalwear, but can be worn also more casually
without. Cf. creka.)
litki [lik] x1 is liquid/fluid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3.
(Conditions include temperature and pressure.
litru [li’u] x1 travels/journeys/goes/moves
via route x2 using means/vehicle x3; x1 is a traveller. ((x2 as a set includes points at least sufficient
to constrain the route relevantly); See also bajra,
cadzu, cpare, tcana, klama, cliva, pluta, limna, muvdu.)
litxendo xe1 = c1 is gracious to xe2 in matter
xe3 = c2. (xendo, clite.)
litytce m1 is very/extremely polite/courteous/civil in matter c2 according to
standard/custom c3. (Cf. clite, mutce.)
liunko x1 is a lynx (Felis lynx) (See mlatu)
livbai b1 expels c1 from c2; b1 throws c1 out of c2
livgau g1 causes c1 to leave c2 via route c3
livga x1 is a/the liver [body-part] of x2
livla [lil] x1 is a fuel/energy-source for powering x2. (See also nejni, xaksu, jelca.)
li [LI] the number/evaluated expression; convert number/operand/evaluated math expression to sumti
lo’ai [LOhAI] start quote of recent mistakenly uttered text to be replaced (See le’ai.)
lo’a [BY1] shift letterals to Lojban (Roman) alphabet.
lo’e [lom] [LE] veridical descriptor: the typical one(s) who really is(are) ...
lo’i [LE] veridical descriptor: the set of those
that really are ..., treated as a set.
lo’o [LOhO] elidable terminator: end math express.(mex) sumti; end mex-to-sumti conversion;
usually elidable.
lo’u [LOhU] start questionable/out-of-context
quote; text should be Lojban words, but needn’t
be grammatical.
logji [loj] x1 [rules/methods] is a logic
for deducing/concluding/inferring/reasoning
to/about x2 (du’u). (Also (adjective:) x1, x2 are
logical. See also nibli.)
loglytuan Loglan-worker.
loibru b1 is a broom for purpose b2 (event) with
bristles b3. (From loldi, burcu.)
loisli l1 = s1 undergoes an earthquake/an event
of the ground shaking of magnitude x2. (not necessarily earthquake, could be due to bomb explosion etc. too.)
loi [LE] veridical descriptor: the mass of individual(s) that is(are) ...
lojbab Bob LeChevalier.
lojban Lojban. (Cf. banjubu’o.)
lojbau b1 is the loglan/Loglan/logic language
used by community b2 to express ideas b3. (Cf.
bangu, runbau, lojbo, lojban)
lojbo [lob jbo] x1 re-
flects [Loglandic]/Lojbanic language/culture/nationality/community in aspect
x2. (Pre-Lojban forms of Loglan (= dzejbo
lojycpa x1 infers/concludes/draws conclusion
x2 from premise x3 based on logic/reasoning x4.
loldi [lol loi] x1 is a floor/bottom/ground
of x2. (Floor/level/story of a building/edifice (=
setloi, dijysenta
lolgai g1 is floor covering/flooring/carpet/rug
for covering floor g2 = l1 of x3 = l2. (Cf. buklolgai.)
lolni’ajbama j1 = c1 is a landmine with explosive material/principle j2. (Cf. loldi, cnita, jbama.)
lolni’apu’i p1 (agent) buries/puts underground
p2 = c1 under surface x3 = c2 = l1 of x4 = l2

lolni’a c1 is underground/buried within ground
c2 = l1 of x3 = l2. (Cf. lolni’apu’i, derse’a.)
lolro’iboi b1=r1 is a cobblestone of material
b2=r2 in floor l1.
lorvera x1 is a quantity of aloe vera of
species/strain x2
lorxu [lor lo’u] x1 is a fox [bushy-tailed
wild dog/canine] of species/breed x2. (See also
los'anzhelys Los Angeles
lo [LE] veridical descriptor: the one(s) that really is(are) ... (Under the xorlo reform, lo converts
a selbri to a sumti in a rather generic way. In particular, lo broda = zo’e noi broda.)
lu’a [LAhE] the members of the
set/components of the mass; converts another
description type to individuals.
lu’e [LAhE] the symbol for (indirect discourse);
uses the symbol/word(s) for a sumti as the desired
lu’i [LAhE] the set with members; converts another description type to a set of the members.
lu’o [LAhE] the mass composed of; converts
another description type to a mass composed of
the members.
lu’u [LUhU] elidable terminator: end of sumti
qualifiers; usually elidable except before a sumti.
lubno [lu’o] x1 reflects Lebanese culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also xrabo.)
lujna’u x1 is a complex number. (See also ka’o,
xarna’u, tolxarna’u)
lujvo [luv jvo] x1 (text) is a compound
predicate word with meaning x2 and arguments
x3 built from metaphor x4. (See also stura, cmavo,
lumbrinki x1 is an earthworm of species x2. (Cf.
lumci [lum lu’i] x1 (agent)
washes/cleanses x2 of soil/contaminant x3
in/with cleaning material(s) x4. (Agentless washing/cleansing (= cuvbi’o, jisybi’o
lumku’a x1 = k1 is a bathroom, in which
x2 = l1 washes x3 = l2 (self/other(s)/body
part), in home/building/structure x4 = k2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x5 =
k3 (mass/jo’u) (A room with a sink technically
qualifies, but this is more like a room with a bath
or shower as well. What most Americans call a
”bathroom”. For a room specifically for urination
or defecation, see vimku’a.)
lumpatxu p1 is a wash tub/bath tub, for l1 to
wash p2 = l2, made of material p3.
lumtansi t1 is a sink, for l1 to wash t2 = l2, made
of material t3
lunbe [lub] x1 is bare/naked/nude; x1 is
without cover/clothes/[protection]. (See also
taxfu, bandu.)
lunmes x1 is Aries [astronomical constellation/astrological sign]. (From lanme
(=sheep/[lamb/ewe/ram];lojban) and lu
(=sheep;sumerogram). This constellation has
been known as the ram/sheep since babylonian
times, and later become the leading sign of the
zodiac (7th century BCE). In Hellenistic astrology,
the constellation of Aries is associated with the
golden ram of Greek mythology that rescued
lunra [lur] x1 is Earth’s moon (default); x1 is
a major natural satellite/moon of planet x2
lunsa [lus] x1 condenses/liquefies on/into
x2 at temperature x3, pressure x4; x1 is
dew/condensate on x2
lupcartci t1 is a screwdriver for turning screw
lurdei x1 is Monday of week x2 on calendar x3.
lutfa’o f1 is a dead end of route f2 = p1 from
origin p3. (Cf. klaji.)
luzbarcreka c1 = b1 = k1 is a jumper of material
c2. (A loose outer jacket (barcreka). Cf. creka.)
luzycreka c1 = k1 is a blouse of material c2. (Cf.
creka, taxfu.)
lu [LU] start grammatical quotation; quoted
text should be grammatical on its own.
lyndyn London
ly [BY2] letteral for l.
ma’agni x1 is a mahogany of species x2.
ma’arbakni b1 is a yak of species/type b2
ma’arbi’i j1 is a valley between mountains/hills
c1 = j2 in terrain c2. (Cf. ma’arfe’a, cmana, punli,
ma’arfe’a f1 is a canyon/ravine/chasm in
mountain f2 = c1 in terrain c2. (Cf. ma’arbi’i,
cmana, fenra, kevna)
ma’arjipci p1 is a Copper Pheasant / Syrmaticus
soemmerringii species of breed p2
ma’a [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s) & you the listener(s) &
others unspecified.
ma’ekla k1 = m2 drives to k2 from k3 via route
k4 = m3 by means m1. (Cf. marce, klama, litru.)
ma’ersrogau g1 parks vehicle m1 = s2 in/at s3.
ma’e [BAI] marji modal, 1st place material in
object/substance ...
ma’i [BAI] manri modal, 1st place (by standard
2) in reference frame ...
4 ma’oi [ZO] selma’o quote; quotes a word (a
cmavo) and uses it to name a selma’o. (Example:
ma’oi coi is equivalent to COI. See also ra’oi. )
ma’oste x1 = l1 is a list of structure words x2 =
l2 = c1 of class(es) x5 = c2 of language x6 = c3 in
order x3 = l3 in medium x4 = l4. (Cf. cmavo, liste,
vlaste, vlacku, gimste, jvoste)
ma’o [MAhO] convert letteral string or other
mathematical expression (mex) operand to mex
ma’u zei ionti x1 is an cation of radical/(atom
of element)x2 with x3 charges. (Cf. ionti, ni’u zei
ma’urcu’e c1 is a college at c2 teaching subject
c3 to audience c4 = m1 operated by c5. (An institution for adult education at a basic or intermediate level (teaching those of any age). Cf. ckule,
ma’u [PA3] digit/number: plus sign; positive
number; default any positive.
mabla [mal] x1 is a derogative connotation/sense of x2 used by x3; x3 derogates/’curses
at’ x2 in form x1. (Bloody (British sense), fucking,
shit, goddamn. See also palci, dapma, xlali, zabna,
mabrnfuru x1 is a ferret. (Cf. mustlei, ermine.)
mabru [mab] x1 is a mammal/’animal’/beast
of species x2. (See also danlu, ladru, tatru, ractu,
macnu [cnu] x1 (event/action/process) is
manual [not automatic] in function x2 under conditions x3. (See also zmiku, jitro.)
madinas Medina
madni’i n1 = m1 is the moral of story/situation
m3 and entails action/event/state n2. (Cf. marde,
madRID Madrid
madyske s1 (mass of facts) is the study of
conduct-governing standards s2 = m1 based on
methodology s3. (Major branches of ethics include ”meta-ethics” (ckaji zei madyske), ”normative ethics” (bilga zei madyske), ”applied ethics”
(pilno zei madyske), ”moral psychology” (menli
zei madyske), and ”descriptive ethics” (skicu zei
madysku c1 = m2 moralizes expressing
c2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to audience c3
via expressive medium c4 using/based on
ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards
m1 (from marde cusku c.f. bitygau dragau)
mafcre c1 = m3 is a wizard/sorcerer of m1 = c1,
which is magical to m2, with standard of sorcery
c3. (Cf. makfa, certu)
magmiltre x1 is x2 millimeters of mercury by
standard x3. (synonym torceli)
magyxre x1 is an amalgam of composition including x2.
maisru x1 = s1 = m1 is the material environment/surrounding material (i.e. gaseous/liquid
atmosphere, vacuum, etc.) enclosing x2 = s2 in direction(s)/dimensions(s)/plane x3 = s3 = m3, of
type/composition including x4 = m2. (A vacuum
is arguably not ’material’, but the word is much
more convenient if that is included. Also, vacuum
is never completely empty. See also marji, sruri,
gapci, litki, kunti, sakci, kensa.)
mai [MAI] utterance ordinal suffix; converts a
number to an ordinal, such as an item or paragraph number.
makas Mecca
makcu [ma’u] x1 is mature/ripe/fullygrown/adult in development-quality x2 (ka). (See
also cifnu, ninmu, verba, banro, farvi, nanmu.)
makfartci x1 is a compass with magnet x2. (see
makfa [maf] x1 is
to x2, performed by person/force/deity x3. (See
makpapi x1 is a poppy of species x2
maksi [mak] x1 is magnetic [adjective] producing magnetic field x2
makyvelvei v4 = m1 is a magnetic storage
medium storing v2 (data/facts/du’u) about v3
(object/event) in file(s) v1
maldja c1 is junk food for c2.
malfadni f1 = m1 is vulgar/uncouth in property f2 = m2 (ka) among members f3 (set). (Cf.
mabla, fadni, tolba’i.)
malfu’a f1 = m2 (event/property) is determined by the bad luck/fortune of f2. (Cf. mabla,
funca, malselfu’a, zanfu’a.)
malgaci x1 is Malagasy in aspect x2.
malgli g1 = m1 is an anglicism (in Lojban), inappropriate according to m3. (Refers to any kind of
reliance upon English in a Lojban expression, but
is most common for calques. Is sometimes even
extended to cover reliance upon cultural assumptions. “malglico” is a much more common malmakfa mak1 is black magic to mak2, performed by person/force/deity mak3. (Cf. mabla,
malminiata m1 is a black widow spider of variety m2. (cf. lartodektu)
malmliselgu’i ma1 = mi1 = g2 is ill-lit with
light g1 from light source g3
malmys Malmo (Malm ¨ o, in the southernmost ¨
province of Scania, is the third most populous city
in Sweden.)
malselfu’a f2 is unlucky/unfortunate in f1 =
m2 (event/property). (Cf. mabla, funca, zanselfu’a.)
malsi [mas] x1 is a temple/church/sanctuary/synagogue/shrine of
religion x2 at location/serving area x3. (x2 may
be event of form (... worships/pays/respect to ...),
hence (metaphorically extending to) monument
(= mojmalsi, si’armalsi). See also cevni, krici, lijda,
malsno mas1 is sluggish at doing/being/bringing about mas2 (event/state)
according to mab3. (Cf. masno)
malvi’e x1 is unwelcome by x2 to place/event
x3. (See also fi’inai; zanvi’e)
mamgle g1 has sex/copulates with the mother
of g2 = m2
mamjipci m1 = j1 is a hen of species/breed j2
with offspring x3 = m2.
mamta [mam] x1 is a mother of x2; x1
bears/mothers/acts maternally toward x2; [not
necessarily biological]. (See also patfu, sovda,
rirni, rorci, tarbi, famti, bersa, jbena.)
mam Mom/Mum (The rafsi for mamta used as
a familiar name. See also paf, bes, tix, bun, mes.)
manbi’o b1 = m1 darkens under conditions
x2 = b3. (Cf. gusybi’o.)
manci [mac] x1 feels wonder/awe/marvels
about x2. (See also cinmo, makfa, kucli, spaji, cinri,
banli, sisku.)
mandala x1 is a mandala
mandioka x1 is manioc of species/variety x2
manfo x1 (object/event) is uniform/homogeneous in property x2 (ka
manfyta’u t1 = m1 is livery/[a uniform] for
wearing by t2 for purpose t3. (Cf. manfo, taxfu.)
4 mango x1 is a mango [fruit] of
species/variety x2. (ricrmango for mango
manku [man] x1 is dark/lacking in illumination. ((cf. blabi, gusni, ctino; use kandi or xekri
with colors, ctino))
manri [mar] x1 is a frame
of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x2, with/by rules
x3. ((x1 may be object or si’o idea); See also cmavo
list ma’i, ckilu, merli, pajni, cimde, jdice, marde.)
mansa x1 satisfies evaluator x2 in property
(ka)/state x3. (See also pajni.)
mansygei g1 = m2 is contently happy
about/with m1 with regard to g2 = m3
(event/state). (Cf. mansa, gleki, camgei,
mansytcu n1 needs n2 to be satisfied for reason
x3. (n2 must be a physical object, not an event; for
that, use djica. See also: mansa, nitcu)
manti x1 is an ant of species/breed x2. (See also
mantygapci x1 is carbon monoxide. (cf. mantyslami)
mantyjalra j1 is a termite of species j2.
mantymamta mam1 is an ant queen of ants
mam2 = man1 of species/breed man2. (Cf. manti,
mantyslami x1 is formic acid. (see also mantygapci)
mantyzda z1 is an anthill of ants z2 = m1. (Cf.
manze’a z1 becomes darker/darkens by
amount z3. (Cf. manku, zenba)
mapku [map] x1 is a cap/hat/crown/helmet/piece of headgear [headtop garment] of material x2

maprultricu x1 is eucalyptus of species/variety
mapti [mat] x1 fits/matches/suits/is compatible/appropriate/corresponds to/with x2 in property/aspect x3. (See also satci, tugni, sarxe, drani,
mapypre p1 is a hatter/millner /[hat maker]
selling/making hats of material m2. (Cf. mapku,
marbela x1 is dodder of species/variety x2 parasitic on x3.
marbi [mra] x1 is a shelter/haven/refuge/retreat/harbor for/protecting
x2 from danger/threat x3. (See also bandu, ckape,
snura, drudi, sepli, bitmu, gacri.)
marce [ma’e] x1 is a vehicle/mode of transport carrying x2 in/on surface/medium x3, propelled by x4. (See also klama, matra, bevri, bloti,
marde [mad] x1 are the ethics/morals/moral
standards/ethical standards of x2 (ind./mass)
about situation x3. (x1 will (typically) be an abstract, a rule or rules of behavior; also principles; also conscience (= sezmarde). See also palci,
vrude, lijda, manri, javni, tarti, zekri.)
mardikca d1 is positive electric charge in d2. (Cf.
margosa x1 is neem/margosa/azedarac of
species/variety x2. (See also zdiraxa, andiroba.
”Azedarach” and variants have referred to both
this tree and the zdiraxa.)
margu [mag] x1 is a quantity
of/contains/made of mercury/quicksilver;
[metaphor: fluid metal; temperature]. (See also
marji [maj mai] x1 is material/stuff/matter
of type/composition including x2 in shape/form
x3. (Also (adjective:) x1 is physical (one
sense)/material. See also morna, mucti, nejni,
markuja x1 is a passionfruit/passionflower of
species/variety x2.
marlari x1 is malaria caused by Plasmodium
species x2. (Cf. blusfani, paludizm.)
marmota x1 is a marmot/woodchuck/groundhog of species x2.
marna x1 is a quantity of hemp/marijuana/jute
of species/strain x2. (See also skori, tanko, sigja,
marnybu’u b1 is canvas made of hemp. (Cf.
marnyva’u v1 smokes cannabis of type m2.
marxa [max] x1 [force]
mashes/crushes/squashes/smashes x2 intopulp/mash/crumbs/deformed mass z

maskuas momoskov maskva, kv combination is invalid in loi, mosikq mosko or moskau
masno [sno] x1 is slow/sluggish at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state
masti [ma’i] x1 is x2 months in duration (default is 1 month) by month standard x3. (This
month (= cabma’i); next month (= bavla’ima’i); last
month (= prula’ima’i). See also detri, djedi, jeftu,
masyce’u c1 is a parish of parishioners c2.
matci x1 is a mat/pad/mattress/pallet [flat,
soft, dense form] of material x2. (Also mattress =
(kicymatci). See also kicne, tapla, karda, ckana.)
matli x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
linen/flax [type of fabric/material]. (See also
matlyspa x1 is flax of species/variety x2. (see
matlytsi x1 is flaxseed/linseed produced by
plant x2, capable of growing into x3. (see also
matne x1 is a quantity of/contains butter/oleo/margarine/shortening from source x2.
((adjective:) x1 is buttery; an edible fat, solid but
spreadable at normal temperatures; dairy butter (=
matnyxrula x1 is a/the buttercup flower of
plant/species x2. (Cf. matne, xrula, xrulnranunkulu.)
matpai p1 approves m1 for m2 in property aspect m3
matra x1 is a motor/engine, driving/propelling/providing power to y
matsi’uma’i x1 is June of year x2 in calendar x3.
matybi’o b1 becomes fitting with m2 in property/aspect m3
matygau g1 assigns/appoints m1 to m2.
mau’i [CAI2] attitudinal: stronger intensity
attitudinal relativizer (Specifies a stronger intensity - relative to any previously specified intensity
of the same UI/cmavo. CAI2 after CAI specifies an
absolute intensity - but the CAI2 specifies the relative shift from the regular value. CAI after CAI2
specifies an relative value - and the CAI denotes
the relative amount interval size
maudji d1 prefers d1 = m1 (event/state) to m2
for purpose d3 by amount/excess z4. (Cf. zmadu,
djica, zmanei)
mau [BAI] zmadu modal, 1st place (a greater)
exceeded by ... ; usually a sumti modifier.
mavji [mav] x1 is a quantity of oats [grain] of
species/strain x2. (See also gurni.)
maxri [xri] x1 is a quantity of wheat [grain]of species/strain y
maxydzu c1 = m1 stomps on surface c2 using limbs c3 crushing m2 into pulp mass m3
maxyvru s1 is a crash (sound) produced by m1
smashing into m2. (Cf. marxa, savru)
ma [KOhA7] pro-sumti: sumti question
(what/who/how/why/etc.); appropriately fill in
sumti blank.
me’ai [CAI2] attitudinal: weaker intensity
attitudinal relativizer (Specifies a stronger intensity - relative to any previously specified intensity
of the same UI/cmavo
me’andi x1 is henna of species/variety y
me’a [BAI] mleca modal, 1st place (a lesser) undercut by ... ; usually a sumti modifier.
me’e ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a
name; who?; requires quoted name as an answer.
me’e [BAI] cmene modal, 1st place (requires
quote) with name ...; so-called ...
me’ispe s1 is a brother-inlaw (sister’s spouse) of m2 under
law/custom/tradition/system/convention sp3.
(Omit x4 = s2 = m1. Cf. speni, bunspe, tubyspe.)
me’i [PA3] digit/number: less than.
4 me’oi [MEhOI] non-Lojban brivla (Used as a
convenient way to borrow foreign predicates into
Lojban. For unary predicates, equivalent to me la’e
me’o [LI] the mathematical expression (unevaluated); convert unevaluated mathematical expression to sumti.
me’u [MEhU] elidable terminator: end sumti
that was converted to selbri; usually elidable.
mebmla ml1 is a temple belonging to me2 (from
mebri mlana)
mebri [meb] x1 is a/the brow/forehead [projecting flat/smooth head/body-part] of y
mecmlerai me1 = t1 is least beautiful among
set/range t3 to m2 in aspect me3 (ka) by aesthetic
standard me4. (Cf. mleca, melbi, traji, mlerai, mlemau, mleme’a.)
mecna’u m1 = n1 is a negative number relative to origo m2
mecrai m1 = t1 is the least of m2 = t4 in property m3 (ka/ni) by amount m4. (Cf. mleca, traji)
mectolmlerai me1 = t1 is least ugly among
set/range t3 to me2 in aspect me3 (ka) by aesthetic
standard me4
mecybrarai t1 = b1 is the smallest/[ least big]
among set/range t4 in property/dimension(s) b2
mecycmarai t1 = c1 is the biggest/[ least small]
among set/range t4 in property/dimension(s) c2
(ka). (Cf. mleca, cmalu, traji, brarai, cmarai, cmamau, cmame’a.)
mecyjavdu’i x1 is less than or equal to x2 in
property/quantity x3 by amount x4
mecyxagrai t1 = x1 is the worst among
set/range t4 for x2 by standard x3. (Cf. mleca,
mecyxlarai m1 = x1 is the best/[least bad]
among set/range t4 for x2 by standard x3. (Cf.

medomoi x1 is yours among x2 by
rule/relationship x3; x1 is your x2 by
rule/relationship x3.
megdo [meg] x1 is a million [10 6
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (#
megygra x1 is x2 tonne(s) [metric unit] in mass
(default is 1) by standard x3. (Cf. megdo, grake.)
mei [mem mei] [MOI] convert number to cardinality selbri; x1 is the mass formed from set x2
whose n member(s) are x3. ([x1 is a mass with N
components x3 composing set x2; x2 is an n-tuple
(x2 is completely specified) (= selmei for reordered
places); x1 forms an n-some; x3 (not necessarily a
complete enumeration) are among the members of
x2]; See also cmima, gunma, cmavo list moi.)
mekfancu x1 is an operator/mathematical
function/single-valued mapping from domain x2
to range x3 defined by mathematical expression/rule x4.
mekna’u x1 is the value of expression x2 in
mekso [mek me’o] x1 [quanti fier/expression] is a mathematical expression
interpreted under rules/conventiony
meksu’i x1 is an operand of operator x2 filling
place x3 under rules/convention x4.
melbi [mel mle] x1 is beautiful/pleasant to
x2 in aspect x3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x4. (Also
handsome, pretty, gorgeous, cute, comely, graceful

meljo [mej] x1 reflects Malaysian/Malay culture/nationality/language in aspecty
melpsita x1 is a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of breey
memimoi x1 is mine among x2 by
rule/relationship x3; x1 is my x2 by
rule/relationship x3.
mencre c1 = m2 (person) is intelligent/smart
by standard c3
mencti c1 reads/watches/listens to/mentallyconsumes c2.
menli [men] x1 is a
of body x2. ((adjective:) x1 is mental/psychological/a mental phenomenon;
multiple personalities (= so’i menli
menmikce m1 is a psychologist/psychiatrist/counsellor/mental health
practitioner of client m2 treating ailment m3 with
treatment m4
menmuvgau g1=me1 telekinetically / with its
mind moves mu1 to destination/receiver mu2
[away] from origin mu3 over path/route mu4
(Made from menli+muvgau. menli2 dropped on
account of irrelevancy
mensi [mes me’i] x1 is a sister of/sororal to
x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3; [not necessarily biological]. (See also bruna, tunba, menske s1 (mass of facts) is mental science/psychology about subject matter s2 based on
methodology s3. (Cf. menli, saske, bi’armenske,
mentapiperita x1 is a quantity of peppermint of
species/strain x2
mentu [met me’u] x1 is x2 minutes in duration (default is 1 minute) by standard x3. (See also
junla, cacra, snidu, tcika.)
menynunda’a n1 is psychological warfare on
the part of d1.
menytcaci t1 is the psychological disposition of
t2 = m2. (Cf. tcaci, seltra, selzu’e, selpre.)
merbau m1 = b1 is the American English used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
quote). (Cf. bangu, merko, glico, bangenugu.)
merfei f1 is worth f2 = m1 US cents. (Cf. fepni,
merko, jdini)
merfiti x1 is a skunk of genus/species x2. (Cf.
ckankua, cribe, prokioni, mabru.)
mergu’e m1 = g1 is the United States of America. (Cf. merko, gugde, gugde’usu.)
merja’a m1 = j1 is a president of the United
States of America. (Cf. merko, jatna, nolraitru)
merje’a j1 = m1 is the United State of America
as a state. (A U.S. state, or any part of a federation
is referred to as gugypau. Cf. merko, jecta, bemro.)
merkadno m1 = k1 reflects angloamerican culture/nationality/geography/language in aspect
m1 = k1. (Pertaining to the United States and
Canada. Cf. merko, kadno, bemro, bemjoitco)
merklu k1 = m1 is US culture. (Cf. merko,
kulnu, bemro)
merko [mer] x1 pertains to USA/American
culture/nationality/dialect in aspect x2. (See also
brito, bemro, ketco, xispo, glico.)
merlanu x1 is a whiting of species x2
merli [mre] x1 (agent) measures/evaluates x2
[quantity] as x3 units on scale x4 (si’o), with accuracy x5
mernta x1 is a quantity of mint (member of the
genus Mentha) of species/strain x2
mertru t1 is a government of the United States
of America. (Cf. merko, turni, merja’a)
meryru’u r1 = m1 is r2 US dollars. (Cf. merko,
rupnu, jdini, merfei)
mes Sister (Cf. mensi, bun, mam, paf, bes, tix.)
mexno [mex] x1 reflects Mexican culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also xispo,
bemro, spano.)
mexybau m1 = b1 is the Mexican Spanish
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (from mexno bangu c.f.
mexygu’e m1 = g1 is Mexico (Cf. mexno,
gugde, gugdemuxu.)
me [ME] convert sumti to selbri/tanru element;
x1 is specific to [sumti] in aspect x2.
mi’afra f1 laughs at f3 under conditions f4. (Cf.
cisma, mlimi’a.)
mi’amli m1 = c1 titters/chuckles/giggles. (Cf.
cmila, milxe.)
mi’arpe’u p1 (agent) tickles p2 with p3 (a locus
on p1 or an instrument) at p4 (a locus on p2). (Cf.
mlisa’e, tikpa.)
mi’asna s1 is laughter emitted by s2 = c1 (c.f.
cmila, sance.)
mi’a [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s) & others unspecified,
but not you, the listener.
mi’ecpe m1 = c1 demands/exacts c2 = m3 of
c3 = m2, with manner/form of demand c4. (Cf.
minde, cpedu, pikci, preti, ca’icpe, camcpe.)
mi’enai [COI*] self vocative: self-introduction -
denial of identity; denies identity of speaker.
mi’esku x1 = m1 = c1 expresses/states command x2 = c2 to recipient(s) x3 = m2 = c3 via
expressive medium x4 = c4. (m3 of minde (the
desired result) is presumably cointained in he expression of the command. x1 commands x3 with
expression x2.)
mi’e [COI] self vocative: self-introduction - denial of identity; identifies speaker.
mi’ircelxa’i x1 = c1 is a machine gun for use
against x2 by x3, launching projectile c2 propelled
by c3. (Cf. minji, cecla, xarci, xumjimcelxa’i, xilcelxa’i, clacelxa’i, celgunta. )
mi’ircikre c1 repairs/mends/fixes/maintains c2
for use m2 = c3 (from minji cikre)
mi’irlarfi’a c1 is technology-oriented science fiction about plot/theme/subject c2 by author c3,
based on technology l1. (Cf. mi’irlarcu, skefi’a,
minji, larcu, cfika)
mi’ispi s1 is a piece of machine m1 = s2. (Cf.
minji, spisa)
mi’i [BIhI] non-logical interval connective: ordered components: ... center, ... range surrounding center.
mi’o [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s) & you the listener(s).
mi’u [UI3b] discursive: ditto. (See also mintu.)
mianma x1 is Burmese in aspect x2.
mibma’o c1 is a first person pronoun in language c4. (Cf. mi, mi’a, ma’a, mi’e, cmavo,
donma’o, sevzi, se’a, se’i, se’o.)
mibypre m1 = p1 is me. (Used instead of mi
when a brivla is needed.)
micka’agau m1 = g1 uses surgical implement
k1 to operate on organ(s) k2 of patient m2, as a
treatment for ailment m3. (Cf. mikce, katna)
micka’aku’a k1 is an operating theatre in which
to perform surgery m4. (Cf. mikce, kumfa,
micka’agau, spita)
micydi’u d1 is a clinic/surgery/practice with
doctor(s) m1. (Cf. mikce, dinju, spita)
micyske x1 is medicine/medical science/medical treatment to x2 for ailmentx3
by treatment/cure x4. (Cf. mikce, bilma, kanro,
micyxu’i x1 is an instance/dose/quantity of
medication/medicine/drug x2 for treating ailment m3. (Cf. mikce, xukmi.)
mic Doctor (Cf. mikce.)
midju [mij] x1 is in/at the middle/center/midpoint/[is a focus] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is central. midnoi n1 is an instruction for n2 = m3
(event/state) to occur, issued by n3 = m1 for intended recipient n4 = m2. (Cf. minde, notci)
midvla v1 is a command word/keyword ordering v2 = m3 (event/state) in language v3. (Cf.
minde, valsi)
mifra [mif] x1 is encoded/cipher text of plaintext x2 by code/coding system x3; x1 is in code; x3
is a code. (Code (= termifra). See also mipri, lerfu,
mijdorsai x1 is a meal with meal dish x2.
mijgresirji x1 is a diameter between x2 and x3
of x4.
mikce [mic] x1 doctors/treats/nurses/[cures]/is physician/midwife
to x2 for ailment x3 by treatment/cure x4. (Also
medic; (adjective:) x1, x4 is medical; x2 is a
patient of x1 (= selmikce for reordered places) ;
x2 is treated by x1 person/x4 treatment/method;
successfully cure transitive (= sadmikce, sadvelmikce), intransitive (= sadyselmikce, ka’orbi’o
to not imply an external agent/process, though
the x1 and x4 of mikce may be self/internal);
treatment (= velmikce). See also bilma, kanro,
mikri [mik] x1 is a millionth [10
] of x2 in
dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (See also
miksini m1 is a hagfish of species m2.
miksnidu x1 is x2 microseconds in duration.
(mikri snidu; the default x2 is 1)
mikygra g1 is g2 micrograms in mass (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. mikri, grake)
milgra g1 is g2 milligrams in mass by standard

mipri misrygu’e
milsnidu x1 is x2 milliseconds in duration.
(milti snidu; the default x2 is 1)
milti [mil] x1 is a thousandth [1/1000; 10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units).
miltre mit1 = mil1 is mit2 = mil1 (one by default) millimeter(s) in length measured in direction
mit3 by standard mit4.
milxe [mli] x1 is mild/nonextreme/gentle/middling/somewhat in property
x2 (ka); x1 is not very x2. (See also mutce, traji,
kandi, ruble, midju, nutli, ralci, traji.)
mimpoi x1 is a sequence of members x2, x3, x4,
... in that order. (The ordering rule is simply the
order of the arguments, the unordered set is the
set with members x2, x3, x4, ...)
minde [mid mi’e] x1 issues commands/orders to x2 for result x3 (event/state)
to happen; x3 is commanded to occur. ([also: x1
orders/sets/Triggers. x2 to do/bring about x3;
x1 is a commander; commanded (= termi’e)]; See
also lacri, te bende, jatna, ralju, jitro, turni, tinbe.)
minji [mi’i] x1 is a machine for use/function
x2; [automated apparatus, without direct function
control]. (Also machinery/mechanism; a machine
is initiated/triggered by an agent/force, but thereafter performs its function automatically; if selfdirected, (a minji is an) entity (= zukte). See also
cabra, matra, tutci, zukte, pilno, skami.)
minli x1 is x2 (default 1) long local distance
unit(s) [non-metric], x3 subunits, standard x4.
((additional subunit places may be added as x5,
x6, ...)
minra [mir] x1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x2
[object/radiation] to observer/point x3 as x4; x2
bounces on x1. (Also: x1 is a mirror/reflector. x2
may be light, lu’e of an imaged object; x4 may be
image or echo or the same as x2 if physical object;
x3 may be a path for a bounced object; ka is reflection
mintu [mit mi’u] x1 is the same/identical
thing as x2 by standard x3; (x1 and x2 interchangeable)
mipri [mip] x1 keeps x2 secret/hidden from
x3 by method x4; x2 is a secret; x1 hides/conceals
x2. (Intransitive hidden/secret, without an agent
(= selcri or nalterju’o); secret (= selmipri). See also
stace, mifra, sivni, djuno, cirko, jarco.)
mipstu s1 (place) hides m2 = s2 from m3 by
method m4; s1 is a hiding place. (Cf. mipri, stuzi)
miptera x1 is a bug of species x2. (see also cinki,
ckacinki, moptera, miptinytci, cfila, fanza)
miptinytci tu1 = m2 is a bug used by ti1 = m1
to listen to ti2 without mi3 being aware
mipypro f1 = m1 secretly opposes f2 = m3 regarding f3 (abstract) with secrecy method m4
mipypu’i x1 = p1 = m1 hides/conceals x2 = p2
from x4 = m3 on/at surface/locus x3 = p3 = m1,
the location being kept secret by method x5 = m4.
mipyzga z1 spies/snoops on z2 using
senses/means z3 under conditions z4.
mircai x1 glitters/sparkles/glares, reflecting x2
to observer x3.
mirlanxe l1 is symmetrical about axis m1.
mirli x1 is a deer/elk/moose/[hart/stag/doe]
of species/breed x2. (See also mabru, danlu.)
mirsarxe s1 is symmetrical about axis m1.
mirsi’o s1 = m4 is a notion of s2 = m2 to cognizer s3 = m3. (A mental reflection of real objects
and phenomena in their essential features and relations. Cf. sidbo, selpei, selga’e, tarmi.)
mirsna s1 = m4 is an echo of sound m2 = s2,
reflected by m1 and heard by m3.
misno [mis mi’o] x1 (person/object/event)
is famous/renowned/is a celebrity among
community of persons x2 (mass). (Also
celebrated/well-known; (derogative meanings:)
notorious/infamous (= malmi’o; these could also
be expressed using the referenced words). See
also se sinma, banli.)
misro x1 reflects Egyptian culture/nationality
in aspect x2. (See also friko, muslo, xrabo.)
misrybau m1 = b1 is the Egyptian Arabic
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf. misro, bangu, rabybau, bangaru’a, bangarubu.)
misryfrinu x1 is an Egyptian fraction with denominators x2, x3, ... (see also porfrinu)
misrygu’e x1 is Egypt
mivylivla mlaselfa’a
misryplespa x1 is a papyrus plant of variety x2.
(see also misryple, stagrleoxari)
misryple x1 is papyrus from source x2. (see also
misryplespa, pelji)
misyselsi’a m1 = s2 is glorified by s1. (Cf.
sinma, censa.)
mitcinpa’i x1 is homosexual/gay/lesbian;.
mitcinse c1 is homosexual/bisexual in situation c2 by standard c4. (For strict homosexuality,
see pavmitcinse. Cf. relcinse, dutcinse, nakcinse,
mitfa’e m1 = f1 is palindromic by standard m3.
mitmlu s1 = m1 seems to be the same as m2 by
standard m3 to observer s3 under conditions s4.
mitmo’a mo1 = mi1 follows the same pattern
as mi2 with respect to forms/events mo2 arranged
according to structure mo3. (Cf. mintu, morna)
mitre [tre] x1 is x2 meter(s) [metric unit] in
length (default 1) measured in direction x3 by
standard x4. (See also kilto, centi, decti, dekto,
femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, gutci, litce, megdo,
mikri, milti, minli, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi,
xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro.)
mitsmuvla v1 = m1 is a synonym of m2 by standard m3 in language v3. (Cf. mintu, smuni, valsi,
mityjutcti m1 = j1 = c1 cannibalizes c2. m1 =
j1 = c1 is a cannibal.
mivdalmuzga x1 = m1 is a zoo at x3 = m3 with
animals x2 = m2 = j1 = d1. (Cf. jmive, danlu,
mivgau g1 reincarnates/resurrects j1 by standard j2. (Cf. jmive, gasnu)
mivjdu jd1 = jm1 is a jelly fish. (Cf. jmive, jduli,
mivmu’e m1 is nature/the world of living
things m2 = j1, defined by rules m3. (Cf. jmive,
mivmu’i x1 = m1 is a life-goal of x3 = m3 = j1
motivating x2 = m2 . (Cf. jmive, mukti)
mivru’e p1 is the life of j1 through stages p4.
(This focuses on the process of x2’s life as a succession of stages (childhood, chrysalis, etc.), while
nunji’e more generally denotes the event of x2 being alive without a default terbri to specify the
stages x2 goes through during that event.)
mivylivla l1 is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
transporting energy within organism l2 = j1.
mivyselkra x1 is organic, originating in living
organism x2. (See also tabyselcmu, rarvelcange.)
mivyselna’a n2 (number) is the age (in years)
of living thing j1, alive by standard j2, with year
standard n3.
mivyske s1 is biology/Life Science based on
methodology s2. (Cf. mrodalmuzga.)
mivyxu’i xu1 is an instance of chemical substance xu2 derived from biological source j1. (Cf.
mixre [mix xre] x1 (mass) is a mixture/blend/colloid/commingling with
ingredients including x2. (x2 mingles/mixes/blends into x1; x2 is in x1, an
ingredient/part/component/element of x1 (=
selxre for reordered places). See also salta, te
runta, stasu, jicla, sanso.)
mi [mib] [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s); identified by self-vocative.
mlafi’e f1 is a flatfish of family/genus/species
f2, swimming with side m1 upward. (Cf. finpe,
polgosu, flundero, platesa.)
mlajukma’i x1 is July of year x2 in calendar x3.
mlakla x1 = k1 = m4 dodges/sidesteps/skirts
x2 = m2 from x3 = k3 by route x4 = k4 by means
of transportation x5 = k5. (The lateral frame of reference is that of the one who sidesteps. Cf. mlana,
klama, koizva.)
mlaluka x1 is a paperbark/tea tree of
species/variety x2.
mlana [mla] x1 is to the side of/lateral to x2
and facing x3 from point of view/in-frame-ofreference x4. ((cf. crane, trixe, pritu, zunle which
differ in that the direction of facing is the front and
not the lateral side. The x4 of mlana may be either
the front, or back side of x2, korbi))
mlaparsince s1 = c1 is a sidewinder of subspecies/type s2
mlapau m1 = p1 is the side of / is a part and
on the side of m2 = p2 and is facing m3 from
point of view/in-frame-of-reference m4. (Made
from mlana + pagbu.)
mlaselfa’a f2 is sideways from f3 = m2 . (x3 =
f1, the exact direction, is unspecified. Cf. mlana,
101mlifanza mo’iga’u
mlatu [lat] x1 is a cat/[puss/pussy/kitten]
[feline animal] of species/breed x2; (adjective:) x1
is feline. (See also cinfo, tirxu, gerku.)
mlaxelbo’a m1 is a sideband of signal b1 = m2.
mleba’i m1 = b1 is splendid/glorious/magnificent to m2 in aspect m3
(ka) by aesthetic standard m4, and by greatness
standard b4.
mleca [mec me’a] x1 is less than x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni) by amount x4. (Also negative (= nonme’a). See also cmavo list me’a, cmavo
list su’o, jdika, zmadu, traji.)
mledi [led] x1 is a
mold/fungus/mushrooms/truffles of
species/strain x2 parasitic/growing on x3.
(See also clika.)
mlegaumai ma1 = g1 is a cosmetic/makeup for
beautifying me1 in aspect me3, made up of material ma2 in form ma3 (me2, me4 dropped g2 is lo
nu me1 melbi zi’o me3 )
mlejgi j1 is vain. (Cf. melbi, jgira)
mlemau z1 = m1 is more beautiful than z2 to
m2 in aspect m3 (ka) by amount z4. (Cf. melbi,
zmadu, mlerai, mecmlerai, mleme’a.)
mleme’a ml1 = me1 is less beautiful than ml2 to
me2 in aspect me3 (ka) by amount ml4. (Cf. melbi,
mleca, mlemau, mlerai, mecmlerai.)
mlenicygau g1 grooms/spruces up c1 = m1 in
property/aspect c2 = m3. (Cf. melbi, cnici, gasnu,
jisygau, lumci.)
mlerai m1 = t1 is most beautiful among
set/range t3 to m2 in aspect m3 (ka) by aesthetic
standard m4. (Cf. melbi, traji, mlemau, mecmlerai,
mletritra ta1 = tr1 = m1 is coquettish/flirtatious with tr2 = m2 in aspect m3 (from
melbi trina tarti)
mliba’u x1 = m1 = b1 whispers/mumbles/murmurs/coos utterance x2 = b2;
x1 = m1 = b1 speaks softly. (Cf. milxe, bacru,
smasku, laurblesku.)
mlibdena x1 is molybdenum.
mlibi’e b1 = m1 is breeze/zephyr from direction
b2 with speed b3. (Cf. milxe, brife)
mlibra b1 = m1 is somewhat big in dimension
b2 by standard b3. (Cf. milxe, barda)
mliburna b1 is mildly embarrassed/disconcerted about/under conditions
b2 (abstraction). (Cf. milxe, burna)
mlifanza f1 (event) slightly annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts f2.
mlifegba’u m1 = f1 = b1 grumbles with sound
b2 at f2 because of f3 (action/state/property). (jvajvo definition; Gismu deep structure is ”milxe gi’e
fengu gi’e bacru”)
mligla g1 = m1 is warm by standard g2. (Cf.
mlilenku l1 = m1 is cool (mildly cold) by standard l2. (Cf. lenku.)
mlimi’a c1 chuckles. (Cf. cisma, mi’afra,
mliri’a r1 (event/state)
mildens/allays/alleviates effect r2 (event/state)
under conditions r3. (Cf. mliri’agau for a person
as x1.)
mlisa’e s1 (agent) pets/gently strokes s2 with
s3. (Cf. pencu, mi’arpe’u, tikpa, tunta.)
mlongena x1 is eggplant of variety x2. (see also
mluni [lun] x1 is a satellite/moon orbiting x2
with characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4. (See
mo’aroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: too few
times; objective tense; defaults as time tense.
mo’a [mob] [PA4] digit/number: too few;
mo’e [MOhE] convert sumti to mex operand;
sample use in story arithmetic: [3 apples] + [3 apples] = what.
mo’ibe’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: northwardly; to the north directional space motion.
mo’ibu’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
to coincide directional space motion.
mo’ica’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: forward
directional space motion.
mo’icli c1 = m1 memorizes/commits to memory c2 = m2 (du’u) about subject c3 =
m3 from source c4 (obj./event) by method c5
(event/process)) (This word is different from cilre
in that it doesn’t include actual understanding of
the memorized data but merely the storage of it in
one’s memory.)
mo’idu’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: eastwardly; to the east directional space motion.
mo’ifa’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: arriving
at; arriving at a point directional space motion.
mo’iga’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: upwardly; upwards directional space motion.
102moi molmla
mo’ine’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: approximating; moving around the neighborhood of ...
space motion.
mo’ine’i [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
into directional space motion.
mo’ine’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: southwardly; to the south directional space motion.
mo’ini’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: downwardly; downwards directional space motion.
mo’ipa’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: passing
through directional space motion.
mo’ire’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: along;
along a path directional space motion.
mo’iri’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: rightwardly; to the right directional space motion.
mo’iru’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: orbiting;
surrounding/annular directional space motion.
mo’isro s1 is a memory/storage/anamnesis
containing facts/data/recollection s2 = m2 within
medium/substrate/containment s3, said facts related to subject m3. (Cf. morji, sorcu, mo’isti s1 = m1 forgets fact/memory m2 about
subject m3. (Cf. morji, sisti, tolmo’i.)
mo’ite’e [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
along the border directional space motion.
mo’iti’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: rearwardsly; rearwards directional space motion.
mo’ito’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
away from a point directional space motion.
mo’ivu’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: westwardly; to the west directional space motion.
mo’ize’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: outwardsly; outward directional space motion.
mo’izo’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: passing
by a site directional space motion.
mo’izo’i [FAhA*] space motion tense: approaching directional space motion.
mo’izu’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: leftwardsly; to the left directional space motion.
mo’i [mov] [MOhI] mark motions in spacetime.
mo’o [MAI] higher-order utterance ordinal suf-
fix; converts a number to ordinal, usually a section/chapter.
mo’u [ZAhO] interval event contour: at the natural ending point of ...; completive ― ¿―¡.
mobdu’a d1 is stingy about giving d2 to d3. (Cf.
mo’a, dunda.)
moi [mom moi] [MOI] convert number to ordinal selbri; x1 is (n)th member of set x2 ordered
by rule x3.
mojgaunoi x1 = n1 is a message reminding
facts x2 = m2 about x3 = m3 = n2 from author
x4 = n3 = g1 to intended audience x5 = n4 = m1.
mojgau g1 reminds m1 of facts m2 about m3.
mojmau z1 has a better memory than z2
with regards to facts m2 about subject m3 by
amount/excess z4.
mojrango r1 is the memory faculty of
body/species r2. (Cf. morji, rango, mo’isro.)
mojri’a r1 (event) reminds m1 of facts m2 about
subject m3 under conditions r3. (Cf. morji, rinka,
mojypei p1 = m1 remembers/thinks
back/reminisces about p2 = m3, recalling
facts m2. (Cf. morji, pensi.)
mojysu’a s1 is a structure of parts s2 as a monument/memorial to m3. (Cf. mrostu.)
mokca [moc] x1 is a point/instant/moment
[0-dimensional shape/form] in/on/at time/place
x2. (x1 is dimensionless. See also jipno, jganu, linji,
stuzi, tcika.)
moklu [mol mo’u] x1 is a/the mouth/oral
cavity [body-part] of x2; (metaphor: entrance/intake for consumption). ((adjective:)
x1 is oral. See also ctebi, denci, tance.)
molgai g1 is a muzzle on m2 (from moklu gacri)
molgapru g1 is the palate of m2. (Cf. moklu.)
molgle g1 = m2 performs oral sex on g2. (Cf.
gletu, vibgle, gaxygle. le gletu is taken as the ’active’ partner.)
molja’u m1 = j1 is the mandible of arthropod
m2 = j2 (This is a mandible of a insect/other
arthropod. This is not to be confused with the
mandible of vertrabrates which is xedja or dzixe’a)
molki [mlo] x1 is a mill/foundry/industrial
plant/[assembly line] performing process x2.
((unlike fanri,) need not produce a product; grain
mill (= grumlo), grinding mill (= zalmlo, zalmlotci,
zalmloca’a). See also gasta, gurni, tirse, fanri, zalvi.)
molku’o m1 = s1 is a philtrum (infranasal depression) of m2 = s2. (Cf. skuro, moklu, nazbi,
molmla x1 is the cheek of x2 (person/animal)
molro [mo’o] x1 is x2 mole(s) [metric unit] in
substance (default is 1) by standard x3. (See also
centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto,
megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi,
xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro.)
molselpu’u x1 = s2 is
saliva/sput/sputum/spittle of x2 = s1. (Cf.
moltenva’u x1 = v1 yawns/[breathes while
stretching mouth] (Cf. vasxu, moklu, tcena, sipfru,
moltu’u t1 is a mouthpiece/embouchure of material t2 conveying fluid t3. (Cf. tubnu, zgica’a.)
momlai x1 is the x2nd member of set x3 ordered
by rule x4 .
monfu’igau x1 = g1 (agent) emulates x3 =
f2 resulting in emulation/imitation x2 = f1 in
medium x4 = f3 by method x5 = f4 exhibiting
pattern x6 = m1. (Cf. monfu’i.)
monfu’i f1 is an emulation/imitation of f2 in
medium f3, emulated by method f4 and exhibiting pattern m1. (Cf. morna, fukpi, monfu’igau.)
morji [moj mo’i] x1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact(s)/memory x2 (du’u)
about subject x3. (See also cmavo list ba’anai,
menli, pensi, sanji, djuno, notci.)
morko [mor] x1 reflects Moroccan culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also friko,
xrabo, muslo.)
morna [mon mo’a] x1 is/reflects/represents
a pattern of forms/events x2 arranged according
to structure x3. ([x3 is a model for x1 (= termontai, or the more abstract = termonsi’o); image (= gusmo’a, nenmo’a, dairmo’a, selylenmo’a,
selmirmo’a, velmirmo’a, but also all of these -
tai instead of -mo’a for the ideal)]; See also ciste,
morsi [mro] x1 is dead/has ceased to be alive.
(Die/mortal (= mrobi’o, co’urji’e). See also jmive,
catra, betri.)
mors Morse; Morse code, telegraphy.
mosra [mos] x1 is friction [force opposing motion] due to contact/rubbing between x2 and x3;
(fe) x2 rubs x3. (Also x2 scrubs/wipes/brushes
(against) x3 (= seltermosra); non-agentive rub (=
termosra). See also sakli, sraku, jabre, satre, guska,
pencu, spali.)
mosycpu l1 drags/hauls l2 = m2 by handle/at
locus l3 along surface m3. (Cf. mosra, lacpu.)
mosyjgita j1 is a bowed string instrument using
bow m2. (Cf. mosra, jgita, jgitrviolino, jgitrxu.)
mosyvi’u v1 = m2 rubs off v2 from v3 = m3
leaving remainder v4. (Cf. mosra, vimcu.)
mo [GOhA] pro-bridi: bridi/selbri/brivla
mraigo m1 is Welsh in aspect m2.
mraji x1 is a quantity of rye [grain] of
species/strain x2. (See also gurni.)
mrajymledi ml1 is ergot of species ml2. (A fungus that grows on rye and other cereals; it contains
the alkaloid ergotamine, which has hallucinogenic
effects on humans and animals, and from which
LSD!en is synthesized.)
mrena’u n1 is a real number. (Cf. namcu,
mreske s1 is metrology based on methodology
mrilu [mri] x1 mails/posts [transfer via intermediary service] x2 to recipient address x3 from
mailbox/post office/sender address x4 by carrier/network/system x5. (Also x4 post office,
mailbox. (cf. benji In which the medium need
not be a 3rd party service/system, and x2 need not
consist of discrete units. notci, xatra, tcana))
mriste l1 is a mailing list with subscribers/recipients l2 = m3. (Cf. mrilu, ve
mrobi’o b1 dies under conditions b3.
mrocticpi cip1 = cit1 is a vulture of species cip2.
mrodalmuzga mu1 is a natural history museum
for preserving [and possibly exhibiting] animals of
kind mu2 = d2 = mo1 at location mu3. (Cf. mivdalmuzga, mivyske.)
mrodimna x1 is mortal/subject to death. (See
also morsi, dimna, mroka’e)
mrodri b1 mourns/grieves over the death of
m1 = b2
mrofoi f1 is a cemetery/graveyard/burial
ground for dead person(s)/animal(s) m1. (Cf.
mroka’e m1 = k1 is mortal/capable of dying
under conditions k3. (Used in Theodore Reed’s
translation of ”A Princess of Mars”.)
mroke’a k1 is a grave in ground k2 for m1. (Cf.
mrori’a x1 is the cause of x2’s death under conditions x3; x1 kills x2.
mrospe x1=s1 is widowed from x2=m1=s2 by
law/convention x3=s3 (See also: speni, nu’ospe,
mrostu s1 is the grave/tomb of m1 = s2. (Cf.
morsi, mrofoi, derse’a.)
mrotolkakpa k1 buries/inters corpse/[entomb]
k2 = m1 at grave/cemetery/[mausoleum/crypt]
k3 (k4 dropped because of little use in this application.)
mrovau v1 is a coffin containing v2 = m1. (Cf.
morsi, mrostu, mrofoi.)
mrubo’u x1 is the hammer/malleus in ear x2 in
body x3
mruli [mru] x1 [tool] is a hammer
for/hammers x2 [target] consisting of
weight/head x3 propelled by x4. (See also
mu’acu’i [UI*3] discursive: for example - omitting - end examples.
mu’anai [UI*3] discursive: for example - omitting - end examples.
mu’a [UI3] discursive: for example - omitting -
end examples. (See also mupli.)
4 mu’ei [ROI] Converts PA into tense;
in [number (usually nonspecific)] possible
worlds/alternate histories where [sumti (du’u)] is
true (Includes what ”may have happened” if the
past were different from the actual past. See ba’oi)
mu’erkraske x1 is cosmology (in astronomy)
based on methodology x2 (Cf. mu’eske, kesyske,
kensa, munje, krasi, saske)
mu’eske s1 is cosmology based on methodology s3. (Cf. munje, saske, tarske, termu’eske.)
mu’etru t1 is a lord of universe t2 = m1.
mu’e [muf] [NU1] abstractor: achievement (event) abstractor; x1 is the event-as-apoint/achievement of [bridi].
mu’i ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a motive; why?.
mu’inai [BAI*] mukti modal, 1st place despite
motive ...
mu’i [BAI] mukti modal, 1st place because of
motive ...
mu’onai [COI*] vocative: over (response OK) -
more to come.
mu’o [COI] vocative: over (response OK) -
more to come.
mu’u [BAI] mupli modal, 1st place exemplified
by ...
muclai k1 is k2 (quantifier, default: one) spoonfuls/scoopfuls in quantity. (Cf. smuci, klani.)
mucti [mut] x1 is immaterial/not physical/without material form. (See also marji, menli,
pruxi, sidbo.)
mudbli x1 is a block of wood x2 with surfaces
mudri [mud] x1 is a quantity of/is made
of/contains wood/lumber from tree(s) of
type/species x2. (See also tricu, stani.)
mudyctijalra j1 is a termite of species j2. (Cf.
mudydei x1 is Thursday of week x2 on calendar
mudyfagri f1 is a wood fire burning in/reacting
with oxidizer f3. (Omit x3 = f2 = m1. Cf. fagri,
jelca, mudri.)
mudyka’apre p1 is a woodcutter/lumberjack
using tool k1 to cut trees of species m2. (Cf. mudri,
mudypu’o p1 = m1 is sawdust of wood type
p2 = m2. (Cf. cmamudyspi, tricu.)
mudyxultci t1 is an adze
mufspe m1 is the marriage of s1 and s2 under
convention s3. (Probably a misnomer for nunspe)
mujyku’e k1 is universal in domain m2 defined
by rules m3 (from munje kuspe c.f. kampu)
mujysamseltcana t2 is the internet/cyberspace
that includes nodes/computers t1 = s1 whose
function/purpose is s2. (Cf. munje, skami, tcana,
samseltcana, kagysamseltcana, internet.)
muki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 5,000 expressed with comma.
mukti [muk mu’i] x1 (action/event/state)
motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event
x2, per volition of x3. (Also; x3 is motivated to
bring about result/goal/objective x2 by x1 (=
termu’i for reordered places); (note that ’under
conditions’ BAI may apply and be appropriately
added to the main predicate level or within the x2
action level). (cf. cmavo list mu’i, nibli, te zukte
- generally better for ’goal’, se jalge, krinu, rinka,
ciksi, djica, xlura))
mulbi’o x1 is completed in property x2 according to standard x3
mulcabna x1 (event) is after x2 (event) concludes. x1 is in the future when x2 finishes
mulfa’o f1 is the end/finish/completion of
completed thing/process f2 = m1.
105mumoi murta
mulgau g1 makes m1 complete in property m2
by standard m4. (Cf. mulno, gasnu, tolcfari’i.)
mulgri g1 = m1 is a complete set showing common property (ka) g2, complete by standard m3.
mulgunma g1 = m1 is a
mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed solely/completely/wholly of components
x2, considered jointly, by standard m3. (From
mulno + gunma. Just gunma with a complete
specification of members. m2 dropped since the
property is always ”membership in the mass in
question”. m3 left in since it seems to do no harm,
although its meaning seems a bit unclear here.)
muljbi x1 is almost/nearly
done/complete/finished/whole in property
x2 by standard x3. (See also so’a)
mulkla k1 = m1 arrives at k2 from k3 via route
k4 by means k5. (k1 = m1 is complete in coming/going to k2.)
mulna’usle s1 = mn1 is an indivisible /
prime number in integer domain s2. (Made from
mulna’u + selci.;)
mulna’u n1 is an integer.
mulno [mul mu’o] x1 (event) is complete/done/finished; x1 (object) has become
whole in property x2 by standard x3. (Also perfected, entirety; (adverb/adjective:) entire, total,
integral, fully, totally, wholly, completely, entirely.
mulpi’i p1 is the integer result of multiplying integer p2 by integer p3. (Made from mulno + pilji.
See also mulna’u, mulna’usle.)
mulslemijyji’e x1 is a eukaryote of species x2.
(An eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain
complex structures enclosed within membranes.
All species of large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals (=danlu), plants (=spati)
and fungi (=mledi, although most species of eukaryote are protist microorganisms (=jurmi).)
multertu’i m1 = t3 (du’u) is unanimous / based
on complete agreement among t1 = t2.
mumbais Mumbai.
mumbircurnu x1 is a starfish of species x2. (Cf.
mu, birka, curnu.)
mumdei x1 is a Friday of week x2 in calendar
mumei [MOI*] quantifier selbri: convert 5 to
cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with the quintet of members x2.
mumoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 5 to
ordinal selbri; x1 is fifth among x2 ordered by rule
mumplini p1 is the fifth closest planet (default
is Jupiter if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2
(default is the Sun), with planetary characteristics
p3, orbital parameters p4. (Cf. mumplin, pavyplini, relplini etc.; see also terdi, solri, mluni, lunra,
plinycma, tarci’e.)
mumplin Jupiter. (Cf. mumplini.)
mumymasti x1 is May/the fifth month of year
x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti, nanca.)
mumymast May. (Cf. bakma’i, mumymasti.)
mumymoija’a j1 has the rank of
Colonel/Captain/Group Captain (equivalent
of NATO OF-5) in military unit /organization j2.
mumymomdegji m1 = d1 is the little finger of
d2. (Cf. degji.)

munje [muj mu’e] x1 is a universe/cosmos
[complete and ordered entirety] of domain/sphere
x2 defined by rules x3. (Also world; a universe is
a kind of system, one which comprehensively encompasses its domain; e.g. ’universe of discourse’,
or ’world of birds’; x3 are the rules/defining principles which distinguish the universe from other
universes, or from non-universe. See also ciste,
plini, kensa, mulno.)
munono [PA*] number/quantity: 500 [five
muno [PA*] number/quantity: 50 [fifty].
mupcpa c1 takes a sample of c2 = m2 from
source/set c3 = m3. (Cf. cpacu.)
mupli [mup] x1 is an example/sample/specimen/instance/case/illustration
of common property(s) x2 of set x3. (See also
cmavo list mu’u, pixra.)
murse x1 is the [astronomical]
of day x2 at location x3. (Morning twilight,
dawn (= cermurse); evening twilight, dusk (=
vacmurse). See also cerni, kandi, vanci.)
murta [mur mu’a] x1 is a curtain/blinds/drapes for covering/obscuring
aperture x2, and made of material x3. (See also
canko, vorme.)
106na’a nacnilbra
muslo [mus] x1 pertains to the Islamic/Moslem/Koranic [Quranic] culture/religion/nation in aspect x2. (Also Muslim.
See also jegvo, lijda.)
mustlei x1 is a weasel of species/variety x2. (Cf.
mabrnfuru, ermine.)
mutce [tce] x1 is much/extreme in property
x2 (ka), towards x3 extreme/direction; x1 is, in
x2, very x3. (Also very, pretty, a lot, immoderate/immoderately, intense, quite, extremely. See
also milxe, traji, banli, carmi, nutli, traji.)
mutmi’i mi1 = mu1 is an algorithm for
use/function mu2.
mutpapri p1 = m1 is a web page containing
hyperlinks in website / collection of hyperlinking
documents p2. (Cf. mucti, papri, samci’ejudri. Not
tied specifically to the HTTP or other communications protocol.)
muvdu [muv mu’u] x1 (object) moves to destination/receiver x2 [away] from origin x3 over
path/route x4. (Also mobile (= comymu’u, for
the non-specific opposite of immobile); after a muvdu, object is alienated from/no longer at origin (unless physically returned there, per litru
or slilu); agentive move (= muvgau, muvzu’e),
non-agentive transitive move (= muvri’a), selfpropelled (= sezmuvgau), motion of a part of
the object (= pagmu’u), having a moving part
(= muvypau, muvyselpau); apparent motion (=
mlumu’u). (cf. rinci, klama (which differs in that
the means of motion is explicit), litru, cliva, fatri;
dunda, benji for agentive movement that does not
necessarily imply alienation from origin, preja for
similar movement with no agent implied, bevri,
muvgau g1 moves m1 to destination m2 from
origin m3 over path/route m4. (c.f. muvdu,
muzga [muz] x1 is a museum for preserving
[and possibly exhibiting] x2 at location x3. (See
also citri.)
mu [mum] [PA1] digit/number: 5 (digit)
my [BY2] letteral for m.
na’acto x1 is x2 centuries in duration by standard x3. (nanca xecto; the default x2 is 1)
na’arkagnoi n1 is the annual report of company/corporation/organization k1. (Cf. nanca,
kagni, notci, kagyselpo’e, kagyseldejni, prali.)
na’a [BY1] cancel all letteral shifts.
na’ebo [NAhE+BO] negation sumti qualifier:
something other than. (Cf. na’e, bo, je’abo, no’ebo,
na’efa’a [FAhA*] space direction: not towards specified point, contrary negation; direction
na’epu’i [CAhA*] modal aspect: has never, and
perhaps cannot; other-than-demonstrated-ability.
na’e [nal] [NAhE] contrary scalar negator:
other than ...; not ...; a scale or set is implied.
na’itsi x1 is a samara of x2 for producing offspring x3. (see also a’orne, ulmu)
na’i [UI3a] discursive: metalinguistic negator.
na’onai [TAhE*] tense interval modifier: atypically; subjective tense/modal; defaults as time
na’o [TAhE] tense interval modifier: characteristically/typically; tense/modal; defaults as time
na’u [NAhU] convert selbri to mex operator;
used to create less-used operators using le’avla, lujvo, etc.
na.a [A*] logical connective: sumti afterthought conditional/only if.
nabmi [nam] x1 (event/state) is a problem
to/encountered by x2 in situation/task/inquiry
x3. (Also: x1 requires consideration by x2. See also
preti, danfu, ciksi, jijnu, jinvi, nandu, pensi, sidbo,
nabypalne n1 = p1 is a
with topping/ingredients p2 and bread of type
n2 = p3. (Cf. snuji, pitnanba, iptsa, cidjrpitsa,
nabysko x1 is a quantity of noodles.
nabyspi s1 is a crumb of bread n1 made from
grains n2. (Cf. nanba, spisa.)
nabzba z1 bakes bread/cake/pastry z2 = n1
from ingredients z3.
nacle’u l1 is a numeral in system l2 representing
l3=n1. (If not specified l2 defaults to the Arabic
numerals in Western scripts.)
nacmei x1 is a vector of dimension x2 with coordinates x3, x4, x5, ... (See also relnacmei, cibnacmei, pinynacmei, rajnacmei, nacmemsu’a)
nacnilbra x1 is the absolute value/norm of x2.
nacpoiba’u b1 counts numbers n1 = p1 out
nadycai c1 = n1 is a big problem/crisis for n2
in situation/task/inquiry n3. (Cf. nabmi, carmi.)
nafselte’i x1 is an exception/the only one without property x2 among x3 (See also natfe, selte’i,
nagi’a [GIhA*] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought conditional/only if.
nago’i [GOhA*] selbri: repeats preceding bridi
while denying it as false; pro-assign values are unchanged.
naijgi j1 = n2 is a patriot of nation n1. (Cf.
natmi, jgira, natpa’i.)
naizgi z1 is folk music performed at/by z2
(event), originating in group of people n2.
nai [NAI] attached to cmavo to negate them;
various negation-related meanings.
naja [JA*] logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought conditional/only if.
najgenja g1 is a carrot of variety g2. (Cf. gejrdauko, stagi, spati.)
najnimre x1 is an orange of variety x2. (see also
najycutcpi ci1 = cu2 is an American robin of
variety ci2 (Turdus migratorius. This is not the European robin.)
nakcinse c1 is androphilous/bisexual/straight
female/gay male in situation c2 by standard c4.
(This word is only about sexual interest in males;
other sexuals interest are irrelevant. See also
fetcinse, naknakcinse, mitcinse, dutcinse.)
naknakcinse c1 = f1 is male and androphilous/gay/bisexual in situation c2 by standard c4 (This word is about male homosexuality and bisexuality. See also nakcinse, fetfetcinse,
mitcinse, relcinse.)
naknalspe f1 = n1 is an unmarried man under
law/custom/tradition s3. (Cf. nalspe, naknalspe,
specfari’i, bavyspe, pruspe.)
nakni [nak] x1 is a male/buck of species x2
evidencing masculine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1 is masculine. (See also fetsi, bersa.)
nakpinji p1 is a/the penis of p2 = n1. (Cf. fetpinji, pinji.)
naksmifetsi’o si1 is feminism, the idea that
females and males are alike in quality sm3, as
thought by si2.
nakspe x1 is a husband of x2 (spouse) according
to marriage law/custom/tradition x3.
nakybakni n1 = b1 is a bull/steer/ox/male
bovine of species/breed n2 = b2. (nakni+bakni)
nakydzetru t1 is a patriarch of people/territory/domain/subjects t2. (Cf. fetydzetru.)
nalbolbi’o bi1 unrolls under condition bi3. (Cf.
na’e, bolci, binxo.)
nalbro b1 = n1 is gentile.
nalceikri k1 is an atheist. (Cf. ceikri, seljda,
nalci’i x1 is uninteresting to x2. (See also
nalci’o x1 is senior/older/other than young by
standard x2. (na’e citno; see also makcu, tolci’o)
nalci [na’i] x1 is a/the wing [body-part] of
x2; [metaphor: lateral supporting surface]. (See
nalcre c1 is lay (non-professional) in
event/activity c2 by standard c3. (Cf. certu.)
nalcti c1 abstains from eating c2; c1 fasts. (Cf.
naldjica x1 does not want/desire x2
(event/state) for purpose x3. (Cf. na’e, djica)
nalfadni f1 [member] is uncommon/atypical/unusual in property f2 (ka)
among members of f3 (set). (Cf. na’e, fadni, rirci.)
nalgundei x1 = d1 is a period of x2 = d2 nonworking days/vacation days/holidays for worker
x3 = g1 at job x4 = g2 (Removed djedi3 as being
unneeded. )
nalju’i x1 is inattentive towards/distracted/inadvertent of object/affair
x2. (See also a’acu’i)
naljundi j1 is inattentive towards/distracted
from object/affair j2. (Cf. na’e, jundi.)
nalmo’i m1 forgets fact/memory m2 about subject m3. (Cf. na’e, morji, tolmo’i. Assumes that
morji refers to a state i.e. ’remember’= ’retain in
nalmu’o x1 is incomplete/unfinished in property x2 by standard x3 . (See also uonai)
nalpro p1 gives consent/agreement/sanction to
p2 (person/force ind./mass) about p3 (abstract).
nalra’ugei g1 = r2 is tranquil/happy about g2 =
r1. (Cf. na’e, raktu, gleki, mansygei, camgei.)
nalra’u r1 leaves r2 alone/in peace. (Cf. raktu.)
108nandu nargrkaria
nalre’ucti c1 does not eat meat c2 = r1; c1 is a
nalri’i r1 (NU) is casual, not formal/ceremonial.
nalselci’i x1 = c2 is uninterested in x2 = c1. (Cf.
cinri, selci’i, norselci’i, tolselci’i, a’ucu’i.)
nalseljukpa j2 is uncooked/raw. (Cf. na’e,
nalselna’i x1 is wingless/has no wings.
nalselnalci x1 is wingless/has no wings. (Cf.
nalci, cipni)
nalselra’u r2 is calm/untroubled about r1 with
result r3. (Cf. na’e, raktu, nalra’ugei.)
nalspe f1 = n1 is unmarried under
law/custom/tradition s3. (Cf. fetnalspe, naknalspe, specfari’i, bavyspe, pruspe.)
nalstace s1 is dishonest/disingenuous to s2
about s3. (Cf. stace, tcica.)
nalsti s1 (agent) is relentless/unceasing in activity/process/state s2.
nalta’acni c1 = t1 is withdrawn, feeling emotion c2 about c3 = t3 from t2. (Cf. na’e, tavla,
nalxe’u x1 is unrepentant of x2. (See also
nalzungi x1 is unremorseful of x2. (See also
nalzva x1 is absent from x2.
namcrgogolo x1 is a googol [10 100
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default units).
namcrgogolplexu x1 is a googolplex [10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default units).
namcu [nac na’u] x1 (li) is a number/quantifier/digit/value/figure (noun); refers
to the value and not the symbol. (See also lerfu,
mekso, klani.)
namkei x1 = k1 = n2 [agent] tries to solve
puzzle/enigma/riddle/charade x2 = k2 = n1 in
game/contest x3 = n3
nanba [nab] x1 is a quantity of/contains
bread [leavened or unleavened] made from grains
x2. (See also gurni, panlo, toknu.)
nanbe’o x1 reflects Central American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2. (From
snanu, bemro.)
nanbrmatsa x1 is a matzo made from grain x2.
(see fomcau, nanba, fomymledi)
nanca [na’a] x1 is x2 years in duration (default is 1 year) by standard x3; (adjective:) x1
is annual. (This year (= cabna’a); next year (=
bavlamna’a); last year (= prulamna’a). See also detri, djedi, jeftu, masti.)
nandu [nad] x1 is difficult/hard/challenging
for x2 under conditions x3; x1 challenges (nonagentive) x2. (See also frili, nabmi, jdari, talsa,
nanfi’oglibau x1 is the South African English
language used by x2 to express/communicate x3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf. snanu, friko, glico,
bangu, glibau, bangenugu.)
nanfi’ogu’e x1 is South Africa. (Cf. snanu,
friko, gugde, gugdezu’a.)
nanla x1 is a boy/lad [young male person] of
age x2 immature by standard x3. (Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use verba).
nanl Master (Cf. nanla, nix, naun, nim.)
nanmu [nau] x1 is a man/men; x1 is a male
humanoid person [not necessarily adult]. (Word
dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use
remna or prenu). See also ninmu, remna, prenu,
makcu, nanla, bersa.)
nansicnansnanu x1 is south by west of x2 in
reference frame x3.
nanslovo x1 is South Slavic/Yugoslavian in aspect x2. (South Slavic if the aspect is language,
else Yugoslavian; see also slovino, bolgaro, slovo,
serbo (experimental))
nanstici x1 is southwest of x2 in frame of reference x3.
nanstuna x1 is southeast of x2 in frame of reference x3.
nansunsunsnanu x1 is southeast by east of x2
in frame of reference x3.
nanvi [nav] x1 is a billionth/thousandmillionth [10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3
(default is units). (See also grake, mitre, snidu,
stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu, litce,
merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro,
kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, petso, picti, terto, xatsi,
xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
narge [nag] x1 is a nut [body-part: hardshelled fruit] from plant/species x2 with shell x3
and kernel x4. (Also x4 nucleus, center (= velnarge
for place reordering). See also grute, stagi, jbari,
nargile x1 is a nargileh/hookah for smoking x2.
nargrkaju x1 is a cashew of species x2.
nargrkaria x1 is pecan/hickory of
species/variety x2.
na nelrai
nargrpistaco x1 is a pistachio of species x2.
narjista’u x1 is dirty laundry worn by x2 for
purpose x3, dirty with x4.
narju [naj] x1 is orange [color adjective]. (See
also skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, pelxu,
narpanra p1 is unique/unequaled/unparalleled/unmatched
/ the only one of its kind.
naru’e [NA*] weak bridi negation; almost, but
not quite.
natfe [naf na’e] x1 (du’u) contradicts/denies/refutes/negates x2 (du’u) under
rules/logic x3. (Also exception (= nafmupli);
agentive contradict/deny (= nafxu’a or tolxu’a).
natmi [nat nai] x1 is a nation/ethnic group
of peoples x2; [people sharing a history/culture].
natpa’i p1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards the nation/ethnic group n2; p1 is
a patriot/nationalist. (Cf. natmi, prami, natpamtrusi’o, naijgi.)
natpamtrusi’o s1 is a nationalist political ideology as applied by t1 = p1 among/in people/territory/domain t2 based on the works of
thinker s3 (From natmi, prami, turni, sidbo.
naun Mr./Mister (Cf. nanmu, nix, nanl, nim.)
nau [CUhE] tense: refers to current space/time
reference absolutely.
navni x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of inert gas of type x2
[neon/argon/radon/xenon/krypton]. (Default
neon. See also xukmi, gapci.)
navytre m1 = n1 is m2 = n2 nanometer(s) /
billionth(s) of a meter [metric unit] in length (default 1) measured in direction m3 = n3 by standard x4 = m3. (See also centre. Made from nanvi
+ mitre.)
navzmi z1 is a nanobot performing function z2
under conditions z3.
naxle [nax xle] x1 is a canal/channel to x2
from x3 with route x4. (x2/x3 may be unordered.
nazbi [naz zbi] x1 is the nose [body-part] of
x2 with nostril(s)/nasal passage(s) x3; [metaphor:
protrusion]. (Also (adjective:) nasal. See also
degji, panci, sumne, tance.)
na [nar] [NA] bridi contradictory negator;
scope is an entire bridi; logically negates in some
cmavo compounds.
ne’a [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
approximating/next to ...
ne’i [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
within/inside of/into ...
ne’o [VUhU3] unary mathematical operator:
factorial; a!.
ne’u [FAhA1] location tense relation/direction;
south of.
nebdadycreka cr1 = d1 is a halter top of
material cr2. (A subtype of ”tube top” (jancaucreka), with a single strap around the back of the
neck. Suggested shortest fu’ivla form: ebdrka. Cf.
nebgunse x1 is a swan (genus Cygnus) of
species/strain x2
nebjendu j1 is the axis (cervical vertebra) of c2
nebnipcreka cr1 = s1 is a polo-neck garment
of material cr2. (Usually a sweater (nivycreka),
with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that
folds over and covers the neck. Suggested shortest fu’ivla form: epcrka. Cf. creka.)
nebyka’a k1 is a guillotine/executioner’s axe
for beheading k2.
nebyplovoicpi ci1 = cn2 = v1 is a
heron/egret/bittern of species ci2 (Members of
family Ardeidae are noted for flying with their
necks folded.)
nebysrijge j1 is a necktie made of material d2
worn by c2. (Cf. dadne’ota’u.)
nederland Holland/The Netherlands.
neizma x1 = n1 = z1 likes x3 = n2 more than
x2 = z2 does, by margin x4 = z4. (Contrast with
zmanei for ”prefer”.)
nei [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats the current bridi.
nejni [nen] x1 is energy of type x2 in form
x3. (Ray/beam (= nenli’i). See also marji, tarmi,
kantu, lazni, livla.)
nelci [nel nei] x1 is fond of/likes/has a
taste for x2 (object/state). (See also cinmo, djica,
nelrai n1 is most fond of n2 = t1 (object/state)
from set t4, due to extreme t3 (ka; default ka
zmadu). (Cf. nelci, traji, plicu’a. Also: n1
likes/prefers n2 = t1 the most out of set t4. )
110nibli nimbau
nelti’i s1 = n1 recommends s2 = n2 to audience
s3. (Cf. stidi.)
nenri [ner ne’i] x1 is in/inside/within x2;
x1 is on the inside/interior of x2 [totally within the
bounds of x2]. (Indicates total containment. (cf.
se vasru (for containment that need not be total)
nerbei x1 imports x2 to x3 from x4 via x5 .
nercreka c1 is a singlet/undershirt/vest of material c2.
nerfopi x1 is a lobster of species x2. (Cf. xasyjukni, cakyjukni. From linnaean Nephropidae.)
nerkalri x1 is an entrance/entry/entryway/inlet/way in to x2
nerklaji k1 = n1 is a hallway / indoor street
within k2 = n2 accessing k3. (Made from nenri
vt ksa ffulka dea
nerkla n1 = k1 enters n2 = k2 from origin k3 via
route k4 using means/vehicle k5.
nerta’u x1=t1=n1 is underwear, worn by/on
x2=t2, for purpose x3=t3, worn under x4=n2
ne [GOI] non-restrictive relative phrase
marker: which incidentally is associated with
ni’ablo x1 is a submarine for carrying x2, propelled by z
ni’a [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
downwards/down from ...
ni’e [NIhE] convert selbri to mex operand; used
to create new non-numerical quantifiers; e.g.
”herd” of oxen.
ni’i ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a logical proof; why?.
ni’inai [BAI*] nibli modal, 1st place despite
logic ...
ni’i [BAI] nibli modal, 1st place logically; logically because ...
ni’o [NIhO] discursive: paragraph break; introduce new topic.
ni’u zei ionti x1 is an anion of radical/(atom of
element)x2 with z charges
ni’u [PA3] digit/number: minus sign; negative
number); default any negative.
nibji’i j1 concludes that n1 (du’u) logically implies n2 under rules n3
nibli [nib ni’i] x1 logically necessitates/entails/implies action/event/state x2
under rules/logic systemz
nibyti’i x1 = n1 (idea/fact/du’u) suggests/intimates that x2 = n2 = s2
(idea/fact/du’u) is true as it appears to x3 = s3
(From nibli stidi. Unlike stidi, it refers to person’s
internal logical reasoning about facts, not external
nicte [cte] x1 is a nighttime of day x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is at night/nocturnal.
(Tonight (= cabycte); tomorrow night (= bavlamcte, even when tonight is still in the future); last
night (= prulamcte
nicygau g1 (agent) tidies/cleans
up/neatens/straightens c1 in property/quantityc2
niengatu x1 is Nheengatu/Tupi/Lingua Geral
in aspecty
nikle [nik] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of nickel/other metal resistant to oxidation.
nilbra x1 is the size of x2 in property/dimension
x3 on scale x4.
nilce [ni’e] x1 [furniture items] furnishes x2
[location] serving purpose/functionz
nilcla n1 is the length of c1 in dimension c2 measured on scale n3 = c3
nilgla n1 is the temperature of g1 measured onscale n2
nilji’a n1 is a number of points / score / indication of an attempt to win a competition won by j1
over opponent(s) j3 in competition j4, points measured on scale n2. (n2 moved to the end due to
apparent uselessness. Made from ni and jinga.)
nilnalci’o ni1 is the age [elapsed duration] of c1
by standard c2
nilsutra n1 is the speed / amount of fast-ness
measured on scale n2 of thing / agent s1 in / at
doing / being / bringing about s2 (event / state).
nilxa’ugri n1 (number) is the population of inhabitant group g1 in area x2 measured on scale n2.
nimbau b1 is Laadan. (A constructed language ´
by Suzette Haden Elgin)
111nitkla nobli
nimfaia x1 is a water-lily (Nymphaea) of
species/strain x2
nimre x1 is a quantity of citrus [fruit/tree, etc.]
of species/strainy
nimryjdu j1 is a quantity of citrus jelly madefrom n1
nim Ms
nincu’upre p1 is an intrepreneur involved in
business cu1 = cn1
nincu’u cu1 = cn1 is a new business involving
persons cu2 (from cnino cuntu c.f. nincu’upre)
ninga’igau gas1 resets/changes gal1 to a new
ninmu [nim ni’u] x1 is a woman/women;
x1 is a female humanoid person [not necessarily
adult]. (Word dispreferred in metaphor/example
as sexist; (use remna or prenu
ninpre c1 = p1 is a stranger to c2 in aspect c3 by
standard c4 (since ninpre in the sense of ”novice”
seems to be deprecated in favor of nintadni, this
seems to be a better definition.)
nintadni c2 = t1 is a beginner in subject c1 = t2
by standard c4
ninyna’adetri d1 is New Year’s Day of d2 =
n1 = c1 at location d3 in calendar d4. (Cf.
ninyna’anunsla nu1 is the celebration of the
New Year as celebrated by s1 at the beginning of
year na1 = c1 according to standard na3; nu1 is the New Year
nipmapku m1 = s1 is a beanie hat of materialm2
nipsri d1 = s1 is an adhesive
tape/cellotape/Scotch Tape/duct tape of material d2, which sticks to s2
nipypalku p1 = s1 is a legging of material p2.
nircadyxu’i xu1 is an instance of anesthetic
blocking impulses from nerve group/system n1 =c1 of n2
nirna [nir] x1 is a nerve/neuron of x2; [metaphor: information/control network
connection]. (Also (adjective:) x1 is neural
nitcu [tcu] x1 needs/requires/is dependent
on/[wants] necessity x2 for purpose/action/stage
of process x3. (No implication of lack
nitkla k1 descends/goes down to k2 = c1 from
k3 = c2 via k4 using means k5
nitmau z1 = c1 is lower than z2 beneath c2 in
frame of reference c3 by amount/excess z4
nitrai t1 = c1 is the lowest among set/range t4
beneath c2 in frame of reference c3
nitsalpo s1 dips at an angle of s2 to reference
frame s3, to beneath c2
nitytse z1 sits on surface z2 = c1 that is below c2
in frame of refernce c3
niutni g1 is g2 newton (s) of force (default
is 1) by standard g3
nivji [niv] x1 (agent) knits x2 [cloth/object]
from yarn/threadz
nivycreka c1 = n2 is a sweater of material
c2 = n3. (A knitted jacket or jersey, usually of thick
wool. Cf. creka, tafrkardiga.)
nixli [nix xli] x1 is a girl [young female person] of age x2 immature by standard x3. (Word
dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use
verba). See also nanla, verba, ninmu.)
nix Miss (Cf. nixli, nanl, naun, nim.)
ni [nil] [NU] abstractor: quantity/amount
abstractor; x1 is quantity/amount of [bridi] measured on scale x2.
no’a [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats the bridi in
which this one is embedded.
no’ebo [NAhE+BO ] negation sumti qualifier:
the neutral form/value of. (Cf. no’e, bo, na’ebo,
je’abo, to’ebo. Midpoint between je’abo and
no’e [nor no’e] [NAhE] midpoint scalar
negator: neutral point between je’a and to’e; ”not
no’i [NIhO] discursive: paragraph break; resume previous topic.
no’o [PA5] digit/number: typical/average
no’u [GOI] non-restrictive appositive phrase
marker: which incidentally is the same thing as ...
nobli [nol no’i] x1 is
in/under culture/society/standard x2. (Also
112noltroni’u normano
upper-class; high/low, upper/lower are poor
Lojban metaphors; note x2 standard applies when
the title/nobility is not recognized culture/society
wide; this would include self-assumed titles. See
also banli.)
noda [KOhA*] logically quantified sumti: nothing at all (unless restricted).
noisku c1 announces/proclaims c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience c3 = n4
via expressive medium c4. (Cf. notci, cusku.)
noi [NOI] non-restrictive relative clause; attaches subordinate bridi with incidental information.
nolba’i b1 = n1 is titled with high aristocratic/noble/elite status in/under culture/society
b3 = n2. (Cf. nobli, banli, kamba’i. ’Your Highness’ or ’Your Majesty’ is doi nolba’i).)
nolboi x1 is an orb made of b2 used by n1. (Cf.
nobli, bolci, nolga’a, trumapku.)
nolga’a g1 is a sceptre made of g2 used by n1.
noljedai x1 is a Jedi of power / level / rank x2
nolkansa k1 is a courtier to
sovereign/aristocrat/noble k2 in culture/country
n2 = k3. (Cf. nobli, kansa, nolse’u, nolraitru,
noltronau, noltruni’u, balnoltru.)
nolmapku m1 is a crown made of m2. (Cf. nobli,
mapku, trumapku, nolboi, nolga’a.)
nolmle m1 = n1 is elegant to m2 = n2. (Cf.
nolnaum Sir (Cf. nobli, nanmu, nol, nolnim.)
nolni’u ni1 = no1 is a lady, considered noble in
culture/society/standard no2. (Cf. nobli.)
nolnim Madam (Cf. nobli, ninmu, nol, nolnaum.)
nolraitru t1 = n1 is a regent/monarch
of t2 by standard n2. (Cf. nobli, traji,
turni, balnoltru, noltruni’u, noltrunau, noltroni’u,
noltronau, nolse’u, nolkansa, gugja’a, truralju.)
nolse’u s1 is a servant of
sovereign/aristocrat/noble s2 = n1 in culture/country n2 with responsibilities s3. (Cf.
nobli, selfu, nolkansa, nolraitru, balnoltru.)
nolstizu s1 is a throne/ceremonial chair used
by noble/aristocratic/elite/high-born/titled
in/under culture/society/standard n2. (Cf. nobli,
stizu, trustizu.)
noltronau ni1 = j1 = no1 is a
Duke/Baron/Count/Earl/Marquess/ [titled
noble of middle rank] ruling j2 under culture/standard no2. (Cf. nobli, jitro, nanmu,
noltroni’u, noltruni’u, nolraitru, balnoltru.)
noltroni’u ni1 = j1 = no1 is a
[titled noble of middle rank] ruling j2 under
culture/standard no2.. (Cf. nobli, jitro, ninmu,
noltronau, noltruni’u, nolraitru, balnoltru.)
noltrunau x1 is the king of x2 by standard x3.
noltruni’u x1 is the queen of x2 by standard x3.
nolzda z1 is a palace of/for noble person(s) n1 =
z2. (Cf. badydi’u.)
nolzgi z1 = n1 the classical music performed
at/by z2 (event) originating in culture n1. (Cf.
nobli, zgike, dzeklu, ronri’izgi, naizgi, sopselneizgi, dja’aza, te’ekno.)
nol Sir/Madam (Cf. nobli, nilnim, nolnaum.)
nomo’o [MAI*] discursive utterance ordinal:
zeroth section/chapter ordinal; foreword.
nondei x1 is a Sunday of week x2 in calendar x3.
(Sunday is either day seven or day zero, depending on your perspective.)
nonjdi x1 is undecided/makes no decision
about x2. (See also aicu’i)
nonkansa x1 is alone/lonely/lonesome in
state/condition/enterprise x2. (Cf. kansa, seicni.)
nonselcei c2 disbelieves in god/deity c1 with
dominion over c3; c2 is an atheist. (Cf. cevni,
ceikri, nalceikri, selcei, pavyselcei, sorselcei,
nonseldi’a x1 is available for free/without cost
to x2 from provider x3.
nonselji’u x1 is invisible from point-of-view x2.
nonseljmi j2 (du’u) is a mystery for j1, the subject being j3. (Cf. jimpe, mipri.)
nonselsmu x1 is nonsense/nonsensical to x2.
nonselsumji x1 is the additive inverse of x2.
norcpa c1 neither gets c2 from c3 nor puts c2 at
c3 (see also tolcpa)
noreg Norway.
4 norgo x1 reflects Norwegian culture/nationality in aspect x2 (Experimental
normano x1 reflects Norman culture/nationality/language in aspect x2.
noroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: never; objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
norpa’a x1 is indifferent/neutral/apathetic
about event x2, expected likelihood x3. (Cf. no’e,
pacna, tolpa’a, norzau.)
norpa’i x1 is indifferent/apathetic/dispassionate/uninvolved/unmoved
towards/with/by x2. (See also iunai)
norselci’i x1 = c2 is disinterested in x2 = c1.
norvaismu s1 = v1 is an interpretation of s2
recognized by s3 but judged unimportant by v2.
norzau x1 is indifferent towards x2. (Cf. no’e,
zanru, norpa’a.)
notci’a c1 notes down c2 on display/storage
medium c3 with writing implement c4. (Cf. notci,
notci [not noi] x1 is a message/notice/memorandum about subject x2
from author x3 to intended audience x4. (Emphasis on brevity, single or identifiable subject
(contrast with xatra: the emphasis in notci is on
the single or cohesively focused subject, while
the audience is less defined - indeed only an
’intended’ audience. xatra need not have a single
or focussed subject - its corresponding place is for
’content’); reminder/memo/note (= mojnoi). See
also xatra, nuzba, mrilu, morji.)
notsku c1 announces/proclaims c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience c3 = n4
via expressive medium c4. (Cf. notci, cusku.)
no [non] [PA1] digit/number: 0 (digit)
nu’a [NUhA] convert mathematical expression
(mex) operator to a selbri/tanru component.
nu’ecu’i [COI*] vocative: promise - promise release - un-promise.
nu’enai [COI*] vocative: promise - promise release - un-promise.
nu’e [COI] vocative: promise - promise release
- un-promise.
nu’i [NUhI] start forethought termset construct;
marks start of place structure set with logical connection.
nu’ogle g1 is virgin/sexually inexperienced
nu’ospe x1=s1 is single (never been married)
by law/convention x2=s3 (See also: speni, spesti,
mrospe, spenu’e)
nu’o [nu’o] [CAhA] modal aspect: can but
has not; unrealized potential.
nu’u [NUhU] elidable terminator: end forethought termset; usually elidable except with following sumti.
nu,IORK New York
nukni [nuk] x1 is magenta/fuchsia/purplishred [color adjective]. (See also skari, blabi, xekri,
kandi, carmi, xunre, zirpu.)
nunbebna n1 is an event of b1 being foolish/silly/stupid in event/action /property (ka)
b2. (Cf. nu, bebna, kambebna.)
nuncasnu n1 is a conversation involving c1(s)
(mass normally, but 1 individual/jo’u possible)
about topic/subject c2. (Cf. nu, casnu.)
nuncatra n1 is the killing by c1 of c2 by action/method c3. (Cf. nu, catra.)
nunci’o n1 is the youth of c1. (Cf. nu, citno.)
nuncne x1 = n1 is a change in property/quantity x2 = c2 (ka/ni) of amount/degree
x3 = c3 under conditions x4 = c4. (Cf. nu, cenba,
galfi, stika.)
nuncnici n1 is order (state of being well arranged) of c1 with orderliness c2. (Cf. cnici, kalsa,
nuncti n1 is an event at which c1 eat(s) c2. (Cf.
nunda’a n1 is a fight/battle in which d1 fights
d2 over issue d3 (abstract). (Cf. nu, damba, nundamba, terjvi.)
nundamba n1 is a fight/battle in which d1 fights
d2 over issue d3 (abstract). (Cf. nu, damba,
nunda’a, terjvi.)
nundansu n1 is a dance with dancer(s) d1 (individual, mass) to music/rhythm d2. (Cf. dansu,
nunde’a n1 is a pause by d1 for/until d2
at state d3 before starting/continuing d4 (activity/process). (Cf. nu, denpa.)
nundenpa n1 is a pause by d1 for/until d2
at state d3 before starting/continuing d4 (activity/process). (Cf. nu, denpa, nunde’a.)
nundunkrali n1 is the equality of rights k1 = d3
entitled to k2 = d1 = d2.
nunfirsku n1 is a facial expression (countenance) of agent f2 = c1 expressing f1 = c2. (Cf.
nunflapai n1 is a trial of dispute j2 involving
people f3. (Cf. nu, pajni, tavla, fapro, nunpai, flapaizda. x3 includes not only the disputing parties
114nunseltickri nutli
but also the judge and juries, which may be connected with ”jo’u”. )
nunfusra n1 is the decay/fermentation (recycling of matter/energy/electrons) of f1 by chemical agent f2.
nunjacycrepu n1 is fishery (fish industry) of
product c2 (aquatic animals) from source/area
c3 = t1 (ocean/sea/coast/lake/river) by fishermen c1. (x2 can be any harvestable aquatic animals, including mollusks and crustaceans. Cf.
nunji’e n1 is the life of j1.
nunjmaji x1 is a gathering/meeting/assembly/conclave/conference/
congregation/congress/convention/encounter/gettogether/reunion of participants x2 at location x3
from locations x4. (Cf. nu, jmaji, jdijmaji, nunpe’i
for a meeting between two parties.)
nunjo’e n1 is an established connection between
j1 and j2 at common locus j3. (n1 or j1 may be a
mass formed with ”joi”, as is the case in a computer network between a server and clients. Cf.
jorne, srana.)
nunka’oku’i n1 is a condition of ku1 managing
the health of ka1. (Usually the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through
the services offered by the medical, nursing, and
allied health professions. x2 and x3 may the same
or different. Cf. kamnu’a.)
nunkei n1 is a game played by k1 playing with
plaything/toy k2 (Cf. nu, kelci, terjvi, ci’erkei.)
nunlerci n1 is the lateness of l1 (event) by standard l2. (Cf. nu, lerci.)
nunmi’a n1 is the laugh/laughter of/by c1
nunmikce n1 is medical, involving doctor/nurse m1, patient m2, ailment m3, and
treatment/cure m4. (Cf. mikce, kurji, sidju.)
nunmro n1 is the death (state of being dead) of
m1 (person).
nunmu’i n1 is the event of m1 motivating action
m2 per volition m3.
nunpai n1 is a trial/judgement/arbitration
with judge/arbitrator/referee p1 determining/deciding matter p2. (Cf. nu, pajni, nunflapai,
nunpe’i x1 is a meeting between x2 and x3 at/in
location x4. (Cf. nu, penmi, nunjmaji, jdijmaji.)
nunseltickri x1 is a believe-deceived with
deceive-belief subject x2 with deception subject x3.
nunsezyfanta n1 is self-restraint shown by f1 =
s2 (from nu sevzi fanta c.f. sezyfanta)
nunsimbi’o n1 is an event of integration between s1 = b1
nunskezu’e n1 is engineering in branch s2
based on methodology s3 (from nu saske zukte)
nunspe n1 is the marriage of s1 and s2 according to tradition s3.
nuntoi n1 is the effort of t1 trying/attempting
to do/attain t2 (event/state/property) by actions/method t3 (from nu troci)
nuntumcrepu n1 is agriculture of product c2
from source/area c3 = t1 by farmers c1 (cf. tumla,
crepu, cange.)
nuntumdesku n1 is an earthquake at location
t2. (Cf. nu, tumla, desku.)
nunxumsne s1 is a trip/drug-induced hallucination about s2 due to chemical substance xu2
with purity xu3. (Cf. mrajymledi, ciksne.)
nunzi’e n1 is the freedom of z1 doing z2 under condition z3. (Cf. nu, zifre, kamyzi’e, selzi’e,

nupre [nup nu’e] x1 (agent)
promises/commits/assures/threatens x2
(event/state) to x3 [beneficiary/victim]. (See
nurbe’i b1 archives s1 = b2 in medium b5. (snura
benji; see also vreji, fukpi, citri, jmaji, sorcu, morji)
nurfu’i f1 is a backup / danger avoiding duplicate / copy of f2 = s1 in form / medium f3 made
by method f4 to protect / secure against event s2
(generally destruction or loss). (Made from snura
+ fukpi.)
nurma [num] x1 is a rural/rustic/pastoral area
of x2; x1 is in the country. (See also jarbu, rarna,
tcadu, cange.)
nurtoni x1 is a neutron in quantum state x2. (Cf.
nurxru x1 saves/rescues/redeems/delivers
x2=s1 from threat/peril s2
nutli [nul nu’i] x1 is neutral/not taking sides/medial/not towards any extreme on
scale/in dissension x2. (Also x2 dispute/struggle
(though x2 is not limited to disagreements,
which is merely one manifestation of scalar or
distributed values in which there is a medial
position). See also midju, lanxe, milxe, mutce,
nuzba [nuz] x1 (du’u) is news/tidings/new
information about subject x2 from source x3, to observer x4. (See also cnino, notci.)
4 nuzlo x1 reflects New Zealand culture/nationality/geography/dialect in aspect
x2. (Cf. glico, sralo.)
nuznoi no1 is a news/press release with news
nu1 about subject nu2 = no2 issued by no3 for audience no4. (Cf. nuzba, notci.)
nu [nun] [NU] abstractor: generalized event abstractor; x1 is
state/process/achievement/activity of [bridi].
ny [BY2] letteral for n.
o’acu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: pride - modesty/humility - shame.
o’anai [UI*1] attitudinal: pride - modesty/humility - shame.
o’a [UI1] attitudinal: pride - modesty/humility
- shame. (See also jgira, cumla, ckeji.)
o’enai [UI*1] attitudinal: closeness - distance.
o’e [UI1] attitudinal: closeness - distance. (See
also cnijbi, cnikansa.)
o’inai [UI*1] attitudinal: caution - rashness.
o’i [UI1] attitudinal: caution - rashness. (See
also capyrivbi, capfanta, srerivbi, srefanta, naldarsi, seljde.)
o’ocu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: patience - mere tolerance - anger.
o’onai [UI*1] attitudinal: patience - mere tolerance - anger.
o’o [UI1] attitudinal: patience - mere tolerance
- anger. (See also fengu, to’ersteba, de’acni)
o’ucu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: relaxation - composure - stress.
o’unai [UI*1] attitudinal: relaxation - composure - stress.
o’u [UI1] attitudinal: relaxation - composure -
stress. (See also surla, cnilanxe, dunku.)
obu [BY*] letteral for o.
odbenu x1 is a walrus of breed x2. (Cf. mabru,
arktik, xamsi.)
odnata x1 is a dragonfly/damselfly (order
Odonata) of species x2. (Cf. ansoptera, zgoptera,
laxsfani, sfani, cinki.)
oinai [UI*1] attitudinal: complaint - pleasure.
oire’e [UI*1] attitudinal: spiritual/religious
oiro’a [UI*1] attitudinal: social complaint.
oiro’e [UI*1] attitudinal: mental complaint
(puzzlement, excess mental work).
oiro’i [UI*1] attitudinal: emotional complaint.
oiro’o [UI*1] attitudinal: physical complaint.
oiro’u [UI*1] attitudinal: sexual complaint.
oi [UI1] attitudinal: complaint - pleasure. (See
also pante, pluka, kufra.)
oktopoda x1 is an octopus of species x2 (see also
omso g1 is g2 ohm(s) of electrical
impedance/resistance (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. klanrxomi, xampo, klanrvolta,
klanrxuati, klanrzimenzi.)
onai [A*] logical connective: sumti afterthought exclusive or; Latin ’aut’.
orka x1 is an orca/killer whale (Orcinus orca) of
breed x2
orvanxi x1 is broomrape of species x2. (see also
osakas Osaka.
osteraix Austria.
ostreda x1 is an oyster of species x2. (Cf.
OTa,uas Ottawa
otan North-Atlantic Treaty Organization.
oxtapodi x1 is an octopus of species x2. (See
also tu’urbirka.)
o [A] logical connective: sumti afterthought
pa’aku [BAI*] sumti: explicitly marks respective use as in ”THEY read THEIR (respective)
pa’arbau b1 is Esperanto. (Cf. pacna, bangu,
spe’ato, lojbo, runbau.)
pa’aseva’u [BAI*] among (with a share for
pa’a [BAI] panra modal, 1st place (parallel;
shared property) similarly; in addition to ...
pa’enai [UI*3] discursive: justice - prejudice.
pa’e [UI3] discursive: justice - prejudice. (See
also tcinydracu’a, tcinydrapai, vudypai.)
pa’i [VUhU2] binary mathematical operator:
ratio; [the ratio of a to b].
pa’oxra pi1 is a cross section/tomogram, a picture of slice pa1=pi2 of pa2 made by pi3 in medium
pi4. (samterpli pa’oxra = CAT scan. There is
another kind of tomogram which may be better
termed tadmijyxra.)
pa’o [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
transfixing/passing through ...
pa’u [BAI] pagbu modal, 1st place having component ...
116pairkamni palta
pabi [PA*] number/quantity: 18 [eighteen].
paci [PA*] number/quantity: 13 [thirteen].
pacna [pa’a] x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2
(event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1); x1 hopes that
x2 happens. (Also: x1 is hopeful of x2; x2 will
hopefully occur, as hoped for by x1; the value of
x3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to
x1, and is the basic determinant of whether pacna
means ’hope’ or ’wish’ or ’expect’: hoping for objects/states with negligible expectation is ”wishing”; if the state is plausibly likely, it is ”hoping”; when the probability is subjectively near 1,
the attitude is described as ”expecting”; the value
will usually be expressed using inexact numbers
(”li piso’u” to ”li piro”); wish (= sotpa’a), hope (=
sorpa’a), expect (= sojypa’a). See also djica.)
pacruxtutra t1 is the Hell of evil spirit(s) t2 =
pa1 = pr1, evil by standard pa2. (Cf. palci, pruxi,
ruxse’i, dapma, lijda)
pacyselzu’e x1 = z2 = p1 is a sin/evil
action by x2 = z1 for purpose/goal z3,
evil/depraved/wicked (morally bad) by standerd
x4 = p2. (Cf. jdazei, zekri.)
pacyxlu xl1 (agent) tempts xl2 into evil xl3 = p1
by influence/threat/lure xl4, said act being evil by
standard p2. (Cf. xlura, palci, jdazei.)
pacyzu’e z1 sins by doing z2 = p1 by standard
paf Dad (The rafsi for patfu used as a familar
name. See also mam, bes, tix, bun, mes.)
pagbu [pag pau] x1 is a
part/component/piece/portion/segment of
x2 [where x2 is a whole/mass]; x2 is partly x1.
(Partly (= selpau). See also cmavo list pa’u, mulno,
xadba, spisa, gunma, rafsi.)
pagre [gre] x1 passes through/penetrates
barrier/medium/portal x2 to destination side x3
from origin side x4. (Passing through in both directions (= rolfargre, pagre ... .i so’ivo’ivo’u (and
vice versa)). See also bitmu, denci, ganlo, kalri,
vorme, pluta, canko, ragve.)
pagyca’o p1 = c1 is a tab (navigational widget)
in p2 = c2. (x2 is usually a web browser or a text
editor. Cf. pagbu, canko.)
pagygu’e p1 = g1 is a constituent country of
p2 (sovereign state / supranational body). (Cf.
gugde, zifyje’a.)
paijdi j1 = p1 gives a verdict j2 (du’u) about
matter j3 = p2 (abstract). (Cf. pajni, jdice.)
pairkamni p1 = k1 is a jury/judging panel deciding matter p2 in court/judging body k3.
pairkamnycmi c1 is a member of jury/judging
panel c2 = p1 = k1 deciding matter p2 in
court/judging body k3.
pairnu’i x1 is fair/just/equitable/impartial/unprejudiced/unbiased
in judging/refereeing/arbitrating/determining/deciding
matter x2. (See also pajni, nutli, pa’e)
pairseljdi j2 is a verdict given by j1 = p1 about
matter j3 = p2 (abstract). (Cf. pajni, jdice.)
pairtruci’e c1 = t1 = p1 is the judicial branch of the government of people/territory/domain/subjects t2. (Cf. pajni,
turni, ciste, truci’e, zuktruci’e, flatruci’e, flacfatrugri, flazautrugri, vajraifla.)
pai [PA5] digit/number: pi (approximately
pajni [pai] x1 judges/referees/arbitrates/is a
judge determining/deciding matter x2 (abstract).
(x2 includes jei = rule (jetpai), ni = estimate (lairpai), ka = evaluate (kairpai or vampai), or nu = referee/arbitrate (faurpai); single events of judging
including specific decisions/judgements (= paijdi,
jetpaijdi, lairpaijdi, kairpaijdi, vampaijdi, faurpaijdi); jury (= pairkamni), serve on a jury (= kamnypai, as part of mass x1). See also cuxna, jdice, vajni,
cipra, zekri, manri, mansa.)
paki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 1,000 expressed with comma.
palbi’o x1 gets promoted to x2 (object, state).
palci [pac] x1 is evil/depraved/wicked
[morally bad] by standard x2. (See also zekri,
vrude, xlali, marde, mabla.)
palgau x1 promotes x2 to x3 (object, state).
palku [pak] x1 are
pants/trousers/slacks/leggings [legged garment] of material x2. (See also taxfu, pastu,
palne x1 is a tray/platter/flat container
[pan/sheet/griddle] of contents x2, and made of
material x3. (Also pallet, when used for carrying
rather than support on the ground; a tray is
flat-bottomed and shallow or without a rim, and
is generally portable. See also tansi, patxu, palta,
palsita x1 is a Sith / Dark Jedi of power / level
/ rank x2
palta x1 is a plate/dish/platter/saucer
[flat/mildly concave food service bed] made
of material x2. (See also ckana, palne, kabri, tansi,
paltylu’i l1 (agent) washes dishes l2 of
soil/contaminant l3 with cleaning material(s)
l4 (Cf. paltylumca’a, zbabu, ctitcilu’i.)
paltylumca’a c1 is a dishwasher (machine). (Cf.
taflumca’a, zbabu, ctitcilu’i, paltylu’i.)
paludizm malaria.
pamai [MAI*] discursive: first utterance ordinal.
pambe x1 is a pump/injector [tool/apparatus]
pumping/inserting fluid x2 to x3 from x4 by
means x5. (x2 fluid may be liquid or gas; x5 may
be a force; a pump generally causes a pressure gradient, such that x3 is a place of lower pressure, x4
a place of higher pressure. (cf. gapci, litki, rinci;
metaphorical use of fepri for gas, risna for liquid,
rinci, tutci))
pamei [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 1 to
cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with single/sole/only
member x2.
pamjai j1 hugs/embraces j2 with j3 (part of j1)
at locus j4 (part of j2).
pamli’u p1&p2 = l1 (mass) date via route l2 using means l3. (Cf. litru, penmi.)
pamo’o [MAI*] discursive utterance ordinal:
first section/chapter ordinal.
pamoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 1 to ordinal selbri; x1 is first among x2 ordered by rule
pampe’o pr1=pe1 is a lover of pr2=pe2. (Cf.
prami, pendo, glepe’o, cinse)
pamu [PA*] number/quantity: 15 [fifteen].
panci [pan] x1 is an
odor/fragrance/scent/smell emitted by x2
and detected by observer/sensor x3. (An undetected emitter is odorless to the observer. See also
nazbi, sumne, cpina.)
pandi [pad] x1 (agent) punctuates x2 (expression) with symbol/word x3 with syntactic/semantic effect x4. (See also lerfu, basna,
anjelca j1 = p2 is incense emitting odor p1.
panjelga’a g1 = p2 is an incense stick with odor
x2 = p1. (Cf. panjelca.)
panje x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
sponge/porous material. (Also metaphorically
used for coral, Swiss cheese. See also cokcu for
a generalized absorbant.)
panjyda’u x1 is a sponge of species x2.
panjyzme x1 is a loofa of variety x2.
panka x1 is a park/land reserve managed by
community/polity/company x2 for purpose x3.
panlo [pa’o] x1 is a slice [thin flat portion] of
x2 (mass). (See also nanba.)
panoki’oki’o [PA*] number/quantity:
10,000,000 [ten millions](Western numbering
system/1,00,00,000 [100 lakhs](Indian numbering
system). (Cf. panonoki’o.)
panomei [MOI*] quantifier selbri: convert 10 to
cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with the decade of members x2.
panomoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 10 to
ordinal selbri; x1 is tenth among x2 ordered by rule
panonoki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 100,000
[hundred thousand](Western numbering system)/[one lakh](Indian numbering system).. (Cf.
panonomei [MOI*] quantifier selbri: convert
100 to cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with the century
of members x2.
panono [PA*] number/quantity: 100 [one hundred].
pano [PA*] number/quantity: 10 [ten].
panpi [pap] x1 is at peace with x2. ((cf. jamna;
use sarxe, smaji, tugni for most metaphorical extensions, cilce, jamna))
panra x1 parallels x2 differing only in property x3 (ka; jo’u/fa’u term) by standard/geometry
x4. (Also: x1 is parallel to x2, x3 is the
only difference between x1 and x2 (= terpanra for reordered places); x1 and x2 are
alike/similar/congruent. A parallel involves extreme close similarity/correspondence across the
entirety of the things being compared, generally
involving multiple properties, with focus placed
on one or a small number of differences. See also
pa’a, mintu, simsa, girzu, vrici.)
pante [pat] x1 protests/objects to/complains
about x2 (event/state) to audience x3 with action
x4. ((x4 is an event or tu’a quotation) See also
panzi [paz] x1 is a [biological] offspring/child/kid/hybrid of parent(s) x2; (adjective:) x1 is filial. papa [PA*] number/quantity: 11 [eleven].
118patsku pavmoija’a
papri x1 is a [physical] page/leaf of
book/document/bound mass of pages x2.
(Numbered pages (as in a book) are the sides of a
page (= paprysfe, paprysfelai); a pageful of text
(= papryseltcidu, paprytcidylai). See also karni,
pelji, prina, xatra, vreji, pezli, cukta, ciska.)
papsimbi’o x1 make up/peace with each other
under condition x2. (Cf. panpi, simxu, binxo, simpapybi’o.)
parbi [pab] x1 (me’o, fraction) is a ratio/rate
of x2 (quantity) with respect to x3 (quantity),
[x2:x3]. (Also x1 fraction/proportion/quotient;
x2 dividend/numerator; x3 divisor/denominator.
See also frinu, dilcu, mekso.)
paremei [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 12 to
cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with a dozen members
pare [PA*] number/quantity: 12 [twelve].
paRIZ Paris
4 parji x1 is a parasite of x2. (see also civla,
cipnrkuku, xidnora)
parkla k1 = c1 creeps/crawls to k2 from k3 via
k4 using k5 = c4. (Cf. cpare, klama, reskla, cidydzu.)
paroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: once; objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
pasifik Pacific Ocean.
paso [PA*] number/quantity: 19 [nineteen].
pasrtunika x1 is a tunic of material x2. (A garment worn over the torso, with or without sleeves,
and of various lengths reaching from the hips
to the ankles. Originated in Greece and Ancien
Rome. tu’inka for type 4. Cf. pastu.)
pastu [pas] x1 is a
robe/tunic/gown/cloak/dress/[coveralls] [a
long/full body garment] of material x2. (Also
coveralls (= paspalku). See also kosta, taxfu,
pasyskaci s1 = p1 is a dress/gown (full-length
un-legged garment) of material s2 = p2.
patfu [paf pa’u] x1 is a father of x2; x1
begets/sires/acts paternal towards x2; [not necessarily biological]. (See also mamta, rirni, rorci,
tarbi, dzena, famti, panzi, bersa, sovda.)
patlu x1 is a potato [an edible tuber] of variety/cultivar x2. ((use samcu for starchy/tuberous
roots that do not reproduce from eyes of tuber);
patpei pa1 = pe1 disapprovingly minds/cares
pa2 = pe2. (Cf. pante, pensi.)
patsku c1 = p1 protests expressing c2 to audience c3 = p3 via medium c4 about p2. (Cf. pante,
cusku, patspu.)
patspu s1 = p1 protests/objects to/complains
about s2 = p2 with action s3 = p4 to audience p3.
patxi’o x1 = p1 is Protestant in aspect x2. (Cf.
patxu [pax] x1 is a pot/kettle/urn/tub/sink,
a deep container for contents x2, of material/properties x3. ((cf. tansi, palne for depth;
patyva’u v1 = p1 sighs in exasperation responding to p2 (event/state). (Cf. pante, vasxu, patspu.)
paunai [UI*3] discursive: unreal/rhetorical
question follows.
paurseldejni p1 is a bond issued by d1 held by
d3. (Cf. pagbu, dejni, terdejni, ze’i zei seldejni, ze’u
zei seldejni, posfai.)
pau [UI3a] discursive: optional question premarker. (See also preti.)
pavbudjo b1 is the first Buddha, Siddhartha
Gautama. (Cf. budjo, pa, moi, lijda, censa)
pavdei x1 is a Monday of week x2 on calendar
pavdilcu x1 is the reciprocal/multiplicative inverse of x2 . (See also fa’i)
pavdutcinse c1 is strictly heterosexual in situation c2 by standard c4. (This word does not apply
to bisexuals and is the direct Lojban equivalent of
English ”heterosexual”. Cf. pavycinse, dutcinse,
pavgaryre’e t1 is a vehicle of units x2 for monorail x3, propelled by x4. (Cf. trene.)
pavmasti x1 is January/the first month of year
x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. relmasti, cibmasti, vonmasti, mumymasti, xavmasti, zelmasti, bivmasti,
sozymasti, pavnonmasti, pavypavmasti, pavrelmasti, nanca, kanbyma’i.)
pavmast January. (Cf. kanbyma’i, pavmasti.)
pavmei m1 is singular.
pavmitcinse c1 is strictly homosexual in situation c2 by standard c4. (This word does not apply
to bisexuals and is the direct Lojban equivalent of
English ”homosexual”. Cf. pavycinse, mitcinse,
pavmoija’a j1 has the rank of Lieutenant/1st
Lieutenant (equivalent of NATO OF-1) in military unit /organization j2. (Cf. pa, moi, jatna,
jemja’a, vairsoi, relmoija’a. Based on STANAG
2116: NATO Codes for Grades of Military Personnel.)
pavnonmasti x1 is October/the tenth month of
year x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti, nanca.)
pavnonmoija’a j1 has the rank of Field
Marshall/General of the Army//Fleet Admiral/Marshall of the Air Force (equivalent of NATO
OF-10) in military unit j2. (Cf. pa, no, moi, jatna,
jemja’a, vairsoi, sozmoija’a, bivmoija’a. Based on
STANAG 2116: NATO Codes for Grades of Military Personnel.)
pavo [PA*] number/quantity: 14 [fourteen].
pavrelmasti x1 is December/the twelfth month
of year x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti, nanca.)
pavroi x1 happens once in interval x2. (Cf. pa,
roi, paroi.)
pavycinglepre pr1 is (a) monosexual/nonbisexual. (Cf. relcinglepre, mitpavycinglepre, datpavycinglepre)
pavycinse c1 is monosexual in situation c2 by
standard c4. (Monosexual means sexual interest
in only one sex/gender, so this word does not apply to bisexuals (= relcinse). Cf. fetcinse, pavypavmasti x1 is November/the eleventh
month of year x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti,
pavyplini p1 is the closest planet (default is Mercury if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2 (default
is the Sun), with planetary characteristics p3, orbital parameters p4. (Cf. pavyplin, relplini, pavyplin Mercury. (Cf. pavyplini.)
pavysei p1 = s1 is alone, lacking the company
of s2.
pavyselcei c2 believes in one god/deity c1
with dominion over c3; c2 is a monotheist. (Cf.
cevni, ceikri, nalceikri, selcei, nonselcei, sorselcei,
pavyselji’o j2 is a monopole with end j1.
pavyseljirna x1 is a unicorn. (Refers specifically
to animals of the unicorn species, not the result of
removing a horn from a two-horned animal.)
pavysmu s1 is the single, unambiguous meaning of s2 recognized/accepted by s3; x2 = s2 is
unambiguous/explicit according to x3 = s3.
pavzilcatra c2 dies (non-agentively) from cause
c3. (from zi’o and catra)
paxa [PA*] number/quantity: 16 [sixteen].
paxlai k1 is k2 (quantifier, default: one) potfuls
in quantity. (Cf. patxu, klani.)
paxrmari p1 is a double boiler/bain-marie containing p2 made of p3
paze [PA*] number/quantity: 17 [seventeen].
pa [pav] [PA1] digit/number: 1 (digit) [one].
pe’a [pev] [UI3c] marks a construct as figurative (non-literal/metaphorical) speech/text.
pe’e [PEhE] marks the following connective as
joining termsets.
pe’i [UI2] evidential: I opine (subjective claim).
pe’o [PEhO] forethought flag for mathematical
expression (mex) Polish (forethought) operator.
pe’u [COI] vocative: please.
peifli x1 = f1 = p1 is baf-
fled/befuddled/perplexed/flummoxed by
subject x2 = p2; x1 = f1 = p1 is stuck on problem
x2 = p2.
peisku p1 = c1 thinks thought c2 = p2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept). (Verbal or near-verbal
expression of a thought; internal monologue.
Made from pensi + cusku.)
peixru x1 = p1 thinks back to origin/earlier
state x3 about p2 (abstraction). (Cf. pensi, xruti,
pei [CAI] attitudinal: attitudinal question; how
do you feel about it? with what intensity?.
pejgau g1 (agent) spreads p1 over/into p2 from
p3. (Cf. preja, gasnu, tcena, fatri, muvdu.)
pekin Peking
pelglar yellow fever.
pelji [ple] x1 is paper from source x2. (Sheet
of paper (= plekarda if shape is important,
plebo’o). See also karni, papri, prina.)
pelnimre x1 is a lemon of variety x2. (Cf. pelxu,
nimre, ri’ornimre, najnimre, branimre, nimre.)
pelxu [pel] x1 is yellow/golden [color adjective]. (See also skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi,
narju, solji.)
pemci [pem] x1 is a poem/verse about
plot/theme/subject/pattern x2 by author x3 for
intended audience x4. (x2 may be a convention
rather than a subject. See also prosa, rimni, rilti,
finti, lisri, sanga.)
pemcrlimriki x1 is a limerick about subject/theme x2 by author x3. (Cf. pemci, pemcrxaiku, pemcrsoneto.)
pemcrsoneto x1 is a sonnet about subject/theme x2 by author x3. (Cf. pemci, pemcrxaiku, pemcrlimriki.)
pemcrxaiku x1 is a haiku about subject/theme
x2 by author x3. (Cf. pemci, pemcrsoneto, pemcrlimriki.)
pempau pa1 is a verse of poem pe1 about subject
pe2 by author pe3 for intended audience pe4. (Cf.
pemci, pagbu, vlali’i, vlagri.)
penbi [peb] x1 is a pen using ink x2 applied
by process x3. (See also ciska, pinsi, xinmo,
pencu [pec pe’u] x1 (agent) touches x2 with
x3 [a locus on x1 or an instrument] at x4 [a locus
on x2]. (See also ganse, darxi, jgari, penmi, jorne,
satre, mosra, zgana.)
pendo [ped pe’o] x1 is/acts as a friend
of/to x2 (experiencer); x2 befriends x1. (See also
bradi, xendo, nelci, prami, bradi.)
pengau g1 introduces p1 to p2 at/in location p3.
pengri g1 is a group meeting showing common
property g2 at/in location p3.
penmi [pen pe’i] x1 meets/encounters x2
at/in location x3. (See also jorne, jikca, pencu.)
pensi [pes pei] x1
thinks/considers/cogitates/reasons/is pensive about/reflects upon subject/concept x2.
(Also: x1 is thoughtful (one sense); x2 is mental
(one sense)/intellectual (one sense) (= selpei).
perli [per] x1 is a pear [fruit] of species/strain
x2. (See also grute.)
persika x1 is a peach of variety x2 (see also
flaume, rutrprunu)
persimo x1 is a persimmon/ebony of
species/variety x2.
peRUV Peru. (Cf. pervu’ui, ketco.)
pervu’ui x1 reflects Peruvian culture/nationality in aspect x2. (Cf. peRUV,
ketco, gento, brazo, tcokumte.)
pesku’i p1 = k1 is considerate of p2 = k2. (Cf.
pensi, kurji.)
pesru’e pr1 is cognition (process of thought)
with inputs pr2 = pe2, outputs pr3 = pe3, passing
through stages pr4. (Cf. puvypei, nunpei, selpei.)
pesti’i s1 = p1 hypothesizes s2 = p2 to audience
s3 about subject/concept x4 = p2. (Cf. pensi, stidi,
pesxu [pex] x1 is
paste/pulp/dough/mash/mud/slurry [soft,
smooth-textured, moist solid] of composition x2.
(x2: composition including x2, which need not
be complete specification. See also marxa, kliti,
petso [pet] x1 is 10 15
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (See also grake,
mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo,
gradu, litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo,
gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, picti,
terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
pexfebdja x1 = p1 = c1 is a noodle/pasta/boiled dough eaten by x2 = c2 made
out of x3 = p2 (normally grain(s) or legume(s))
which is boiled in x4 = f1 (normally water) at temperature x5 = f2 and pressure x6 = f3 (See also
febjukpa, grupesxu. luvjo from pesxu, febvi, cidja.
Not very jvajvo, but it works.)
pezli [pez] x1 is a leaf of plant x2; x1 is foliage
of x2. (See also tricu, papri, spati.)
pezri’oxu’i x1 is chlorophyll of type x2; x1 is
chlorophyllous with type x2
pezyfaltricu t1 is a deciduous tree of species t2.
pezyxruba x1 is a quantity of sorrel of subspecies x2. (Cf. xruba, pezli.)
pe [GOI] restrictive relative phrase marker:
which is associated with ...; loosest associative/possessive.
pi’a [VUhU4] n-ary mathematical operator:
operands are vectors to be treated as matrix rows.
pi’e [PA3] digit/number:separates digits for
base ¿16, not current standard, or variable (e.g.
time, date).
pi’i [VUhU1] n-ary mathematical operator:
times; multiplication operator; [(((a * b) * c) * ...)].
pi’o [BAI] pilno modal, 1st place used by ...
pi’u [piv] [JOI] non-logical connective: cross
product; Cartesian product of sets.
piblitki l1 is vaginal/penile fluid/secretion of
p2. (Cf. glevi’i, pinjyjdu.)
picti [pic] x1 is a trillionth [10 12
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
pidu’e [PA*] number: too much of
pifcpi x1 is a hornbill of speciesy

pincyfi’e pinsi
pifygau g1 takes into custody/imprisons p1 as a
prisoner/captive of p2 restrained/held/confinedby means/force p3
piji’i [PA*] number: approximately all of
pijne x1 is a pin/peg (needleshaped tool) for
fastening to/piercing x2, of material/propertiesx
pijyske s1 is philosophy with methodology s2.
pikci x1 begs/pleads/supplicates/entreats/implores/beseeches/prays
[asks with humility] x2 for x3. (Also importune,
petition, plea, solicit; x2 benefactor, patron; x3
boon, favor, gift, alms. See also cpedu which is
more general as to manner, pindi.)
piksku c1 = p3 (agent) comments/remarks
on/observes c2 = p1 about subject x3 = p2 to audience x4 = c3 = p4 via expressive medium x5 = c5.
pikta x1 is a ticket entitling x2 to entitlement/privilege x3 (event/state) under conditions4
pilji [pi’i] x1 is the product/total/result of
factors/multiplicands (x2 and x3) x2 multiplied byz
pilka [pil pi’a] x1 is a crust/rind/peel/skin/hide/outer cover ofy
pilka as a generalterm includes skapi
pilno [pli] x1 uses/employs x2 [tool, apparatus, machine, agent, acting entity, material] for
purpose x3. (Also utilize; x2 is useful/used productively by x1 to do x3 (= selpli for reordered
places); hire/employ (= le’ipli, lejyplicu’a
pimdu’i d1 = p2 has the same feathers/plumage
as d2, the feathers/plumage being p1
pimlu [pim pi’u] x1 is a/the
feather/plume(s)/plumage [body-part] of animal/speciesy
pimo’a [PA*] number: too little of
pimucu’o [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert .5
to probability selbri; event x1 has a 50/50 chance
under cond. x2.
pimu [PA*] half. (synonym fi’ure
pinca x1 is a/the urine/piss/pee ofy
pincyfi’e x1 is a candiru of species/variety ´ x2.
pincyvi’i v1 = p2 (body) excretes
pindi [pid] x1 is
poor/indigent/impoverished/lacking in
goods/possessions/property x2. (x2 is
scanty/meager/lacking for x
pinflani x1 is a flute
pinfu [pif] x1 is a prisoner/captive of x2, restrained/held/confined by means/forcez
pinji x1 is a/the clitoris/penis [projecting reproductive organ; body-part] of x2. (Normally context eliminates need for specificity; otherwise: penis (= nakpinji), clitoris (= fetpinji). See also pinjycarvi c1 is bukkake onto c2 from c3 = p2.
(Use nunpinjycarvi for the event
pinjygai g1 is a penis sheath
pinjyjdu j1 is smegma of p2. (Includes male andfemale smegma
pinjykapyvi’u v1 circumcises/removes foreskin
from p2 = s2 = v3
also pinjyskapi. Also: v1 is a mohel.)
pinjyskapi s1 is the foreskin of p2 = s2
pinka [pik] x1 (text) is a comment/remark/observation about subject x2
expressed by x3 to audience x4. (Also: x3 comments/remarks/says x1 about x2 (= terselpinka
for reordered places). See also jinvi, cusku, zgana,
pinpau x1 is a row/rank of table/charty
pinpedi x1 is a seal/sea lion/otary/walrus of
genus/species x2. (seal: kermipri pinpedi; sea
lion: kerja’o pinpedi; see also mabru, odbenu)
pinsi’a s1 = p1 prostrates him/herself/itself before s2
pinsi [pis] x1 is a pencil/crayon/stylus applying lead/marking material x2, frame/support
[of material] x3. (Also writing brush; x1 stimulates substrate medium x2 to display marks; explicitly denoting a standard lead pencil (= tabypinsi). unlike the glish equivalents, pinsi is the more general term over penbi),
122pitnanba pleji

pinta [pin] x1 is flat/level/horizontal in
gravity/frame of referency
pintu’a p1 = t1 is a plain/flatland at location t2
pinvre v1 lies on v2 = p1
pinxe [pix] x1 (agent) drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x2 from/out-of
pinynacmei x1 is a row vector of dimension x2
with coordinates x3, x4,
pipcarna c1 = p1 somersaults over c2 in direction c3 to p2 from p3
pipkla k1 = p1 skips/hops to k2 = p2 from k3 =p3 via route k4
pipno [pi’o] x1 is a piano/harpsichord/synthesizer/organ; a keyboardmusical instrument
pipnrpiano zei konceto x1 is piano concerto
number x2 in key x3 composed by x4 performed
by/at x5( ev
pipnrpiano x1 is a pian
pipybanfi p1 = b1 is a frog of species b2
pipyjalra x1 is a grasshopper of order/species/breed x2. (from mao’ste)
piresi’e [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert .2 =
1/5 to portion selbri; x1 is 1/5 of mass/totality x2.
pirlarfi’i f1 = p3 paints picture f2 = p1 in
style/art form l1 representing/showing p2 = f4
on medium p4 (from pixra larcu finti c.f. cintypu’i)
pirosi’e [MOI*] quantified selbri: converts allof to portion selbri; x1 is the whole portion of massy
piro [PA*] number: all of.
piso’a [PA*] number: almost all of.
piso’iroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: often;objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
piso’i [PA*] number: much of.
piso’uroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: rarely;objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
piso’u [PA*] number: a little of.
pisu’o [PA*] number: at least some of.
pitki’otre m1 is m2 square kilometers on side /facing m3 by standard m4.
pitnanba n1 is a pizza with topping/ingredients n2
piton Python. (programming language)
pixra [pir xra] x1 is a picture/illustration
representing/showing x2, made by artist x3 in
medium x4. (Also (adjective:) x1 is pictorial/illustrative; drawing (= xraselci’a), x1 draws
x2 (= xraci’a/xraci’a), image (= xratai), photo
(= kacmyxra), take a photo (= kacmyterxra,
kacmyxragau, kacmyxrazu’e); sculpture, relief (=
pi [piz] [PA3] digit/number: radix (number
base) point; default decimal.
plajva j1 = p2 is a policy by p1 policy maker
regarding j3 subject of policy, j1 is political (Made
out of platu, javni. Politics as an activity may be
”nu plajva” and political science may be ”plajva
plana x1 is plump/fat/obese [excessively
thick/bulbous/swollen] by standary
plank Planck.
plantago x1 is a plantain (small plant with
flower spike) of speciesy
plargoni x1 is a geranium of species/variety x2.
platano x1 is a sycamore (Platanus) of speciesy
platesa x1 is a plaice of speciesy
platu [pla] x1 (agent) plans/designs/plots
plan/arrangement/plot/[schematic] x2 for
state/process x3. (Also invents/organizes; x2
design, scheme; the structure or layout of an
object would be represented as a state in z
pleji [lej le’i] x1
pays/compensates/remunerates/[rewards] payment x2 to recipient/payee x3 for goods/services
x4. (Also x4 commodities; x4 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a
property; pedantically, for objects/commodities,
this is sumti-raising from ownership of the
object/commodity (= posle’i, posyvelyle’i for
unambiguous semantics); rent (= jerle’i, lejyjbera).
(cf. canja, cnemu, friti, kargu, vecnu, jdima,
prali, jerna, sfasa, dunda, jinga, dapma; see note
at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, cirko,
plekarni k1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] printed
on paper with content k2 published by k3 for
audience k4
plesigja s1 is a cigarette made of s2 by s3.
plibu [pib] x1 is a/the pubic area/external
genitalia [body-part] ofy
plicme c1 is the user-name/pseudonym/penname of c2 = p1 for use with/by resource c3 =
p2 for purpose p3
plicru c1 (agent) allows the use of p2 for use x3 =
p3 under conditions x4 = c3.
plicu’a c1 = p1 adopts/selects/chooses/accepts
c2 = p2 out of alternatives c3 for purpose p3
plika’e x1 is able to use x2 for purpose x3 under
conditions x4.
plini x1 is a planet revolving around x2 with
planetary characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4.
plinycma c1 = p1 is an asteroid/planetoid revolving around p2 with characteristics p3 and orbital parameters p4
plinyxabykoi k1 is the equator of planet x2 =
p1 (default Earth) revolving around p2 (from plini
xadba korbi c.f. plinyxadba jedjipli’i)
plinyxadba x1 is a hemisphere of planet x2 (default Earth) revolving around p2 (from plini xadba
plipe [pip pi’e] x1 (agent/object)
leaps/jumps/springs/bounds to x2 from x3
reaching height x4 propelled by x5. (Place structure parallels klama; hence x4 may be a routelike expressio
pliri’a r1 = p1 applies r2 = p2 to r3 = p3
plise x1 is an apple [fruit] of species/strain x2.
plisytricu x1 is an apple tree of tree species x2.
plita [pit] x1 is a plane [2-dimensional
shape/form] defined by points x2 (set); x1 is
flat/[smooth]. (Also: x1 is even/planar/level. (x2
is a set of points at least sufficient to define the
plivei v1 is a log/record of data v2 (nu/du’u)
about v3 = p1’s use of resource p2 for purpose p3
recorded in medium v4
plixau x1=p2 is useful/good for x2 = p1 by the
standard of being usable for purpose p3. (x3 is
”usable”. See alse selplika’e. Made from pilno xamgu
plixa [lix] x1 (agent) plows/furrows/tills
[cuts into and turns up] x2 with tool x3 propelledby x4
plonebrespa x1 is a frillnecked lizard
(Chlamydosaurus) of speciesy
plopijne pi1 = po2 is a staple for holding together pi2, made of pi3 (cleaned up from auto noralujv migration Conceivably this might include a
paper fastener as well. See plopijnytci for stapler.)
pluja [luj] x1 is complex/complicated/involved in aspect/property
x2 (ka) by standard x3. (Also tangled, confused.
pluka [puk pu’a] x1 (event/state) seems
pleasant to/pleases x2 under conditionz
pluta [lut lu’a] x1 is a
route/path/way/course/track to x2 from x3
via/defined by points including x4 (set). (A route
merely connects origin/destination, but need not
be improved in any way; (x4 is a set of points at
least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly).
pluton Pluto
po’edji x1 = p1 = d1 wants to
own/possess/have x2 = p2 for purposex3 = d3, wanting to own/possess/have it by
right/custom/law x4 = p3. (d2 is the abstractionof x1 having x2.)
po’e [GOI] restrictive relative phrase marker:which belongs to ... ; inalienable possession.
po’i [BAI] porsi modal, 1st place (in order) sequentially; in the sequence ...
po’olska x1 reflects Polish culture/nationality/language in aspecty
po’o [UI3b] discursive: uniquely, only, solely:
the only relevant case
po’u [GOI] restrictive appositive phrasemarker: which is the same thing as.
poi [NOI] restrictive relative clause; attaches
subordinate bridi with identifying information to a sumti.
pokme’oni x1 is a Pokemon/Pocket Monster of ´
polgosu x1 is a halibut of species x2. (syn. finprxipoglosu; Cf. flundero, mlafi’e.)
polje [plo] x1 (force) folds/creases x2 at locus/loci/forming crease(s)/bend(s) x3. (For agentive folding (= plogau, plozu’e); use cardinal-value
sumti in x3, or rapli, to indicate multiple folds
polno [pol] x1 reflects Polynesian/Oceanian (geographic region) culture/nationality/languages in aspecty polskas Poland
ponbau p1 = b1 is the apanese hanguage usedby b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
quote). (Cf. ponjo, bangu, banjupunu.)
pongu’e p1 = g1 is x´apan
ponjda l1 is the Shinto religion with beliefs/practices/tenets including l3 (from ponjo lijda)
ponjo [pon po’o] x1 reflects Japanese culture/nationality/language in aspecy
ponse [pos po’e] x1 possesses/owns/has
x2 under law/custom x3; x1 is owner/proprietor
of x2 under x3. ((x3 is generally more important to
the concept than commonly accepted for the English equivalent, since the concept is broader when
unconstrained, and the nature/interpretation of
possession/ownership is very culturally dependent
popsna s1 is the sound of p1 breaking/shattering/cracking/splintering into piecesp2
popygau g1 causes p1 to
break/fracture/shatter/[split/splinter/crack]into pieces p2
porpi [pop po’i] x1
into piecesy
porsi [por poi] x1 [ordered set] is sequenced/ordered/listed by comparison/rules x2
on unordered set x3. (Also (adjective:) x1 is serial.
(sets are completely specified
porto [pot] x1 reflects Portuguese culture/nationality/language in aspecy
porzu’e Group of agents p3 = z1 sequentially
perform/take turns doing z2 in order p2 for purpose z3
posfai f1 is capital stock distributed
among shareholders p1 = f2 issued by company/corporation/firm p2
posterfai f3 is a/are share/shares distributed among f2 = p1, issued by company/corporation/firm f1 = p2 under lawp3
posxu’a x1 = p1 claims ownership of x2 = p2 incondition p3
posydi’a d1 is the price of possessing/owning
object d2 = p2 for potential owner d3 = p1 from
vendor d4 under law/custom p3 (ponse+jdima.
This variant of jdima is pedantically semantic distinction between the price of ”ownership” of an
object rather than the price of the object itself.)
posyselfai f2 = p1 is a/are a/the shareholder(s) of company/corporation/firm f1 = p2
with shares/portions f3 under law p3 ponsefatri
potybau p1 = b1 is the Portuguese language
used by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u,not quote
po [GOI] restrictive relative phrase marker:
which is specific to ...; normal possessive physical/legal.
pracmu j1 is capital (factors of production) used
to create goods/services j2 = c2
prali [pal] x1 is a
profit/gain/benefit/advantage to x2 accruing/resulting from activity/process x3. (Also
(fe) x2 profits from x3 (= selterprali for reordered
places); x1 may be a specific object, a commodity
(mass), an event, or a property; pedantically,
for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising
from ownership of the object/commodity (=
selposprali for unambiguous semantics). See
also vecnu, cnemu, pleji, jinga, canja, sfasa, jerna,
jdima, dunda, zivle.)
prami [pam pa’i] x1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards x2 (object/state).
(Also: x1 is loving towards x2, x1 is a lover of x2
(one sense), x2 is beloved by x1 (= selpa’i for re-
ordered places). See also cinmo, xebni, nelci, djica,
prane [pa’e] x1 is
perfect/ideal/archetypical/faultless/flawless/unimprovable in property/aspect x2 (ka). (Also
without defect/error. See also manfo, curve, traji,
cfila, mulno.)
preblo b1 is a passenger ship for carrying b2,
propleed by p3. (Cf. prenu, bloti, beiblo, ni’ablo.)
precitri x1 is a biography of x2, written/created/composed by x3.
predatni d1 is a profile of person d2 = p1 gathered by method d3. (Cf. prenu, datni.)
preja [pej pe’a] x1 spreads/expands
over/into x2 from initial state x3. (See also tcena,
kuspe, ranji, fatri, muvdu, benji.)
prenu [pre] x1 is a person/people (noun)
[not necessarily human]; x1 displays personality/a persona. (See also nanmu, ninmu, remna,
zukte, sevzi.)
preti [ret rei] x1 (quoted text) is a question/query about subject x2 by questioner x3 to
audience x4. (See also nabmi, danfu, ciksi, frati,
previnji v1 is a passenger aircraft for carrying
v2 = p1, propelled by v3. (Cf. prenu, vinji.)
prezi’ejva j1 is a human right for z1 = p1 to do
z2 (event/state). (Cf. prenu, zifre, javni, zi’ejva,
rarzi’ejva, nunzi’e, kamyzi’e.)
prigau g1 (agent) prints p1 onto p2 using p3
(tool/method). (Cf. prina, fukpi.)
prije [pij] x1 is wise/sage about matter x2
(abstraction) to observer x3. (See also bebna.)
primi’i m1 = p3 is a printer/printing machine
for printing p1 on surface p2
prina x is a print/impression/image
on/in surface x2 of/made by/usingtool/press/implement/object z
pritu x1 is to the right/right-hand side of x2
which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3. (Also: x3 is
the standard of orientation fory
prityxa’e xa1 = z1 is a/the right hand of
xa2 = z2, which faces/in-frame-of-reference z3.
prokioni x1 is a racoon of species/breedy
pronalka’e k1 = f1 is incapable of opposing
f2 (person/force/mass) about f3 (abstract) underconditions k3 (event/state
prosa [ros ro’a] x1 is prose aboutplot/theme/subject x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4. (Non-poetic written text,
without intentional rhyme or meter; x2 may be a
convention rather than a subje
protoni x1 is a proton in quantum statey
pruce [ruc ru’e] x1 is a process with inputs x2, outputs/results x3, passing through
steps/stages x4. (x2 resource (= selru’e, but also
ru’etci, (ru’er-/ruc- or selru’e-/selruc- modifying:)
selxaksu, selsabji, livla
prujungau x1 predicts/foretells/anticipates to
x2 fact(s) x3 (du’u) about subject x4 by epistemology x5
prula’i p1 = l1 is preceding p2 = l2 in sequencel3. (bavla’i
prulamcte n1 = l1 = p1 is the night before p2 =
l2 at location n3
prulamdei d1 = p1 = l1 is yesterday; d1 = p1 =
l1 is the day preceding p2 = l2, day standard d3.
prulamna’a n1 = p1 = l1 is yesteryear; n1 =
p1 = l1 is the year preceding p2 = l2 by year standard n3.
pruni [pun] (adjective:) x1 is elastic/springy.
prupu’i pun1 prepones/moves forward pun2 to
before pur2
pruslemijyji’e x1 is a prokaryote of
species/defining property x2. (Protokaryots
are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus. P. consists of two domains, bacteria and
archaea.See also microorganism (one cellular
organism;=jurme) and eukaryote.)
pruspe s1 is the ex-wife/husband of s2
under law/custom/tradition/system/conventions3
pruxi [rux ru’i] x1 is spiritual/pertains to
the soul in nature [either energy or being]; x1 is
ghostly/ethereal. (Also soul (= ruxse’i
pu’a [BAI] pluka modal, 1st place pleased by ...
pu’e [BAI] pruce modal, 1st place (in manner 1)by process
pu’i [pus] [CAhA] modal aspect: can and
has; demonstrated potential.
puqo interval event contour: in anticipation of until inchoative
pu’u [puv] [NU1] abstractor: process (event)
abstractor; x1 is process of [bridi] proceeding in
stages x2.
puba [PU*] time tense: was going to;
puca’a [PU*] time tense: past actuality; modal
puca’o [ZAhO*] time tense: was then;
pudykurji k1 is a gardener attending to garden
p1 belonging to p2, growing plants p3
pujeba [PU*] time tense: before and after;
pujeca [PU*] time tense: before and during;
pulbanfi b1 = p2 is toad of species b2
pulce [puc pu’e] x1 is dust/precipitate [suspensible solid] from x2 in medium/on surface x3.
pulji x1 is a police officer/[enforcer/vigilante]
enforcing law(s)/rule(s)/order x2. (Police officer,
as an agent of authority (= ca’irpulji, ka’irpulji), as
part of a police force (= puljysoi, as part of puljyselsoi); military police (= jempulji, bilpulji
pulni x1 is a pulley [tool] for performing action/function x2 rotating on axlez
furmo lunsci pumlumci l1 (agent) dusts l2 with l4
pumvau v1 contains powder of material p2
punji [puj pu’i] x1 (agent)
puts/places/sets x2 on/at surface/locusz
punli [pul] x1 is a
swelling/protrusion/convexity [shape/form]
at/in/on x2, of material x3. ((adjective:) x1 is
swollen. See also balji, cmana, plana.)
pupu [PU*] time tense: had earlier been;
purci [pur pru] x1 is in the past of/earlier
than/before x2 in time sequence; x1 is former; x2
is latter. (Time ordering only (use lidne otherwise);
aorist in that x1 may overlap in time with x2 as
long as it starts before, x1 starts before x2 but is
continuing during x2 (= cfaprucabna); non-aorist
before, i.e. x1 is over/ended before x2 starts (=
fampru), x1 is completed before x2 starts (= mulpru). See also lidne, balvi, cabna, farna.)
purdi [pud] x1 is a garden/tended/cultivated
field of family/community/farmer x2 growing
plants/crop x3. (Orchard (= ricpurdi). See also
foldi, cange, panka.)
purlamke’u x1 is the last time/previous time
that x2 happened. (See purci, lamji, krefu,
bavlamke’u, purlamdei)
purmo [pum pu’o] x1 is a powder of material
x2. (Flour (= grupu’o, xripu’o). See also pulce, zalvi.)
purzga p1 = z1 previews z2 by means z3 under
condition z4. (Cf. purci, zgana.)
puvma’ubi’o x1 is adolescence by standard x2
puvytarga’i x1 is stellar evolution (Cf. tarci,
puza [PU*] time tense: a medium time before;
puze’a [PU*] time tense: for a medium length
interval some time in the past; (tense/modal).
puze’i [PU*] time tense: for a short interval
some time in the past; (tense/modal).
puze’u [PU*] time tense: for a long interval
some time in the past; (tense/modal).
puzi [PU*] time tense: a short time before;

puzu [PU*] time tense: a long time before;
pu [PU] time tense relation/direction: did [selbri]; before/prior to [sumti]; default past tense.
pyd Tibet.
py [BY2] letteral for p.
ra’abri x1 is a relative clause attached to argument x2 with predicate relation x3 among arguments x4. (See also noi, poi, voi)
ra’a [BAI] srana modal, 1st place pertained to
by ... (generally more specific).
ra’erprali p1 = r2 are the retained earnings of
company/corporation/firm/partnership p2 = r1
resulting from business activity p3. (From ralte,
prali. Cf. fairprali.)
ra’e [PA3] digit/number: repeating digits (of a
decimal) follow.
ra’irgau g1 maintains g2 = r1 (event/state) over
interval r2. (Cf. ranji, gasnu.)
ra’irsumji x1 is the integral of x2 with respect to
x3 over x4. (See also ri’o)
ra’i [BAI] krasi modal, 1st place from
source/origin/starting point ...
4 ra’oi [ZOhOI] single-word rafsi quote;
quotes a single word delimited by pauses
(in speech) or whitespace (in writing) and
treats it as a rafsi (Useful for quoting rafsi
that aren’t legal words on their own. See
for details.)
ra’o [RAhO] flag GOhA to indicate proassignment context updating for all pro-assigns in
referenced bridi.
ra’ucu’i [UI*3] discursive: chiefly - equally - incidentally.
ra’unai [UI*3] discursive: chiefly - equally - incidentally.
ra’u [UI3] discursive: chiefly - equally - incidentally. (See also ralju, vajni.)
rabybau r1 = b1 is the Arabic language used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
quote). (from xrabo bangu c.f. misrybau)
rabykumte x1 is a dromedary/Arabian camel
of breed x2. (Cf. kumte, zdokumte, tcokumte,
racli x1 (action/activity/behavior) is
sane/rational by standard x2. (See also fenki.)
ractu x1 is a rabbit/hare/[doe] of species/breed
x2. (See also mabru, kerlo.)
radji’i x1 admits/accepts/acknowledges/allows/concedes/recognizes
that x2 is true about x3 on grounds/under compelling evidence x4 (Cf. randa, jinvi, fitytu’i,
cpazau, zarcpa.)
radno [ra’o] x1 is x2 radian(s) [metric unit]
in angular measure (default is 1) by standard x3.
(Measured in degrees (julra’o); right ascension
astronomical measurement. (= cacryra’o). See
also jganu, kilto, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo,
gocti, gotro, gutci, litce, megdo, mikri, milti, minli,
nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti,
radycru x1 = r1 = c1 abandons / gives up x2 =
r2 = c2 under condition x3 = r3 = c3 (Cf. randa,
curmi, fesli’a, tolcpa.)
rafsi [raf] x1 is an
affix/suffix/prefix/combining-form for
word/concept x2, form/properties x3, language
x4. (See also valsi, lujvo, pagbu.)
rafske x1 is the morphology of language x2 according to methodology x3. (see also vlaturge’a,
ragrmalpigi x1 is a Malpighian tubule [excretory organ] of insect x2. (see also rutrmalpigi)
ragve [rav] x1 is located across/on the other
side of gap/boundary x2 from x3; x1 is opposite
(fi) x3. (Also: x1 is over there (across/beyond
zo’e); directly across/beyond a boundary/gap,
generally at the shortest plausible distance on the
other side of the boundary. See also dukti, kuspe,
bancu, kruca, cripu, pagre.)
rai [BAI] traji modal, 1st place with superlative
rajnacmei x1 is a column vector of dimension
x2 with coordinates x3, x4, ... (See also pinynacmei)
rajroksfe s1 = rs1 is a vertical rock face / rock
surface of rock / mountain rs2 on side rs3 with
edges rs4, vertical in reference frame/gravity s2.
(Technically necessary ke (or bo) dropped. Cf.
sraji, roksfe, fenra, cmana, farlu.)
rajyclamau z1 = c1 = s1 is taller than z2 by
amount z4. (Cf. sraji, clani, zmadu, rajycla, rajyclarai.)
rajyclarai t1 = c1 = s1 is the tallest among
set/range t4. (Cf. sraji, clani, traji, rajycla, rajyclamau.)
rajycla x1 is tall according to standard x2. (Cf.
rajypau x1 is a column/file of table/chart x2.
(see also pinpau, kamju)
rajyserti se1 = sr1 is a ladder / vertical stairway for climbing structure se2 with steps se3, vertical in reference frame sr2. (Made from sraji +
rakci’a c1 carves inscription/text c2 on to c3 =
s2 using c4 = s1. (Cf. sraku, ciska.)
rakcro x1 itches at locus x2.
rakso x1 reflects Iraqi culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also xrabo.)
raksygu’e g1 is Iraq. (Cf. gugde’ike.)
raktu [ra’u] x1 (object/person/event/situation) troubles/disturbs
x2 (person) causing problem(s) x3. (Also afflicts,
is disruptive to, troublesome; x1/x3 are a care to
x2, x2 is troubled by/cares about x1/x3 (= selra’u
128ranmrdrakono rarna
for reordered places). See also dicra, fanza, zunti,
ralci [rac] x1 is delicate/fragile/subtle/refined in property x2
(ka). (Easily damaged or rendered less pleasing/pure/effective. See also jdari, ranti, tsali,
milxe, kukte.)
ralju [ral] x1 is principal/chief/leader/main/[staple], most significant
among x2 (set) in property x3 (ka). (Staple (=
ralselpra); general/admiral/president/principal
leader (= ralja’a, ralterbe’e; use additional terms
to distinguish among these); also primary, prime,
(adverb:) chiefly, principally, mainly; (x2 is complete specification of set). See also vajni, te raltca x1 is a/the capital of x2. (Cf. ralju, tcadu.
More general than trutca. May be the financial
(e.g. New York in USA), industrial (e.g. Sao Paulo
in Brazil) or religious (e.g. Mecca in Saudi Arabia)
capital of its polity but not necessarily the seat of
ralte [ra’e] x1 retains/keeps/holds x2 in its
possession. (See also cirko, rinju, ponse, jgari,
ralxelbo’a r1 is the frequency of the carrier
wave of signal b1. (Cf. ralju, boxna.)
ramadan Ramadan (Cf. ramdana.)
rambutane x1 is a rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) of breed x2
ramdana x1 is the Ramadan/Ramazan of year
x2. (Cf. ramadan.)
ranbu’u b1 = r1 is velvet made from material b2.
randa [rad] x1 yields/gives way/surrenders
to x2 (force/agent) under conditions x3. (See also
rango [rag] x1 is a/the body organ [bodypart] of body/species x2 performing function x3.
(Also sweetmeat (= ragdja). See also besna, livga.)
rangutano x1 is an orangutan of variety x2. (see
also remsmismani)
ranji [ra’i] x1 (event/state) continues/persists over interval x2; x1 (property -
ka) is continuous over x2. (See also temci, kuspe,
ranmi [ram] x1 is a myth/legend, a culturally
significant story about x2 in mythos x3 of culture
x4. (Also: x1 is mythical/fairy tale; used adjectivally for non-humanoid creatures (= ramda’u) of
story/myth/legend/religion, e.g. dragon; fairy
tale (= veryranmi). See also lijda, lisri, crida.)
ranmrdrakono x1 is a dragon of species/breed
x2 in mythos x3 of culture x4
ransu x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
bronze of composition including x2. (See also
ranti [ran] x1 is
soft/malleable/moldable/yielding to force x2
in conditions x3. (See also ralci, jdari, lakse, randa,
ranxi [rax] x1 is ironic(al)/contrary to expectation x2 in state/property/aspect x3. (See also
dukti, frica, cizra.)
rapcreze’a z1 = c1 (experiencer) increases in
skill / expertise at z2 = c2 by amount z3 by means
of repeating action r1 r2 times. (Made from rapli +
certu + zenba.)
rapfinti x1 is a remake/re-invention of x2
rapli [rap] x1 [action] repeats/is repeated for
a total of x2 (quantity) occurrences. (Practice (=
rapyzu’e, rapxelcli, rapyzukmo’i). See also cmavo
list roi, cafne, krefu, fukpi, pilji, xruti.)
rapxruxelkla x1 is a shuttle between x2 and x3,
traveling along route x4, carrying passengers x5.
rapyda’i d1 beats/hits repeatedly d2 using d3 at
locus d4, r2 times. (Cf. rapli, darxi.)
rarbau b1 is a natural language spoken by community b2 to express b3. (As opposed to constructed spoken languages. Cf. runbau)
rardugri x1 is the natural logarithm of x2. (See
also te’o)
rarji’i x1=j1 thinks/knows by instinct/feels that
x2=j2 [opinion] (du’u) is true about subject/issue
x3=j3 (From rarna and jinvi. Drawing conclusions
without a proper reasoning, using ’gut feelings’ or
preconscious thoughts.)
rarkrali k1 = r1 (NU) is a natural right of k2
(individual/mass) by standard k3. (Rights which
are not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of a particular society or polity, thus necessarily universal; usually contrasted to legal rights
(flakrali), which are culturally and politically relative
rarna [rar] x1 is natural/spontaneous/instinctive, not [consciously]
caused by person(s
rarselfra f2 = r1 is an instinctive reaction from
f1 to stimulus f3 under condition f4.
rarvelcange x1 is organically grown at x2 by x3
on farm x4. (see also cicycrepu)
rarzi’ejva z1 = r1 is a natural right for z1 to
do/be z2 (event/state
rastergu’i x1 is an oil lamp using animal or vegetable products, illuminating x2 with light x
rasycpi x1 is an oilbird of breedy
rasykobli x1 is rape/canola/yu choy of variety
x2. (see also orvanxi)
ratcu x1 is a rat of species/breed x2. (See also
ratmacu x1 is a mouse/rat (family Muridae) of
species/breed x2 (Cf. ratcu, smacu, mabru. This
term is a combination of ratcu + smacu for those
speakers (Chinese, for instance) who don’t usually
distinguish between mice and rats.)
ratmidju x1 = m1 is the nucleus of atom x2 =m2 = r1
ratni [rat] x1 is an atom of element/atomic
number x2 of isotope number/atomic weight x3.
((cf. kantu for a basic unit of a property or activity; selci for a basic physical subunit, generally of
a mass))
ratske s1 is nuclear physics with methodology
raumei [MOI*] quantified selbri: converts
enough to cardinal; x1 is a set with members x2,
enough by std. x3.
raumoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: converts
enough to ordinal; x1 is enoughth among x2, order rule x3.
rau [PA4] digit/number: enough; subjective.
ravboni x1 is a/the rabbi of/in community x2.
raxfatci f1 = r1 is absurd, contrary to expectation r2 in aspect r3. (Cf. fatci, ranxi.)
raxsku c1 (agent) expresses c2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e
concept) with irony for audience c3 via expressive
medium c4.. (Cf. ranxi, cusku, raxyckasu, raxyxajmi.)
raxyckasu c1 is sarcastic to c2 about c3. (Cf.
ranxi, ckasu, raxsku, raxyxajmi.)
raxyxajmi x1 = r1 is sardonic to x2 in property/aspect x3 = r3. (Cf. ranxi, xajmi, raxsku,
razbau br1 = ba1 is the Brazilian Portuguese
language used by ba2 to express/communicate ba3
(si’o/du’u, not quote) (Cf. brazo, bangu, potybau,
razgu’e b1 = g1 is Brazil. (Cf. brazo, gugde,
ra [KOhA5] pro-sumti: a recent sumti before
the last one, as determined by back-counting rules.
re’azda z1 is a house for human being z2 = r1.
re’a [VUhU4] unary mathematical operator:
matrix transpose/dual; A*.
re’enai [UI*4] emotion category/modifier:
spiritual/worship - sacrilege.
re’e [UI4] emotion category/modifier: religious/spiritual/worship - sacrilege. (See also lijda.)
re’inai [COI*] vocative: ready to receive - not
ready to receive.
re’i [COI] vocative: ready to receive - not ready
to receive.
re’o [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
adjacent to/touching/contacting ...
re’ucti c1 is a carnivore that eats the meat/flesh
of animal r2. (Cf. rectu, citka, stagycti, fi’ecti.)
re’u [ROI] converts number to an objectively
quantified ordinal tense interval modifier; defaults
to time.
rebjukma’i x1 is November of year x2 in calendaz
rebla [reb] x1 is a/the tail/appendix [bodypart] of x2; [metaphor: trailing, following portion/appendage]. rebyrespa r1 is a lizard of species r2
rectu [rec re’u] x1 is a quantity of/contains
meat/flesh from source/animal x2. (See also sluji.)
refcfari’a r1 (event) restarts c1 = k2 for the k3rd time
refcfa c1 = k2 restarts for the k3rd time
refkibycpa c1 reloads c2 = kr2 from c3 = ki1.
refmri m1 resends/forwards/remails m2 to m3
from m4 through carrier m5 for the k3rd time; m1
is a forwarder/remailer. (often ke’umri; see cmeclax)
refsajbi’o b1 = s1 recognizes s2 (object/abstrac
refsku c1 repeats/recapitulates c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to audience c3 via
expressive medium c4, k3 times (default:one
refygau g1 redoes g2 = k2 for the k3th time
reisku c1 = p3 asks question c2 = p1 to c3 = p4
via expressive medium c4, about subject p2.
rei [PA2] digit/number: hex digit E (decimal
14) [fourteen].
rejgau g1 records / saves r2 onto medium r4.
reki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 2,000 expressed
with comma.
relcinglepre p1 is (a) bisexual
relcinpa’i x1 is bi sexual;.
relcinse c1 is bisexual in situation c2 by standard c4
reldei x1 is a Tuesday of week x2 in calendaz
relmasti x1 is February/the second month ofyear x2 in calendaz
relmast February
relmoija’a j1 has the rank of Captain/Lieutenant/Flight Lieutenant (equivalent of
NATO OF-2) in military unit /organization j2.
relmomdegji m1 = d1 is the index finger of d2.
relnacmei x1 is a 2-dimensional vector with coordinates x2 andz
relpi’i p1 is twice/double p2; p1 is p2 multiplied
by 2.
relplini p1 is the second closest planet (default
is Venus if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2 (default is the Sun), with planetary characteristics p3,
orbital parameters p4
relplin Venus
relselba’e x1 is a pair of scissors with blades x2.
relselji’o j2 is a dipole with ends including j1.
relseltu’e t2 is two-legged with legs t1
relxilma’e m1 is a bicycle/motorcycle carrying
m2 on surface m3, propelled by m4.
relyfi’es x1 is Pisces [constellation/astrological
sign]. (From re, finpe. The constellation is commonly represented as two fish, each of which is
tied to the same point by a long length of string.
The fish are connected at the tails.)
remai [MAI*] discursive: second utterance ordinal.
remei [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 2 to cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with the pair of members x2.
remjinkytoldu’evidru v1=jt1=r1 is HIV [Human immunodeficiency virus] of jt2. (From
remna, jinkytoldu’e, vidru. v2 and v3 subsumed.)
remna [rem re’a] x1 is a human/human being/man (non-specific gender-free sense); (adjective:) x1 is human. (See also nanmu, ninmu,
remoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 2 to ordinal selbri; x1 is second among x2 ordered by rulez
remsmimi’i m1 = r1 = s1 is an automaton [mostly unintelligent android/humanoid machine] for purpose m2. (s2 is subsumed. See also
crida. Made from remna + simsa + minji.)
remsmismani x1 is an ape of speciesy
remsmi r1 is humanoid/man-like in quality s3.
remxei x1 hates humans/humanity; (adjective:) x1 is misanthropic
remyladru l1 is human breast milk/mother’smilk from human r1
renomei [MOI*] quantifier selbri: convert 20 to
cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with the score of members x2.
renono [PA*] number/quantity: 200 [two hundred].
reno [PA*] number/quantity: 20 [twenty].
renro [rer re’o] x1
throws/launches/casts/hurls x2 to/at/in direction x3 (propulsion derives internally to x1).
renvi [rev re’i] x1 survives/endures/undergoes/abides/lasts/persists
through x2 for interval/duration x3. (Also lasts
out, withstands; x1 persists/lasts for duration x3;
131ri’orko’i rikybauske
(adjective:) x1 is tough/durable. See also ranji,
kuspe, randa, lifri, stali, temci.)
renytcana t1 is a railed vehicle station/depot/yard in transport system t2 = t3
for cars/wagons/units tr2 (default heavy rail)
propelled by tr4 (from trene tcana.)
repmi’i m1 = c1 is a harvester/reaper/machine
for harvesting crop c2 from source c3. (implied m2
is ”lo nu crepu c2 c3”. )
rerce’a c1 is a slingshot/catapult with munition/projectile c2 = r2.
rerga’a g1 = r2 is a javelin made of g2 thrown
by r1. (Cf. renro, grana, kilga’a.)
reroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: twice; objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
reskla k1 creeps/crawls on all fours/on hands
and knees/with body close to the ground to k2
from k3 via k4
respa [res] x1 is a reptile of species/breed x2.
resrvarano x1 is a monitor lizard of
species/variety x2.
retpei pe1 wonders about pe2 = pr2.
retsku c1 = p3 asks/puts question c2 = p1
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) of/to c3 = p4 via expressive medium c4 about subject p2. (Cf. preti,
cusku, kuclanli, piksku, xu, xo, ma, mo.)
re [rel] [PA1] digit/number: 2 (digit) [two].
ri’a ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a physical cause; why?.
ri’anai [BAI*] rinka modal, 1st place
(phys./mental) despite cause ...
ri’a [BAI] rinka modal, 1st place (phys./mental)
causal because ...
ri’enai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: release of
emotion - emotion restraint.
ri’erkoi k1 is a bank of river k3 = r1
ri’erxi’a x1 is a hippopotamus of genus/species
x2. (Cf. rirxe, xirma. Syn. xiptamu.)
ri’e [UI5] attitudinal modifier: release of emotion - emotion restraint
ri’irga’a g1 is a mace/[ceremonial staff] made of
g2 used for purpose r2 by custom/in community
r3. (Cf. ritli, grana, nolga’a.)
ri’i [BAI] lifri modal, 1st place patient/passive
case tag; happens to...,experienced by...,with passive...
ri’orko’i x1 is a quantity of
kale/borecole/boerenkool of species/strain
ri’ornimre x1 is a lime of varietyy
ri’ortcati t1 is green tea brewed from t2
ri’o [VUhU4] trinary mathematical operator:
[integral of a with respect to b over range c].
ri’urgau g1 restrains/constrains/holds back r1
using restraint r2, against r3 (event).
ri’usri d1 = r2 is a seat belt/strap/leash made
of d2 for restraining r1
ri’u [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
rightwards/to the right of ...
ricfoi f1 is a forest with predominant tree
species/cultivar t2
ricfu [rif cfu] x1 is rich/wealthy in
ricrceraso x1 is a cherry tree of speciesy
ricrprunu x1 is plum/peach/cherry/apricot/sloe tree of
rictu’a tu1 is a forest of tr1.
ricyblu x1 = c1 is resin (hydrocarbon secretion)
of plants x2 = c2 = t1 (x2 is typically coniferoustrees.)
ricygundi g1 is a/the forest products industry/sector producing forest products g2 from tree
species t2 by process g3 (From tricu, gundi. Omit
ricyratcu x1 is a squirrel of species x2.
ricyzda z1 is a treehouse of/for z2 on tree t1 of
species t2. (Cf. tricu, zdani.)
rigni [rig] x1 is repugnant to/causes disgust
to x2 under conditions x3. (See also djica, nelci,
trina, vamtu, xebni, pluka.)
rijno [rij] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of silver/argentum (Ag); [metaphor: valuable,
tarnishing]. (See also solji.)
rijyska x1 is silvery/silver-colored when
viewed by x2 under conditions x3. (Cf. rijno,
skari, sloska.)
rikybauske s1 is the diachronics/diachronic linguistics of s2 = b1.
rilti [ril] x1 (sequence/non-text quote) is a
rhythm/beat of music/expressive form x2. (Not
necessarily oscillatory/regular pattern
rimni [rim] x1 rhymes/alliterates with x2 in
language/phonetics x3, matching sound correspondence x4 (ka). (Broad meaning of rhyme - any
matching sound correspondence
rinci x1 liquid/fluid drains/strains/flushes from source x2 through drain/strainer x3 by force
x4. (x4 is usually gravity
rinju [ri’u] x1 is restrained/held[back]/constrained/kept by restraint x2 againstz
(event). (Also: x2 is a restraint/binding for x1,
x2 keeps/restrains/holds [back]/constrains x1
from x3 (= selri’u for reordered places); agentive
restraint (= ri’urgau, ri’urzu’e
rinka [rik ri’a] x1 (event/state) effects/physically causes effect x2 (event/state)
under conditions x3. (x1 is a material condition for x2; x1 gives rise to x2. See also gasnu, krinu,
rinsa x1 (agent) greets/hails/[welcomes/says
hello to]/responds to arrival of x2 in manner x3
(action). ((cf. friti for welcome/hospitality, cmavo
list coi, cmavo list co’o))
rirci x1 [member] is
rare/unusual/uncommon/atypical in property x2 (ka) among members of x3 (set). ((x3 is
complete specification of set); (cf. cizra, fadni,
cafne, kampu, cnano - the generalized opposite to
any/all of these concepts))
rirni [rir] x1 is a parent of/raises/rears x2; x1
mentors/acts parental toward child/protege x2.
rirxe [ri’e] x1 is a river of land mass x2,
draining watershed x3 into x4/terminating at x4.
rirx River
risfoi f1 is a rice field of r2.
rismi [ris] x1 is a quantity of rice [a type of
grain] of strain/cultivar y
risna x1 is a/the heart [body-part] of x2; [emotional/shape metaphors are NOT culturally neutral]. ((adjective:) x1 is cardiac; emotional ’heart’
(= cnise’i
rispesxu p1 is a quantity of congee of ingredients including p2

ritli [ri’i] x1 is a rite/ceremony/ritual for
purpose/goal x2, by custom/in community x3,
with form/rules x4. ([also: x1 is formal, Legal. x1 is ’going through the motions’]; x4 constraints/customs;
ritygu’e g1 is Great Britain (country
rivbi [riv] x1 avoids/evades/shuns/escapes/skirts
[fate] x2 (event) through action/state x3 (event).
(Also detours around, stays away from; (x1 is
normally an object, but may be an ev
also bandu which is not necessarily successful,
fanta, which is agentive, se jersi which implies an
opposing agent, sisku, kalte, fapro.)
rixrai tra1 = tri1 is furthest to the back out of
set/range tra4 in frame of reference/based on facing tri3.
rixybakfu t1 = b1 contains b2 wrapped with b3
to be hauled on the back of t2. (trixe+bakfu)
ri [KOhA5] pro-sumti: the last sumti, as determined by back-counting rules.
ro’anai [UI*4] emotion category/modifier: social - antisocial.

ro’a [UI4] emotion category/modifier: social -
antisocial. (See also jikca.)
ro’enai [UI*4] emotion category/modifier:
mental - mindless.
ro’e [UI4] emotion category/modifier: mental -
mindless. (See also menli.)
ro’inai [UI*4] emotion category/modifier:
emotional - denying emotion.
ro’i [UI4] emotion category/modifier: emotional - denying emotion
ro’onai [UI*4] emotion category/modifier:physical - denying physical
ro’o [UI4] emotion category/modifier: physical- denying physical
ro’unai [UI*4] emotion category/modifier: sexual - sexual abstinence.
133ropno ruble
ro’u [UI4] emotion category/modifier: sexual -
sexual abstinence.
robin roban
roda [KOhA*] logically quantified universal
sumti: everything (unless restricted).
roi [rom roi] [ROI] converts number to an
objectively quantified tense interval modifier; defaults to time tense.
rokci [rok ro’i] x1 is a quantity of/is made
of/contains rock/stone of type/composition x2
from location x3. (x2: composition including x2,
which need not be complete specification
roksfe s1 is a rock face / rock surface of rock /
mountain s2 = r1 on side s3 with edges s4. (Rock
composition and origination dropped. Made from
rokske s1=r1 is petrology [science about
rock/stone] based on methodology s3. (terdi2,
terdi3 and saske2 subsumed
roksodna x1 is lithium
rokspi s1 = r1 is a pebble/piece of stone of
type/composition r2 = s2 from location r3
rokyko’a r1 = k1 is a cornerstone of structure
k2 of stone type/composition k3 = r2
le meta sonna bunkazajneeh tei sm lo ut veccena dea
rolcte x1 is every night
roldzapa’i p1 loves everyone and everything.
romai [MAI*] discursive utterance ordinal: fi-
nally; last utterance ordinal.
romas Rome
romge [rog] x1 is a highly reflective/polished
non-tarnishing metallic surface, of metal x2 [oftenchromivm
romoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: is final among;
convert all to ordinal selbri; x1 is last among x2,rule x3.
rongunma r1 = g1 is the European Union withmember states g2 (mass)
ronri’izgi z1 = ri2 is orchestral music (classical music or music written in a classical style)
produced/performed by z2 = ri1 (event),with form/rules/in tradition ri4
ronru’u ru1 = ro1 is ru2 euros.
rontu’a r1 = t1 is Europe
ropno x reflects Europeanculture/nationality/geography/IndoEuropeanlanguages in aspect y
rorci [ror] x1 engenders/procreates/begets y with coparentz
rorlei x1 is a generation [contemporary offspring] ofy
roroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: always;
objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
rotsu [rot tsu ro’u] x1 is thick in dimension/direction x2 by standard x3; [relatively long
in smallest dimension]. (Also stout. See also
rozgu [roz zgu] x1 is a rose [flower -
characterized by prickly stem/fragrance] of
species/strain x2. (Roses are not all pink; avoid
using for color rose, which might be labyxu’e
ro [rol] [PA4] digit/number: each, all.
ru’a [UI2] evidential: I postulate
ru’e [CAI] attitudinal: weak intensity attitude ter modifier
ru’inai [TAhE*] tense interval modifier: occasional/intermittent/discontinuous; defaults as
time tense.
ru’i [TAhE] tense interval modifier: continuously; subjective tense/modal; defaults as time
ru’o [BY1] shift letterals to Cyrillic alphabet.
ru’urcunuje x1 is measured in currency with
code ISO-4217 ”CNY” (China, Yuan Renminbi) as
x2 (number). (Cf. rupnu.)
ru’urcuxefu x1 is measured in currency with
code ISO-4217 ”CHF” (Switzerland, Francs) as x2
(number). (Cf. rupnu.)
ru’urgubupu x1 is measured in currency with
code ISO-4217 ”GBP” (United Kingdom, Pounds) as x2 (number
ru’urjupuje x1 is measured in currency with
code ISO-4217 ”JPY” (Japan, Yen) as x2 (number).
ru’u [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
surrounding/annular ...
ruble [rub ble] x1 is weak/feeble/frail in
property/quality/aspect x2 (ka) by standard x3.
rufsu [ruf] x1 is
toxsu rough/coarse/uneven/[grainy/scabrous/rugged]
in texture/regularity. (Fine-textured (= tolrufsu).
rufta’u t1 = r1 is coarse clothing/sackcloth
rukybau r1 = b1 is the Russian language used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
rulpezli p1 is a petal on plant p2 = y
rulpurdi p1 is a flower garden with flowers g1 of
species g2
rulsantyspa x1 is an umbellifer (Apiaceae) of
genus/species x2.
rumgau g1 causes r1 to melt at temperature r2
and pressure r3; x1 melts object x2.
runbau r1 = b1 is an artificial/constructed language. (Artificial languages do not necessarily
have speakers
runkre r1 = k1 is a wig/toupee/mirkin worn
by k2 on body location k3
runmenli x1 is an artificial/man-made intelligence/consciousness/mind of/in/inhabiting
body x2
runme [rum] x1 melts [becomes liquid from
solid state] at temperature x2 and pressure x3. (x1
runs (= rumfle
runpinji p1 is a dildo/phallic object
runta x1 dissolves in solvent x2 forming solution/[suspension] x3 under conditions x4. (Suspension (= pucyteryrunta, pu’exre). See also litki,
rupne’uru x1 is measured in currency with code
ISO-4217 ”EUR” (Euro Member Countries, Euro)
as x2 (number). (Cf. rupnu.)
rupnusudu x1 is measured in currency with
code ISO-4217 ”USD” (United States of America,
Dollars) as x2 (number). (Cf. rupnu.)
rupnu [rup ru’u] x1 is measured in majormoney-units (dollar/yuan/ruble) as x2 (quantity),
monetary system x3. (Also pound, rupee, franc,
mark, yen; x1 is generally a price/cost/value. See
also jdini, sicni, jdima, vecnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci,
minli, merli, bunda, kramu.)
rupsra s1 gives financial support/donations to
s2 to prevent s3 in quantity r1 in currency r3

rutni [run] x1 is an artifact; x1 is artificial; x1is made/caused by people/se kulnu x2; x1 is manmade
rutpesxu p1 is a
jam/jelly/confiture/marmalade made fromfruit g2 of species g2
rutpiljdu j1 is a quantity of marmalade made
from fruit g1 of species g2
rutpurdi p1 is an orchard of fruit g1 of species g2.
rutrceraso x1 is a cherry of speciesy
rutrkoko x1 is a coconut of variety/cultivar x2
rutrmalpigi x1 is an acerola of species/varietyy
rutrmango x1 is a mango [fruit] ofspecies/varietyy
rutrpaupau x1 is a papaya [Carica papaya] fruitof species/variety x2
rutrprunu x1 is plum/peach/cherry/apricot/sloe of
species/variety y
rutytisna t1 is a fruit tart filled with fruit g2
ruxse’i p1 = s1 is the soul / spiritual self of s2.
ruxyzau z1 = p1 blesses / gives spiritual favour
to plan / action z2
ru [KOhA5] pro-sumti: a remote past sumti, before all other in-use backcounting sumti.
ry [BY2] letteral for r.
sa’agri g1 = s1 is a choir singing s2 to audiences3
4 sa’ai [SAhAI] start quote of replacement for
recent mistakenly uttered text (See le’ai.)
sa’a [UI3a] discursive: material inserted by editor/narrator (bracketed text
sa’ei [COI2] Converts following cmevla or
zoiquote into onomatopoeia. (bam! crash!kapow! etc
sa’enai [UI*3] discursive: precisely speaking -
loosely speaking.
sa’e [UI3] discursive: precisely speaking -loosely speaking
sa’irbi’o b1 = s1 stands up/arises onto surface s2 supported by limbs s3
sa’i [VUhU4] n-ary mathematical operator:
operands are vectors to be treated as matrix
sa’orgau g1[person/agent] leans/slants/tilts s1
away from vertical by angle s2 (from salpo gasnu
sa’o [VUhU4] trinary mathematical operator:
[derivative of a with respect to b of degree c].
sa’unai [UI*3] discursive: simply - elaborating.
sa’u [UI3] discursive: simply - elaborating.
sabji [sab] x1 [source] provides/supplies/furnishes x2 [supply/commodity] to x3 [recipient]. (Agentive
supply (= sabgau, sabzu’e). See also krasi, sorcu.)
sabnu x1 is a cabin of vehicley
sacki x1 is a match [incendiary device] made ofy
sackycmu x1 is phosphorus.
saclu x1 (me’o) is the [decimal/binary] equivalent of fractional x2 (me’o) in base x3 (quantity).
(Conversion from fractions to decimal-point based
notation. See also namcu, frinu.)
sadjo [djo] x1 reflects Saudi Arabian culture/nationality in aspecty
sagdraci d1 = s2 is an opera about d2
[plot/theme/subject] by composer d3 for audience
d4 = s3 with singers d5
sagjvetavdraci d1 = s2 = t3 is a musical/operetta about d2 composed/written by d3 for
audience d4 = s3 = t2 with actors d5 = s1 = t1.
sailce x1 is a willow of species x2.
sairfa’o f1 = s2 is the dessert of meal f2 = s1
sai [CAI] attitudinal: moderate intensity attitude modifier.
sajbi’o s1 = b1 becomes conscious of / aware of
/ realizes s2 (object/abstract) under conditions b3.
(Made from sanji + binxo. binxo2 dropped.)
sakartulos Georgia (Caucasus). (see also kartuli)
sakci [sak] x1 sucks/is suction/vacuum/relatively low pressure of fluid/gas
x2 relative to high pressure x3. (Also suck object/fluid (= sakcpu or sakmuvgau)
sakli [sal] x1 slides/slips/glides on x2. (x2
is slick/slippery to/for x1 (= selsakli for reordered
places). See also mosra, fulta, skiji, xutla.)
sakta [sat] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of sugar [sweet edible] from source x2 of composition x3. (Also sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, etc.; saccharine/aspartame/sugar
substitute (basysakta or sakybasti, ticysakta); x3:
composition including x3, which need not be complete specification
sakyva’u v1 = s1 inhales v2 = s2
salcarce s1 = c1 is a
sled/sledge/sleigh/toboggan for carrying c2,
propelled by c3, sliding on s2.
salci [sla] x1 celebrates/recognizes/honors
x2 (event/abstract) with activity/[party] x3. (x3 (and nunsla) festival/fiesta/celebration/occasion/fair/Holiday
(some senses). not limited to the ameliorative
interpretation of ’celebrate’: funeral (= mrobixsla).
salmone x1 is a salmon/trout of speciesy
salpo [sa’o] x1 is sloped/inclined/slanted/aslant with anglex2 to horizon/frame x3. (Also steep (= tcesa’o);
normally implies non-rectilinear
salta x1 (mass) is a quantity of salad [food] with ingredients/components including x2. (x2 is in
x1, an ingredient/part/component of x1
samci’a c1 enters textual data c2 into computerc3 = s2 by means c4. (x4 can be a keyboard,
pointing devices, or speech recognition
samci’ejudri ci1 = sa1 is a website/server at
URL ju1 for purpose/displaying property sa2 =
ci4. (Cf. skami, ciste, judri, mutpapri. ci1 = sa1
doesn’t need to serve HTML. Anything that follows the internet protocol, has an address, and
serves data is a samci’ejudri.)
samcrkasava x1 is cassava of species/varietyx2
samcrniame x1 is a yam (Dioscorea) of
species/variety y
samcrtaro x1 is taro of species/varietyy
samcu x1 is a quantity of cassava/taro/manioc/tapioca/yam [edible starchy
root] of species/strainy
samgi’o g1 is 2 30 of g2 in dimension/aspect g3 (default unit
samgotro g1 is 2 80
of g2 in dimension/aspect g3
(default is units).
samjudri j1 is an adress of / are co-ordinates
of computer system / computerized thing j2 = s1
in system j3; computerized thing has purpose s2.
(Normally, s2 might be dropped, but it’s very useful to be able to point out if this is a samymri address or a ueb address
samki’o k1 is 1024 (2
) of k2 in dimension/aspect k3 (default is units).
sampetso p1 is 2 50
of p2 in dimension/aspect p3
(default is units).
sampla p1 makes computer program p2 which
is meant to perform process/purpose p3.
sample x1 is computer paper from source x2 for
sampli p1 is a computer user / user of computer
p2 = s1 for purpose p3 = s2.
sampu [sap] x1 is simple/unmixed/uncomplicated in propertyy ka
samru’e p1 is a computer process with inputs
p2 and outputs/results p3, passing through stages
p4, on computer s1. (Taken from nnooralvjv tst
lujvo from skami and pruce
samselmri sm1 is an e-mail sent by sm2 (agent)
to person / computer sm3 from person / computer sm4 by computer network sm5. (Made from
samselpla x1 = p2 is computer program source
code created by x2 = p1 with intended result
(state/process) x3 = p3 = s2 on computer x4 = s1
samseltcana t2 is a/the computer network that
includes nodes t1 = s1 whose function/purpose iss2
samske x1 is computer science with science
methodology x2.
samta’a t1 talks via computer to t2 about t3 in
language t4
samtcikajna k1 is a toolbar of k2 = t1
(icons/programs) for purpose k3 = t2 = s2
samtci t1 is a computer program / tool / application for purpose t2 = s2 on computer(s) including s1.
samterpli p3 is done/made using computer p2
by p1.
samterto t1 is 2 40
of t2 in dimension/aspect t3
(default is units
samxa’a xa1 is an e-mail to intended audience
xa2 from author/originator xa3 with content xa4.
samxa’e xa1 is a pointing device for computer
xa2 = s1. (Pointing devices include: mouse, trackball, touchpad, touchscreen, graphics tablet, joystick, pointing stick
samxexso xe1 is 2
of xe2 in dimension/aspect
xe3 (default is units).
samymegdo m1 is 1048576 (2 20
) of m2 in dimension/aspect m3 (default is units).
samymri m1 (agent) sends e-mail m2 to person / computer m3 from person / computer m4
by computer network m5
samyzetro z1 is 2
of z2 in dimension/aspect
z3 (default is units).
samyzva z1 is logged on to computer z2 = s1.
sanbau s1 = b1 is the Spanish language used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
sance [sna] x1 is sound produced/emitted
by x2. (x2 sounds (intransitive verb
sanga [sag sa’a] x1 sings/chants x2
[song/hymn/melody/melodic sounds] to audience x3. (Melody (= sagzgi, ralsagzgi), harmony
(= saxsagzgi), harmonize/sing harmony (=
saxsa’a), song (= selsa’a
sangu’e s1 = g1 is Spain
sanji [saj] x1 is conscious/aware of x2 (object/abstract); x1 discerns/recognizes x2 (object/abstract). ([also: x1 knows Of. x2 (one sense);
awareness implies some amount of mental processing above and beyond mere sensory detection,
and may also be applied to mental relationships
that are not detected by the senses
sanli [sa’i] x1 stands [is vertically
oriented] on surface x2 supported by
limbs/support/pedestal x3. (x1 is standing;
x1 stands up; x1 is erect/vertical/upright; x1
bows/bends over (= krosa’i, krosa’ibi’o, plosa’i);
frame of reference is (approximate) perpendicularity to the surface, and not to a gravity field
sanmi [sai] x1 (mass) is a meal composed of
dishes including x2. (x2 is a course/dish of meal
x1 (= selsai for reordered places). See also barja,
sanso x1 is a sauce/topping/gravy/frosting
for use with x2, containing ingredient(s) including
x3. (x3 is in x1, an ingredient/part/component ofsauce x
sansrmustardo x1 is mustard for use on ymade withz
santa x1 is an umbrella/parasol shielding x2
from x3, made of material x4, supported by x5.
sapselga’e s1 = g2 is evident to g1 by g3 evidence. (made from sampu, se, ganse)
sapxrebau b1 = m1 = s1 is pidgin used by b2
to express/communicate b3, created from sourcesincluding m2
sarcu [sa’u] x1 (abstract) is necessary/required for continuing state/process
x2 under conditions x3. (Also factually necessary,
necessity, prerequisite, condition, precondition.
sargueia x1 is an opossum of species x2
sarji [sra] x1 supports/holds up/is underpinning of/[helps] x2 against force/opposition x3
with/by means x4. (Also aids; (adjective:) x1 is
dependable, reliable (such reliability may be transient; this is not the usual sense of ’reliable’ or ’dependable’); (x2 is object/event
sarlu x1 is a spiral/helix/whorl/[vortex]
[shape/form] with limits x2, of dimensionality x3.
sarlyterjai x1 is a tendril used by x3 to hold yat x4
4 sarni x1 is a three-angled shape/formdefined by set of corners/vertices x2,
sarvanju v1 = s1 is vinegar made from v2
sarvanslami x1 is acetic acid
sarvanxu’u x1 is acetaldehyde. (experimental
gismu xudvu; see also sarvanslami)
sarxe [sax] x1 is harmonious/concordant/in
agreement/concord with x2 in property x
sasfoi f1 is a lawn of grass species s
saske [ske] x1 (mass of facts) is science
of/about subject matter x2 based on methodology x3. (Not limited to science as derived by the scientific method, but pertaining to any body of usually-coherent knowledge garnered/gathered/assembled by a consistent methodology
sastu’a t1 is a grassland/prairie/steppe in location t2 with endemic grass species s2
satci x1 [measurement/match] is exact/precise
to precision x2 in property/quantity x
satcygunta x1 is a sniper attacking x
satmatne m1 = s1 is a quantity of/contains toffee/caramel/butterscotch
satre [sa’e] x1 (agent) strokes/rubs/pets ywith x3. (Pet (= pamsa’e
satyjisra x1 is molasses from source x2 of composition x3.
saupaulos sao faulo
sau [BAI] sarcu modal, 1st place requiring ...
savru [sav vru] x1 is a noise/din/clamor
[sensory input without useful information] to x2
via sensory channel x
sazri [saz] x1 operates/drives/runs
x2 [apparatus/machine] with
goal/objective/use/end/function x
sazycimde c1 is an interface between user s1
and machine s2 based on principle c
sazysti x1 = sa1 = si1 [agent]
ceases/halts/ends the operation of [apparatus/machine] x2 = sa2 in aspect/function/process/activity x3 = si

sa erase complete or partial utterance;
next word shows how much erasing to do.
se’anai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: selfsufficiency - dependency.
se’a [UI5] attitudinal modifier: self-sufficiency- dependency
se’e [BY1] following digits code a character (in
ASCII, Unicode, etc.).
se’inai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: selforiented - other-oriented.
se’itro j1 = s2 has self-control/good temper
in regard of j3 (activity/event/performance
se’ixru xr1 = xr2 returns itself to state xr3 from
state xr
se’i [UI5] attitudinal modifier: self-oriented -
se’o [UI2] evidential: I know by internal experience (dream, vision, or personal revelation
se’u [SEhU] elidable terminator: end discursive bridi or mathematical precedence;usually elidable.
seba’i [BAI*] basti modal, 2nd place instead of
sebai [BAI*] bapli modal, 2nd place (forcing result) compelling event ...
sebau [BAI*] bangu modal, 2nd place (speakers) in language of speakers ...
sebe’i [BAI*] benji modal, 2nd place (message/cargo) transmitting ...
seca’i [BAI*] catni modal, 2nd place authoritatively; with authority over ...
secau [BAI*] claxu modal, 2nd place (lacking)
without ...
seci’e [BAI*] ciste modal, 2nd place with system function ...
seci’o [BAI*] cinmo modal, 2nd place (shows
attitude) emotionally; emoting ...
seci’u [BAI*] ckilu modal, 2nd place used in
scalar negation on scale measuring ...
secu’u [BAI*] cusku modal, 2nd place (saying)
expressively; expressing ...
sedbo’u s1 = b1 is the skull of body s2 = b3,
performing function b2.
sede’i [BAI*] detri modal, 2nd place (for letters)
on the same date as ... ; label with event.
sedgaicreka c1 = g1 is a hoodie of material c2.
(An upper-body sweater (nivycreka) with a hood
(sedgai), typiccaly with large frontal pockets and a
drawstring to adjust the hood opening. Suggestedshortest fu’ivla form: edgrka
sedgai g1 is a hood (headwear) covering g2 =s1
sedi’o [BAI*] diklo modal, 2nd place locally; at
specific locus ...
sedjmacurnu x1 is a cephalopod of species x2.
sedmu’utu’i t1 = g1 agrees by nodding with
person(s)/position/side t2 that t3 (du’u) is true
about matter t4. (Cf. stedu, muvdu, tugni, tu’ifru.)
sedu’i [BAI*] dunli modal, 2nd place (same as
1st); equal to ... [same as 1st place modal].
sedu’o [BAI*] djuno modal, 2nd place knowingly; knowing facts ...
sedu’u [NU*] compound abstractor: sentence/equation abstract; x1 is text expressing[bridi] which is x2.
sedycaugau g1 beheads c1 = s

sedycra c1 is the forehead of s2
sedycro x1 has/feels a headache.
sedyta’u x1 = t1 is a hat worn by/on the head
of x2 = t2 = s2 for purpose x3 = t3. (s1 is fairly
clearly redundant (it’s rather obvious whose head it is
sefa’e [BAI*] fatne modal, 2nd place (same as
1st); backwards; in reversal of sefi’e [BAI*] finti modal, 2nd place creatively;
creating work ...
sefta [sfe] x1 is surface/face [bounded
shape/form] of [higher-dimension] object x2, on
side x3, edges x4. (Also x4 bounds
sefygundi g1 is a/the industry sector of s1 providing services g2 = s3 to s2 by process g
sega’a [BAI*] zgana modal, 2nd place observing ...
segau [BAI*] gasnu modal, 2nd place actor/agent case complement; actively; as active
agent in doing ...
seicni c1 = s1 feels lonely/separated from s
sei [SEI] start discursive (metalinguistic) bridi.
seja’enai [BAI*] jalge modal, 2nd place (event causal) results despit

seja’e [BAI*] jalge modal, 2nd place (event
causal) results because of ...
seja’i [BAI*] javni modal, 2nd place orderly; by
rule prescribing ...
seji’e [BAI*] jimte modal, 2nd place limitedly;
as a limit of ...
seji’o [BAI*] jitro modal, 2nd place controlledly; controlling/guiding aspects ...
seji’u [BAI*] jicmu modal, 2nd place (from basis) supporting ...; as a basis for ...
seka’a [BAI*] klama modal, 2nd place withdestination ...
seka’i [BAI*] krati modal, 2nd place representingly; on behalf of ...
sekai ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a
characteristic property/quality; which?.
sekai [BAI*] ckaji modal, 2nd place (quality)characterized by ...; with property
seki’i [BAI*] ckini modal, 2nd place (same as 1erst) related to ...
seki’unai [BAI*] krinu modal, 2nd place reason nevertheless .
seki’u [BAI*] krinu modal, 2nd place reasontherefore
sekoi [BAI*] korbi modal, 2nd place (bounding) as boundary of ...
seku’u [BAI*] kulnu modal, 2nd place (people)
in culture of ...
sela’u [BAI*] klani modal, 2nd place in quantity ...; measured as ...
selba’a x2 = b1 is a mark/spot on x1 = b2 of
material x3 = b3. (se barna)
selba’e x2 = b1 is a blade of tool/weapon x1 =
b2. (se balre)
selba’i x2 = b1 is great/grand in property x1 =
b2 (ka) by standard x3 = b3. (se banli)
selba’o x2 = b1 grows/expands [an increasing
development] to size/into form x1 = b2 from x3 =
b3. (se banro)
selba’u x2 = b1 utters verbally/says/phonates/speaks [vocally makes
sound] x1 = b2. (se bacru)
selbadna x2 = b1 is a banana/plantain
[fruit/plant] of species/breed x1 = b2. (se badna)
selbai x2 = b1 (ka) forces/compels event x1 =
b2 to occur. (se bapli)
selbajra x2 = b1 runs on surface x1 = b2 using
limbs x3 = b3 with gait x4 = b4. (se bajra)
selbakfu x2 = b1 is a bundle/package/cluster/clump/pack [shape/form]
containing x1 = b2, held together by x3 = b

selbakni x2 = b1 is a
cow/cattle/kine/ox/[bull/steer/calf] [beefproducer/bovine] of species/breed x1 = b

selbakri x2 = b1 is chalk from source x1 = b2 in
form x3 = b3. (se bakri)
selbaktu x2 = b1 is a bucket/pail/can/deep,
solid, wide-topped container of contents x1 = b2,
made of material x3 = b3. (se baktu)
selbalji x2 = b1 is a bulb [body-part] of
plant/species x1 = b2; [metaphor: rounded,
bulgy]. (se balji)
selbalni x2 = b1 is a balcony/overhang/ledge/shelf of building/structure x1 = b2. (se balni)
selbalvi x2 = b1 is in the future of/later
than/after x1 = b2 in time sequence; x2 = b1 is
latter; x1 = b2 is former

selbancu x2 = b1 exceeds/is beyond
limit/boundary x1 = b2 from x3 = b3 in
property/amount x4 = b4 (ka/ni). (se bancu; see
also korbi, jimte)
selbandu x2 = b1 (event) defends/protects
x1 = b2 (object/state) from threat/peril/potential
x3 = b3 (event). (se bandu; see also snura)
selbanfi x2 = b1 is an amphibian of
species/breed x1 = b2. (se banfi)
selbanxa x2 = b1 is a bank owned by/in banking system x1 = b2 for banking functions x3 = b3
(event). (se banxa)
selbanzu x2 = b1 (object) suffices/is
enough/sufficient for purpose x1 = b2 under
conditions x3 = b3. (se banzu)
selbapselfu b2 = s1 is a slave to b1 = s2 in manner/service s3. (From bapli and selfu.)
selbargu x2 = b1 arches/curves over/around
x1 = b2 and is made of x3 = b3; x2 = b1 is an
arch over/around x1 = b2 of material x3 = b3. (se
selbarja x2 = b1 is a tavern/bar/pub serving
x1 = b2 to audience/patrons x3 = b3. (se barja)
selbartu x2 = b1 is on the outside of x1 = b2;
x2 = b1 is exterior to x1 = b2. (se bartu)
selbasna x2 = b1 emphasizes/accentuates/gives emphasis/stress/accent
to x1 = b2 by (action) x3 = b3. (se basna)
140selberti selbli
selbasti x2 = b1 replaces/substitutes
for/instead of x1 = b2 in circumstance x3 = b3;
x2 = b1 is a replacement/substitute. (se basti)
selbatci x1 is bitten/pinched by x2 on/at specific locus x3 with x4.
selbatke x2 = b1 is a button/knob/handle
on/for item x1 = b2, with purpose x3 = b3, made
of material x4 = b4. (se batke)
selbau x2 = b1 is a language/dialect used
by x1 = b2 to express/communicate x3 = b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (se bangu)
selbavmi x2 = b1 is barley of species/strain
x1 = b2. (se bavmi)
selbaxso x2 = b1 reflects Malay-Indonesian
common language/culture in aspect x1 = b2. (se
selbe’a x2 = b1 is a son of
mother/father/parents x1 = b2 (not necessarily
biological). (se bersa)
selbe’e x2 = b1 is a
crew/team/gang/squad/band of persons x1 = b2
directed/led by x3 = b3 organized for purpose
x4 = b4. (se bende)
selbe’i x2 = b1 transfers/sends/transmits x1 =
b2 to receiver x3 = b3 from transmitter/origin x4 =
b4 via means/medium x5 = b5. (se benji
selbe’o x2 = b1 reflects North American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x1 = b2. (se
selbe’u x2 = b1 is the abdomen/belly/lower
trunk of body x1 = b2. (se betfu)
selbebna x2 = b1 is foolish/silly in
event/action/property (ka) x1 = b2; x2 = b1
is a boob. (se bebna)
selbeifonxa f1 is a mobile/cellular phone attached to system/network f2
selbeika’e k1 is portable/can be carried under
conditions x2 = k3 (event/state
selbeiskami s1 is a laptop/portable computer
for purpose s

selbei x1 = b2 is cargo, carried/hauled/borne/transported by carrier
x2 = b1 to x3 = b3 from x4 = b4 over path x5 = b5.
(se bevri)
selbengo x2 = b1 reflects Bengali/Bangladesh
culture/nationality/language in aspect x1 = b2.
selberti x2 = b1 is to the north/northern side
(right-hand-rule pole) of x1 = b2 according to
frame of reference x3 = b3. (se berti)
selbesna x2 = b1 is a brain of body x1 = b
selbetri x2 = b1 is a tragedy/disaster/tragic for
x1 = b2. (se betri)
selbi’a x2 = b1 is ill/sick/diseased with symptoms x1 = b2 from disease x3 = b3. (se bilma)
selbi’e x2 = b1 is a breeze/wind/gale from direction x1 = b2 with speed x3 = b3. (se brife)
selbi’o x2 = b1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x1 = b2
under conditions x3 = b3. (se binxo)
selbi’u x2 = b1 is a wall/fence separating x1 =
b2 from x3 = b3, and subdividing x4 = b4. (se
selbidju x2 = b1 is a bead/pebble (shape/form)
of material x1 = b2. (se bidju)
selbifce x2 = b1 is a bee/wasp/hornet of
species/breed x1 = b2. (se bifce)
selbilga x2 = b1 is bound/obliged to/has the
duty to do/be x1 = b2 in/by standard/agreement
x3 = b3; x2 = b1 must do x1 = b2. (se bilga)
selbilni x2 = b1 is military/regimented/is
strongly organized/prepared by system x1 = b2
for purpose x3 = b3. (se bilni)
selbindo x2 = b1 reflects Indonesian culture/nationality/language in aspect x1 = b2. (se
selbinra x2 = b1 insures/indemnifies x1 = b2
against peril x3 = b3 providing benefit x4 = b4. (se
selbirje x2 = b1 is/contains beer/ale brewed
from x1 = b2. (se birje)
selbirka x2 = b1 is an arm of body x1 = b2. (se

selbirti x2 = b1 is certain/sure/positive/convinced that x1 = b2 is
true. (se birti)
selbisli x2 = b1 is ice of composition x1 = b2;
x2 = b1 is (at least partially) composed of frozen
solid x1 = b2. (se bisli)
selblaci x2 = b1 is glass of composition including x1 = b2. (se blaci)
selbli x2 = b1 is a 3-dimensional block of material x1 = b2 with (typically flat) surfaces/sides
x3 = b3. (se bliku)
selblo x2 = b1 is a boat/ship/water-plying vehicle carrying x1 = b2, propelled by x3 = b3. (se
selbo’a x2 = b1 is a wave/periodic pattern in
medium x1 = b2, with wave-form x3 = b3, wavelength x4 = b4 and frequency x5 = b5. (se boxna)
selbo’i x2 = b1 is a bottle/jar/urn/flask/closable container for x1 = b2,
made of material x3 = b3 with lid x4 = b4. (se
selbo’o x2 = b1 is a sheet/foil/blanket of material x1 = b2; x2 = b1 is a broad and flexibly thin
piece of x1 = b2. (se boxfo)
selbo’u x2 = b1 is bone, performing (abstract)
function x1 = b2 in organism x3 = b3. (se bongu)
selboi x2 = b1 is a ball/sphere/orb/globe made
of material x1 = b2. (se bolci)
selbradi x2 = b1 is an enemy/opponent/adversary/foe of x1 = b2 in
struggle x3 = b3. (se bradi)
selbratu x2 = b1 is hail/sleet/freezing
rain/solid precipitation of material/composition
including x1 = b2. (se bratu)
selbrazo x2 = b1 reflects Brazilian culture/nationality/language in aspect x1 = b2. (se
selbra x2 = b1 is big/large in property/dimension x1 = b2 (ka) as compared with
standard/norm x3 = b3. (se barda)
selbre x2 = b1 is ready/prepared for x1 = b2
(event). (se bredi)
selbriju x2 = b1 is an office/bureau worker with
x1 = b2 office/bureau at location x3 = b3
selbrito x2 = b1 reflects British/United Kingdom culture/nationality in aspect x1 = b2. (se
selbri x2 = b1 (text) is a predicate relationship
with relation x1 = b2 among arguments x3 = b3
(ordered set). (se bridi)
selbro x2 = xe1 reflects Hebrew/Jewish/Israeli
culture/nationality/language in aspect x1 = xe2.
(se xebro)
selbru x2 = b1 is a brush for purpose x1 = b2
(event) with bristles x3 = b3. (se burcu)
selbu’a x2 = b1 is brother of/fraternal to x1 =
b2 by bond/tie/standard/parent x3 = b3. (se
selbu’o x2 = b1 pertains to the Buddhist culture/religion/ethos in aspect x1 = b2. (se budjo)
selbu’u x2 = b1 is cloth/fabric of type/material
x1 = b2. (se bukpu)
selbumru x2 = b1 is foggy/misty/covered by
floating droplets of liquid x1 = b2. (se bumru)
selbunda x2 = b1 weighs x1 = b2 units of local
weight standard x3 = b3. (se bunda)
selburna x1 (abstraction) embarrasses/disconcerts x2. (se burna)
selca’a x2 = c1 is apparatus/mechanism/device/equipment for function
x1 = c2 controlled or triggered by x3 = c3. (se
selca’e x1 is shoved/pushed by x2 at locus x3.
selca’o x2 = c1 is a window/portal/opening in
wall/building/structure x1 = c2. (se canko
selca’u x2 = c1 is
space/hyperspace/volume/region/room occupied by x1 = c2. (se canlu; see also xabju, zvati,
nenri, sakci)
selcabna x2 = c1 is current at/in the present
of/during/concurrent/simultaneous with x1 =
c2 in time. (se cabna; see also ca.)
selcacra x2 = c1 is x1 = c2 hours in duration by
standard x3 = c3. (se cacra)
selcafne x2 = c1 (event) often/frequently/commonly/customarily occurs/recurs by standard x1 = c2. (se cafne)
selcalku x2 = c1 is a shell/husk/hard, protective covering around x1 = c2 composed of x3 = c3.
(se calku)
selcanci x2 = c1 vanishes/disappears from location x1 = c2 according to senses/sensor x3 = c3.
(se canci)
selcange x2 = c1 is a farm/ranch at x1 = c2,
of rancher x3 = c3 raising/producing x4 = c4. (se
cange, see also stuzi)
selcanja x2 = c1 exchanges/trades/barters
commodity x1 = c2 for x3 = c3 with x4 = c4. (se
selcanre x2 = c1 is sand/grit from source x1 =
c2 of composition including x3 = c3. (se canre
selcanti x2 = c1 is the
system of body x1 = c2. (se canti
selcedyske x1 is genetics based on methodologyy
selcei c2 believes in god/deity c1 with dominion over c3; c2 is a theist
selci’a x1 is writing / a written thing / written text written by x2 on x3 with writing implement x
selci’i x1 = c2 is interested in x2 = c
selci [sle] x1 is a cell/atom/unit/molecule
of x2; x1 is an indivisible, most basic subunit of
x2. ((x2 generally has mass nature); (cf. kantu for
properties, activities; ratni, gradu))
selclu x1 is a filling of x2.
selcma x2 = c1 is small in property/dimension
x1 = c2 (ka) as compared with standard/norm
x3 = c3. (se cmalu)
selcmipi’i x1 is the cross product of x2 and x3.
selcmi x1 is the set whose members are x2; x2
are the members of x1. (See also cmima.)
selcna x2 = c1 is a shovel/spade/bladed digging implement for digging x1 = c2. (se canpa)
selcpajinkytoldu’eterbi’a t1=jt1=s1 is AIDS
[Acquired immune deficiency syndrome] with
symptoms t2, of/among t3=jt2=s2 acquired from
source s3. (From selcpa, jinkytoldu’e, terbi’a.
Probably you could drop terbi’a (and maybe even
sel-), to make the valsi shorter, and still be understood. The long dictionary form has been entered
here to understand the definition and etymology
behind it.)
selcpi x1 is a bird species of/including (a particular) bird x2.
selcra x1 has in front of it object / location x2 in
frame of reference x3. (x1 has x2 to its front
selcta x1 is examined/looked at by x2.
seldacru x1 is a filing system with drawer x2
with drawer contents x3.
seldansu d2 is the music/rhythm accompanying dancer(s d1 (individual, mass
seldau d2 is the position/stand taken by d1 arguing against position/stand d3
seldei x2 = d1 is x1 = d2 full days in duration
by standard x3 = d3. (se djedi)
seldejni d2 is a/the debt owed by d1 to creditor
d3 for provision of goods/services/loans d

seldi’a j2 costs j1 to agent j3 by standard j4.
(j1 is not necessarily money but also time, mental
strength etc
seldikca x1 is charged with electric charge x2
with amount of charge x3. (Cf. dicycau)
seldirba x1 = d2 feels affection for x2 = d1.
seldji x1 is wanted by x2 for purpose x3.
seldo’o x1 is a German aspect of x2.
seldri x1 is a source/reason/cause of sadness/unhappiness to x2.
seldu’u x1 stresses x2. (Cf. dukri’a.)
seldutsinso s2 is the angle/arccosine of cosine s1
seldzu x2 = c1 walks/strides/paces on surface
x1 = c2 using limbs x3 = c3. (se cadzu)
sele’a [BAI*] klesi modal, 2nd place as a category of/within ...
selfa’a x1 is oriented/directed/pointing towards x2 in frame of reference x
selfa’o f2 terminates/ceases/stops/halts at f1.
(from ma’oste)
selfai f2 shares f1 with portions f

selfanza x1 is an annoyed with pest x2.
selfityjbu j1 is an altar for offering f2 to f3.
selfri x1 is an event/experience happening toy
selfu’a f2 is dependant on luck/fortune for f1 =z2 (event/property
selfu [sef se’u] x1 (agent) serves x2 with
service x3 (activity); x1 is a servant (noun) of yperformingz
selgi’a g2 follows (acts in accordance to) g1 (person/object/event) in/at g3 (event
selgu’a x1 is a task/work done by x2 with goal/objectivez
selgu’era’a s1 = sg1 pertains to country s2 =
sg2 (Cultural gismu replacement for nationalities:
From gismu gugde and srana.)
seli’e [BAI*] lidne modal, 2nd place preceding
...;leading ... ; non-time sequence.
selja’i x1 = j2 is adorned/decorated by x2 = j1.
seljda x1 is a member/adherent of religion x2
with belief/creed x3. (Cf. ceikri.)
seljeftu x2 = j1 is x1 = j2 weeks in duration by
standard x3 = j3. (se jeftu)
seljenca x1 = j2 is shocked/stunned by x2 =

seljge j2 (object/jo’u-objects) are entangled/knotted/clumped together with
knot/clump j1
selji’i j2 (du’u) is the opinion of j1 that is true
about subject/issue j3 on grounds j

seljibri j2 is employed for
job/employment/vocation (a type of workregularly done for pay) j1
seljimcymivykle k1=jm1=ji3 is a kingdom
[biology] of domain [biology] k2. (For biological
cathegory in general (=mivyske klesi), domain
(=?), kingdom (=this definition), phylum (=jicymivykle), class (=xeljutsi), order (=veljutsi),
family (=terjutsi), genus (=seljutsi), species
seljinvi j2 (du’u) is the opinion of j1 that is trueabout subject/issue j3 on grounds j4
seljmina j2 is an addition by agent j1 to j3 with
result j4
seljmi x1 is understood by x2 about subject x3.
selju’i x1 is paid attention/ attended to by x2.
selju’o d2 is knowledge held by d1 about subject
d3 by epistemology d4
seljukpa j2 is cooked/prepared-for-eating by
j1 according to recipee/method j3 (process
seljunri x1 is regarded seriously by (person) x2.
seljutsi x1 is a genus [biology] with species x2,
within family x3, order x4, class x5. (For biological cathegory in general (=mivyske klesi), domain (=?), kingdom (=seljimcymivykle), phylum
(=jicymivykle), class (=xeljutsi), order (=veljutsi),
family (=terjutsi), genus (=this definition), species
selka’e k2 (event/state] [can be done]/[is capable of being done] by k1 under conditions of k3
selkakclu c1 is/are full of tears wept by k1about/for reason k3 (event/state); c1 is/are tearful. (Cf. culno, klaku.)
selkarlygau g1 collars/has a band put on k2,
the collar/band being k1 made of material k
selki’a k2 is a yell/cry/howl from k
selkla T destination x1, goes x2 from x3 viaroute x4 by means x5.
selklu k2 is a civilization consisting of culture
selkra k2 originates from k1
selkrixa k2 is a yell/cry/howl from k1
selku’e k2 is the interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range across which
k1 ranges/extends/spans/persists/reaches
selkunti x1 is a material vacant from containery
selma’e m2 rides m
selma’i x2 = m1 is x1 = m2 months in durationby standard x3 = m3. (se masti)
selmansa m2 is satisfied by m1 with regard to
property (ka)/state m3. (Cf. mansa, gleki.)
selme’u x2 = m1 is x1 = m2 minutes in duration by standard x3 = m3. (se mentu)
selmi’ecatra c1 = m2 executes c2 by method c3
as ordered by m
selmikce m2 is a patient, treated by doctor/nurse m1 for ailment m3 with cure m
selmlatu x1 is a cat species with cat x2.
selmojnoi x1 = n1 is a memorandum stating
facts x2 = m2 about x3 = m3 = n2 from author
x4 = n3 to intended audience x5 = n4 = m1 who
should remember x2 about x
selna’a x2 = n1 is x1 = n2 years in duration by
standard x3 = n3. (se nanca)
selnai x1 is a people of nation with nation x2.
selne’i x1 contains/has inside it x2.
selnei x1 is liked by x2. (se nelci)
selni’i n2 logically follows n1 under rules/logic
system n3
selnu’e n2 (event/state) is a
promise/commitment/assurance/threat n1
makes to n3 [beneficiary/victim]. (derived from ma’oste)
selpa’akai p2 = c1 brings hop
selpa’i x1 is loved by x2.
selpalci x1 is a standard of evil x2.
selpinxe x2 = p1 (agent) drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x1 = p2 from/outof container/source x3 = p3. (se pinxe)
selpla x1 is a plan/program/scheme
made/[put together] by planner x2 for
state/process x3. (Cf. platu.)
selplijibri x1 = j1 is an employment of / a job
held by x2 = j2 = p2 who is employed by x3 = p1
for purpose x4 = p3
selplirai x1 is most used/most useful among x2by x3 for purpose x4
selpraci’e c1 is an economic system of x2 (country/area)
selpra c2 is a product created by c1 through process c3
selpre p2 is the personality/persona exhibited
by p1. (x2 can be other human
selpu’a p2 enjoys p1 under condition p
selratni x1 is an element with atoms x2 of isotopez
selrespa x1 is the species/breed of reptile x2.
selri’a x1 is an effect with cause x2 with causation conditions x3.
selrigni x1 = r2 is disgusted by x2 = r1 under
conditions x3 = r3.
selrirni x2 = r1 is a parent of/raises/rears
x1 = r2; x2 = r1 mentors/acts parental toward
child/protege x1 = r2. (se rirni)
selrorci x2 = r1 engenders/procreates/begets
x1 = r2 with coparent x3 = r
selsa’a s2 is a song sung by s1 to audience s
selsai s2 is a course of meal s
selse’u x1 is served by x2 with service x3 (activit
selsi’a s2 is venerable to s1
selsinso s2 is the angle/arcsine of sine s
selsku c2 is said by c1 to audience c3 via expressive medium c4.
selsmu s2 means s1 to interpreter s3.
selsnapra c1 = s1 is a
speaker/headphones/acoustic transducer producing sound/acoustic energy c2 = s2 from
signal/source c3. (x2 is the sound itself (a tone, a
song, singing, etc.), x3 is the source (MP3, vinyl,
cassette, 2” tape, etc.).)
selsne x1 is a dream subject with dreamer x2.
selsnidu x2 = s1 is x1 = s2 seconds in duration
by standard x3 = s3. (se snidu)
selsnuti x1 is a cause/commiter of/ contributor
to accident x2.
selsnu s2 is the subject of discourse/expression
selspaji x1 = s2 is surprised/startled by x2 =
selspa x1 is a plant species with plant x2.
selspe x1 has spouse x2 under law/system x3.
selsrustu st1 = sr2 is a
yard/courtyard/quadrangle/cloister, the location of st2 (object/event), enclosed by sr
selsumji x1 is the difference x2 minus x3; x1 is
the amount that remains in substracting x3 from
selsutra x1 is done fast by x2.
seltadni t2 is the subject studied by t
seltanjo t2 is the angle/arctangent of tangent t1.
seltarbi x1 is pregnant with embryo x2 from fatherz
seltaxygau g1 boxes t2 inside t
seltcana t2 is a network/transport/communication/distribution
system with nodes/stations including t
seltci x1 = t2 is the purpose of
x2 = t1.
seltcu x1 is needed by x2 for purpose x3.
selte’abra b1 = t2 is
huge/enormous/tremendous in property b2
and feared by b3 = t1. (selte’a+barda
selte’a t2 (event) frightens/scares/is feared by
selte’i x1 is/are the only one(s) with property
x2 among z
seltenfa x1 is an x3rd root of y
selteptce m1 = t2 is fearsome/terrifying/horrifying to t1
selti’ifla f1 = s2 is a bill specifying f2
(state/event) for community f3 under conditions
f4, proposed/drafted by s1

seltinynalka’e x1 is inaudible to x2 against
background/under conditions x3.
seltivni x1 is a program televised by x2 via
channel x3 to television/receiver x4.
selto’i t2 (load/force/torque) twists/causes torsion in t1.
seltra t2 (NU) is the conduct behaved by agent
t1 under condition t3
seltse x1 is sat on by x2.
selvai x2 = v1 (object/event) is important/significant to x1 = v2 (person/event) in aspect/for reason x3 = v3 (nu/ka). (se vajni)
selvanju x1 is a source fruit of wine x2.
selve’u x1 is sold by x2 to x3 for price x4.
selvensni si1 is a brand/trademark/maker’s
mark/logo representing product/service v2 = si2
recognized by observer/audience/demographic
selvensro s1 is a/the sales inventory of goods
s2 = v2 sold by v1 to v
selvi’a x1 is seen by x2 under conditions x3.
selvisnalka’e x1 is invisible to x2 under conditionsz
selvoi x1 is a means of flight used by x2
selxa’u xa2 is a habitat/nest/home/abode withdweller/resident/inhabitant xa1.
selxagri x1 is a reed of/for wind instrument x2.
selxai x1 = xr2 is injured/harmed/damaged
by event x2 = xr1 in property x3 = xr3 (ka) withinjury x4 = xr4.
selxanka x2 worries x1 under condition x
selxanri xa2 imagines xa1
selxarkei k1 = x2 pretends x1[concept
selxarpau xa2 = p1 is the imagination of p2.
selxau x1 [benefits from]/[is a beneficiary of] x2
(object/event) according to standard x
selxei x1 is hated by x2.
selylacka’e l2 = k1 is trustworthy for l1 to
bring about/ensure/maintain l3 under conditions
selyle’u l2 is an alphabet/character set containing letter l1 representing l3.
selylerci x1 is a standard of lateness for x2.
selyli’a x1 is left behind by x2, that leaves by
route x3. (Cf. cliva)
selyli’e l2 follows l1 in sequence l
selzarkai c1 = z2 is laudable to observer z
selzaumi’o m1 = z2 is popular among mass
m2 = z1. (Cf. zmadu, misno, sopselnei.)
selzdi x1 is amused with x2 due to amusing
property x3.
selzgi x1 produces/performs music x2.
selzi’e z2 (event/state) is done freely by z1 under conditions z
sema’e [BAI*] marji modal, 2nd place made of
material/composition ...
sema’i [BAI*] manri modal, 2nd place (of reference) as a reference standard for observing ...
semaunai [BAI*] zmadu modal, 2nd place (relative!) not more than ...; usually a sumti modifier.
semau [BAI*] zmadu modal, 2nd place (relative!) more than ...; usually a sumti modifier.
seme’anai [BAI*] mleca modal, 2nd place (relative!) not less than ...; usually a sumti modifier.
seme’a [BAI*] mleca modal, 2nd place (relative!) less than ...; usually a sumti modifier.
seme’e [BAI*] cmene modal, 2nd place (the
named one) as a name for ...
semto [sme] x1 reflects Semitic [metaphor:
Middleastern] language/culture/nationality in
aspect x2. (Semitic includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Ethiopian, among other
semu’inai [BAI*] mukti modal, 2nd place motive nevertheless ...
semu’i [BAI*] mukti modal, 2nd place motive
therefore ...; motivating action ...
semu’u [BAI*] mupli modal, 2nd place as an
example of property ...
senci [sec] x1 sneezes (intransitive verb).
seni’inai [BAI*] nibli modal, 2nd place entails
nevertheless ...
seni’i [BAI*] nibli modal, 2nd place entails
therefore ...
senpi [sen] x1 doubts/is dubious/doubtful/skeptical/questions that
x2 (du’u) is true. (Also: x2 is doubtful/dubious/questionable (= selsenpi for reordered places). senta [set] x1 is a layer/stratum
[shape/form] of x2 [material] within structure/continuum/composite x
senva [sev sne] x1 dreams about/that x2
(fact/idea/event/state); x2 is a dream/reverie of
x1. (Dream/reverie (= selsne
sepa’a [BAI*] panra modal, 2nd place similarly; similar to ...
sepa’u [BAI*] pagbu modal, 2nd place (whole)
partially; as a part of ...
sepcau s1 is immediately next to x
sepi’o [BAI*] pilno modal, 2nd place (instrumental) tool/machine/apparatus/acting entity;
using (tool) ...
sepli [sep sei] x1 is apart/separate
from x2, separated by partition/wall/gap/interval/separating medium
x3. (Also aloof (= jiksei); alone (= rolsmisei meaning apart or unlike all others of its kind; pavysei,
seirpavmei meaning ”only” or ”one alone” - do
not use when talking about, for example, two
people who are alone); x3 space. See also bitmu,
sepo’i [BAI*] porsi modal, 2nd place sequentially; sequenced by rules ...
sepu’a [BAI*] pluka modal, 2nd place (for)
pleasingly; pleasing ...; in order to please ...
sepu’e [BAI*] pruce modal, 2nd place (inputs)
processing from inputs ...
sera’a [BAI*] srana modal, 2nd place (pertaining to) relevantly; concerning ... (less specific).
sera’i [BAI*] krasi modal, 2nd place originally;
as an origin/starting point of ...
serai [BAI*] traji modal, 2nd place (property) -
est; most extremely; superlative in ...
seri’anai [BAI*] rinka modal, 2nd place
(phys./mental) causal nevertheless ...
seri’a [BAI*] rinka modal, 2nd place
(phys./mental) causal therefore ...
seri’i [BAI*] lifri modal, 2nd place experiencing
...; undergoing ...
serlaximorfa s1 is a shark of species s
serti [ser] x1 are stairs/stairway/steps for
climbing structure x2 with steps x
sesau [BAI*] sarcu modal, 2nd place (process)necessarily; necessary for ...
sesi’u [BAI*] sidju modal, 2nd place assisting ...
(in doing/maintaining something).
4 sesre x1 reflects USSR (Soviet Union)/Soviet
culture/Soviet nationality in aspect x2 (softo
doesn’t mean Soviet ! Besides, some modern Russians hate Soviet period of their country. What is
more, Russian Empire, USSR and Russian Federation are three different countries and CIS is not
a country at al
seta’i [BAI*] tadji modal, 2nd place methodically; as a method for doing ...
setai [BAI*] tamsmi modal, 2nd place similarly;
resembling ... (in ideal form). (tamsmi is x1 resembles x2 sharing ideal form/shape x3 in property
setca [se’a] x1 (agent) inserts/interposes/puts/deposits x2 into interior
x3/into among/between members of x3. (Insertion need not imply a significant degree of ’filling’;
inject (= je’erse’a); syringe/needle (= se’arterje’e,
je’erse’atci, jestu’u or tu’urjesni); also pour, inflate,
stuff, fi
seti’i [BAI*] stidi modal, 2nd place suggestively; suggesting (idea/action) ...
seti’u [BAI*] tcika modal, 2nd place (for letters)
at the same time as ... ; label with event.
setu’i [BAI*] stuzi modal, 2nd place as a location of ...
seva’ai [BAI*] zvati modal; 2nd place (with
temporary location...) (cf. va’ai, zvati, BAI)
seva’o [BAI*] vanbi modal, 2nd place (environment) as conditions/environment of/for ...
seva’u [BAI*] xamgu modal, 2nd place benefi-
ciary case tag for the benefit of...; with beneficiary
sevzi [sez se’i] x1 is a
self/ego/id/identityimage of x
sezau [BAI*] zanru modal, 2nd place approvingly; approving ...
sezbanzu x1 is self-sufficient/independent for
purpose x2 under conditions x
sezga’o x1 = s2 = g2 is autistic/Aspergian, unable to understand social behavior x2 = g3.
sezgalgau gas1 = s1 raises/elevates it/his/her
self by in frame of reference gal2 as compared with
standard/baseline gal

sezgle g1 = s2 masturbates/has sex without
partner(s). (Does not include masturbating others.
sezmlugau g1 = se2 pretends to have property(ies) si2 to observer si3 under conditions si4
sezre’o r1 = s2 throws/launches/casts/hurls
oneself to/at/in direction r3. (Cf. sevzi, renro.)
sezu’e [BAI*] zukte modal, 2nd place purposefully; goalfully acting at ...
sezycatra x1 commits suicide / kills
him/herself by method x2.
sezyci’i c1 is self-interested.
sezycitri c1 is the autobiography of s2 = c2 =
sezyfanta f1 = s2 exercises/show self-restraint
(from sevzi fanta c.f. nunsezyfanta)
sezyjgidu’e j1 = s2 is conceited by standard d3
(from sevzi jgira dukse)
sezyse’u x1 = sel1 = sev2 is selfish/selfserving/egotistical in regard to activity x2 = sel3.
x1 = sel1 = sev2 is an egotist.
sezyskinoi n1 is an autobiography/resume/home page n2=n3, intendedfor n

sezysku s1 = c1 says c2 to itself.
sezytoltro j1 = s2 is out of control/temper of/with regard to j3 (activity/event/performance
sezyze’a s1 = z1 improves itself/is selfimproving/augmenting/increasing in property/quantity z2 by amount z3. (From sevzi +
zenba. Dropped s2 place, as is common for sevzi
se [sel] [SE] 2nd conversion; switch
1st/2nd places.
sfani x1 is a fly [a small non-stinging flying insect] of species/breed x2. (See also cinki, bifce.)
sfasa [sfa] x1 (agent) punishes x2 for infraction x3 (event/state/action) with punishment x4
(event/state). (Also chastise, castigate, chasten,
discipline, correct (one sense); also x4 penalty.
sfe’ero x1 reflects Swedish culture/nationality/language in aspect x2
sferies Sweden.
sfofa [sfo] x1 is a sofa/couch (nou
sfubu [sub su’u] x1 dives/swoops [manner
of controlled falling] to x2 from x
sfumabru x1 is an ungulate of order/family/species x
si’artersla sl3 is an ceremony/celebration for
recognizing/honoring si2 (object of esteem) with
participants sl1 = si
si’arxai x1 (event) hurts/damages the respect/high regard/esteem for x2 = s2 held by by
s1 with result x4 (state). (Cf. sinma, xrani.)
si’astu st1 is a place ofhonor/[shrine/podium/wall area/trophy case]for person/thing/[event] st2 = si2 venerated/honored by si1
si’a [UI3b] discursive: similarl
si’erdi’u d1 is an igloo for purpose d
si’erta’o t1=s1 is a snowboard of material/property t2. (From tanbo, snime
si’e [MOI] convert number to portion selbri; x1
is an (n)th portion of mass/totality x2; (cf. gunma).
si’irzbaprali p1 is seigniorage earned by p2 = z1
in making coin z2 = s1
si’i [VUhU4] trinary mathematical operator:
[sigma summation of a using variable b over range
si’o [siz] [NU] abstractor: idea/concept abstractor; x1 is x2’s concept of [bridi].
si’u [BAI] sidju modal, 1st place (aiding agent)
aided by ...
sibvidru v1 is an idea-carrying virus / meme /
self-propagating idea capable of infecting / currently infecting v3 = s3 with idea / concept / belief / opinion s1 about thing / topic / subject s2.
(vidru place 2 is dropped due to redundancy with
sidbo. Made of sidbo + vidru.)
sicko’o s1 reflects Irish culture/nationality/language in aspect s2.
siclu [sil] x1 [sound source] whistles/makes
whistling sound/note/tone/melody x2
148simpapybi’o sipsavgau
sicni [si’i] x1 is a coin/token/is specie issued by x2 having value x3 of composition including x4. sidbo [sib si’o] x1 (idea abstract)
is an idea/concept/thought about x2 (object/abstract) by thinker x3. (Also (adjective:) x1
is ideal/ideational. See also ciksi, jijnu, mucti,
jinvi, nabmi, pensi, xanri, cmavo list si’o.)
sidju [dju] x1 helps/assists/aids
object/person x2 do/achieve/maintain
event/activity x3
sidysmu x1 is a figurative/metaphorical/nonliteral meaning/interpretation of x2 recognized/seen/accepted by x3
sifnaptera x1 is a flea of species x2
sigja [sig] x1 is a cigar/cigarette/cigarillo
made from tobacco/smokable substance x2 by x
sigva’u v1 is a cigarette/cigar smoker; v1
smokes cigarettes/cigars
silka [sik] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of silk produced by x
silna x1 is a portion/quantity of salt from source x2, of composition including x3
simbasti x1 trades places with x2 in circumstance x3. (See also simxu, basti, basysi’u)
simbasygau x1 interchanges x2 and x3 in circumstance x4. (See also simbasti, gasnu)
simbi’o s1 = b1 (mass/set) integrate / unite
with each other, displaying quality s2
simda’a x1 fight [each other] over issue x2abstra
simfoni zei pagbu p1 is a movement of symphony number k3 in key k4 composed by k5
simfoni x1 is symphony number x2 key x3 composed by x4 performed by/at x5 (event
simlu [mlu] x1 seems/appears to have property(ies) x2 to observer x3 under conditions x4.
(Also: x1 seems like it has x2 to x3; suggest belief/observation (= mlugau, mluti’i); looks
like/resembles (= smimlu, mitmlu)
simpapybi’o x1 make up/peace with each other
under condition x
simpe’o x1 are friends [of each other
simsa [smi] x1 is similar/parallel to x2 in
property/quantity x3 (ka/ni); x1 looks/appears
like x2. (Also: x1 is a likeness/image of x2; x1 and
x2 are alike; similarity and parallel differ primarily in emphasis
simsimu x1 is sesame of species/variety x2
simsumji x1 is the sum of all of x2 added together
simxu [sim si’u] x1 (set) has members who
mutually/reciprocally x2 (event [x1 should be reflexive in 1+ sumti]). (Members of x1 do to each
other/one another x2, and in return do x2; x1 (plural set) do the same thing x2 to each other
since x1 is a snake/serpent of species/breed x2

sincykaifi’e x1 is an eel of species x2
sígcapura singa pore
sinma [si’a] x1 esteems/respects/venerates/highly regards
x2 [object of respect]. (Also: x2 is respected/esteemed/celebrated (= selsi’a for
reordered places
sinso x1 is the trigonometric sine of angle/arcsine x2. (See also tanjo.)
sinxa [sni] x1 is a sign/symbol/signal representing/referring/signifying/meaning x2 to observer x3. (Also: x1 signifies x2; (adjective:)
x1 is significant/meaningful/of import; signal an
action (= sniti’i), connotation (= se sibyti’isni,
sipna [sip] x1 is asleep (adjective); x1
sleeps/is sleeping
sipsa’a sa1 sings lullaby sa2 to sa3 = si1
sipsavgau g1 = s1 snores

sipselsa’a sa2 is a lullaby sung by sa1 to sa3 =
sipsmacu x1 is a dormouse of species x2.
sipta’i t1 = s1 is sleepy; t1 = s1 needs/wants
sleep. (Cf. sipna, tatpi, sipydji.)
sipydji d1 = s1 is drowsy/sleepy
sirji [sir] x1 is straight/direct/line segment/interval between x2 and x3; (adjective:) x1
is linear
sirsunla x1 is is a quantity of/made
from/consists of fur of animal/species/source x2.
sirxo [six] x1 reflects Syrian culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also xrabo.)
sisku [sis] x1 seeks/searches/looks for
property x2 among set x3 (complete specification
of set). (If searching for an object or an event, use
tu’a in x2
sispe’i s1 = p1 finds s2 = p2 at/in location p3.
sisti [sti] x1 [agent]
ceases/stops/halts/ends activity/process/state
x2 [not necessarily completing it]. (See also fanmo,
mulno, cfari, denpa, fliba.)
sitna [sit] x1 cites/quotes/refers to/makes
reference to source x2 for information/statement
x3 (du’u
sitsku c1 = s1 cites/quotes c2 = s3
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to audience c3 via expressive medium c4 from source s
sivni [siv] x1 is private/personal/privy/[secret/confidential/confined]
to x2; x1 is not-public/hidden. (Also: x1 is secret
(one sense); x2 is in the know/in touch with/privy
to x1 (= selsivni for reordered places); exclusion
can be expressed by na’e(bo) in x2: excluded/in
the dark (= nalselsivni). See also gubni, mipri.)
sivypo’eci’e c1 is capitalism as practiced by
p1 = s2 (From sivni, ponse, ciste
si [SI] erase the last Lojban word, treating nonLojban text as a single word.
skaci x1 is a skirt/kilt/dress of material x2; x1 is
skirted [garment open at the bottom; not legged].
(A skirted garment may be full length (pastu), but
must hang below the waist from support above or
at the waist
skami [sam] x1 is a computer for purpose x2.
skapi [kap] x1 is a pelt/skin/hide/leather
from x2
skari [ska] x1 is/appears to be of color/hue
x2 as perceived/seen by x3 under conditions x4 mej lichters

skefi’a c1 is science/technology-oriented science fiction about plot/theme/subject c2 by author c3, based on science s1
skezu’e z1 is an engineer in the branch of s2
based on methodology s3 with purpose/goal z3
(from saske zukte c.f. mi’ircikre)
skicu [ski] x1 tells about/describes x2 (object/event/state) to audience x3 with description
x4 (property). (See also lisri, tavla.)
skiji [sij] x1 is a ski/skid/skate/runner
for surface (of material) x2 supporting
skier/skater/sled/cargo x3

skina [kin] x1 is a cinema/movie/film about
x2 [plot/theme/subject/activity], filmmaker x3,
for audience x4. (Also motion picture; x2
may be a convention rather than a subject; cartoon/animation (= selxraci’a skina); television/tv
show (= tivyskina, regardless of length, factual
content, etcetra
skoma’e m1 is an aerial tramway carrying m2
in/on lift m3, propelled by m4 = s1
skomberu s1 is a mackerel of species s2
skorbuti x1 has scurvy with symptoms x2
skori [sko] x1 is
strands of material x2
skospa x1 is a vine of genus/species/variety x
skotz skoto [kot ko’o] x1 reflects Gaelic/Scottish
culture/nationality/language in aspect x2. (Irish
(= sicko’o), Scottish (= sunko’o), Celtic (= dzeko’o),
Welsh (= nanko’o), Breton (= fasko’o); since Scottish/Gaelic is only the northern branch of the
Celtic tribes, many would prefer a fu’ivla for Celtic; nationalism might also demand a separate
fu’ivla for Irish. See also brito, glico.)
18:47 2014/08/21skubancu x1 is metalinguistic with respect to
the expression by x2 of text x3 for audience x4 via
medium x5 . (See also cusku, bancu, sei, sa’a)
skudji d1 means/intends to say c2 to c3 via
medium c4.
skumi’e m1 = c1 expresses/states an order to
m2 = c3 for m3 (event/state) to happen. (Cf.
cusku, minde, mi’esku.)
skuro [ku’o] x1 is a groove/trench/furrow
[shape/form] in object/surface x
skutadji t1 is a manner of expression of c1, saying c2 to c3 via medium c4 under conditions t3.
slabu [sau] x1 is old/familiar/wellknown toobserver x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4. (Thiscan cover both meanings of old. Old in years, i.e.
age, can be conveyed through x2 = the world, life,existence (= loi nu zasti); in usage this has been
a common default for ellipsis. However slabu isnot the opposite of ’young’ (= nalci’o, tolci’o), but

the opposite of ’new’ (= tolni’o); also ancient (=
tcesau), age (= nilsau); x2 is used to x1 (= selsau
for reordered places); historic/historical (= cirsau,
cirselcedra; also vaipru)
skala slaka bu [BY*] letter ”,” character.
slaka x1 is a syllable in language x2
slami x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
acid of composition x2; (adjective:) x1 is acidic.
(x2: composition including x2, which need not be
complete specification. See also slari, nimre.)
slamystogau g1 pickles st1 with acid sl1 (See
also: slami (vinegar))
slanu x1 is a cylinder [shape/form] of materialx
slanydi’u x1 is a tower for purpose x2. (Also
means ”rook” in chess.)
slari [sar] x1 is sour/tart to observer x
slasi [las] x1 is a quantity of/is made
of/contains plastic/polymer of type/component
unit(s) x2. (See also rutni, boxfo, bukpu.)
slemidju x1 is a nucleus of cell x2 [default biological]. (See also selci, ratmidju.)
slicka s1=c1 is a cradle made of c2, holding c3,
rocking at speed s2 through positions s3
sligau g1 swings s1. (Cf. slilu, desku.)
sligu [lig] x1 is solid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions
x3. (Conditions include temperature and pressur
slilu [sli] x1 oscillates at rate/frequency x2
through set/sequence-of-states x3 (complete specification). (Also (expressible either with desku or
slilu): side to side, to and fro, back and forth, reciprocal (motion), rotates, revolves
sliri x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sulfur/brimstone (S); [metaphor: foul odor, volcanic
sloska x1 is golden/gold-colored when viewed
by x2 under conditions x3
slovansk slovakia
slovino x1 is Slovenian/Slovene in aspect x2
slovo [lov lo’o] x1 reflects Slavic language/culture/ethos in aspect x2. (See also softo,
rusko, vukro.)
sluji [slu] x1 is a/the muscle [body-part] controlling x2, of body x3; [metaphor: tools of physical power]. ((adjective:) x1/x2/x3 is muscular
(different senses). See also rectu, xadni, zajba.)
sluni x1 is a quantity of/contains
onions/scallions of type/cultivar x
smacni c1 is calm about x2 = c
smacrkobaiu x1 is a guinea pig of species x
smacu x1 is a mouse of species/breed x
smadi x1 guesses/conjectures/surmises x2
(du’u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology].
(Also: x1 has a hunch that x2 is true; x1 imagines
x2 is true; words usable for epistemology typically have a du’u place
smaji [sma] x1 (source) is quiet/silent/[still]
at observation point x2 by standard x3. (See also
kerlo, panpi, savru, tirna.)
smani x1 is a monkey/ape/simian/baboon/chimpanzee of
species/breed x2. (See also mabru, danlu.)
smanyjinkytoldu’evidru v1=jt1=s1 is SIV
[Simian immunodeficiency virus] of jt2. (From
smani, jinkytoldu’e, vidru. s2, v2 and v3 subsumed.)
smanyjinkytoldu’evir v1=jt1=r1 is SIV [simian
immunodeficiency virus] of jt2. (From smani,
jinkytoldu’e, vidru. v2, v3 and s2 subsumed. See
also HIV (=re’ajinkytoldu’evir).)
smasku c1 whispers c2 = s1 (sedu’u/text/lu’e
concept) to audience c3 via expressive medium c4,
quietly by standard s3 (Cf. smaba’u, lausku, laurba’u, mliba’u, laurblesku.)
4 smela x1 is a
plum/peach/cherry/apricot/almond/sloe [fruit]
(genus Prunus) of species/variety x2 (zirsmela for
plum, xunsmela for cherry, najysmela for peach,
pelsmela for apricot, ri’onsmela for almond, blasmela for sloe
smimlu siml1 = sims1 resembles/looks
like/appears to be similar/parallel to sims2 in
property/quantity sims3 to observer siml3 under
conditions siml4
smoka [smo] x1 is a sock/stocking [flexible
foot and lower leg garment] of material x
smuci [muc] x1 is a spoon/scoop (tool) for use
x2, made of material x
smudukti d1 and d2 = s2 antonyms of each
other. (Cf. smuni, dukti.)
smugau g1 refers to s1 with expression s2 recognized by s3. (Cf. cusku.)
smuni [mun smu] x1 is a meaning/interpretation of x2 recognized/seen/accepted by x3. (Referential meaning
(=selsni, snismu)
smuske sa1 is semantics with methodology sa3.
smuvanbi v1 is the context of meaning v2 = s1
of event/action/object s2 recognized by s3
snada’i d1 knocks on/hits door/object d2 with
instrument [or body-part] d3 making sound s1

snada [sad] x1 [agent] succeeds
in/achieves/completes/accomplishes x2 as
a result of effort/attempt/try x3. (Also: x1
reaches x2; (adjective:) x1 is successful; x2
snanu [nan] x1 is to the south/southern side
of x2 according to frame of reference x
snapisa x1 is mustard of species/breed x2.
snasni x1 is a sound/acoustic signal, produced/emitted by x2 and meaning x3 to x4 (listener).
snaveitci t1 is a microphone for recording
sound s1 produced/emitted by s2
snavei v1 is a sound recording of v2
(data/facts/du’u) about v3 on recording medium
sneju’e x1 is a dreamcatcher, passing dreams
x2, stopping dreams x3, with netting properties x4.
snicne x1 is a variable taking value x2 under
conditions x3. (See also sinxa, cenba)
snidari’a x1 is a jellyfish/jelly/sea
jelly/member of phylum Cnidaria of
species/breed x2
snidu [nid] x1 is x2 seconds in duration (default is 1 second) by standard x3
snigau x1 assigns symbol/variable x2 to
value/referent x3 for observer x4
snile’u x1 is an ideogram/symbol in writing
system x2 meaning x3. (see also jugle’u, misryle’u)
snime [si’e] x1 is made of/contains/is a
quantity/expanse of snow
snipa [nip] x1 adheres/sticks to x2; (adjective:) x1 is sticky/gummy
ne x1 is the adhering surface in claimed; x2 is not be sticky
snisimsumji x1 is the sigma summation of expression x2 with variable x3 over domain x4
snocanci c1 fades from location c2
snomabru m1 is a sloth of genus/species m2.
snuji [nuj] x1 is a sandwich/layering [not restricted to food] of x2 sandwiched between x3
snukarni k1 is a [shared journal]/blog about
topic/subject k2 = c2 published/administered by
k3 for participants/audience k4 = c
snura [nur nu’a] x1 is secure/safe from
threat x2 (event). (See also ckape, kajde, marbi,
terpa, xalni, bandu.)
snustu s1 is a forum for c1 to discuss/talk about
topic/subject c2
snuti [nut] x1 (event/state) is an accident/unintentional on the part of x2; x1 is an
so’a [soj] [PA4] digit/number: almost all(digit/number).
so’eroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: usually;
objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
so’e [sop] [PA4] digit/number: most.
so’imei [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert many
to cardinal; x1 is a set with many members x2 of
total set x3.
so’iroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: many
times; objective tense; defaults as time tense.
so’i [sor so’i] [PA4] digit/number: many.
so’o [sos] [PA4] digit/number: several.
so’uroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: a few
times; objective tense; defaults as time tense.
so’u [sot] [PA4] digit/number: few.
sobde [sob so’e] x1 is a quantity of soya
[grain/bean] of species/strain x2
sobysanso sa1 is soy sauce for use with sa2,
containing ingredients including sa3
sodna x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
alkali metal of type x2 [default sodium]. (Also
potassium, lithium, cesium. Soda
sodnrkali x1 is potassium (K). (see sodna)
sodva [sod] x1 is made of/contains/is a
quantity of a carbonated beverage/soda of flavor/brand x2. (Also: soft drink (though this sometimes includes tea and coffee as distinct from alcoholic beverages which are ”hard drinks”).
softo [sof] x1 reflects Russian
empire/USSR/ex-USSR (Soviet]/CIS culture/nationality in aspect x
sofybakni Nonce word; no clear meaning.
Something like x1 is a Soviet cow of species /
breed x2. (Was created for the pangram (sentence
that contains all letters of the alphabet) ”.o’i mu
xagji sofybakni cu zvati le purdi
sofygu’e x1 is USSR (Soveìt Union
soirsai sa1 is a field ration consisting of dishes
including sa2, for so1 of army so2. (Cf. sonci,
sanmi, bilni, jenmi, fatri, pagbu)
soi [SOI] discursive: reciprocal sumti marker;
indicates a reciprocal relationship between sumti.
sojypa’a p1 expects p2 (event); p1 expects p2 to
happen. (p2 is likely. It has high probability. Cf.
pacna, sorpa’a, sotpa’a.)
soki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 9,000 expressed with comma.
solji [slo] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of gold (Au); [metaphor: valuable, heavy,
non-reactive]. (See also ricfu, rijno, narju, pelxu.)
solminli x1 is x2 (default 1) Astronomical
Unit(s) (AU) (from solri minli c.f. gusminli tanminli.)
solnavni x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made
of helium (He). (See also solri, navni)
solri [sol] x1 is the sun of home planet x2
(default Earth) of race x3; (adjective:) x1 is solar.
(’home planet’ refers to a planet which is ”home”
to a race, but not necessarily the original ”home”
of a species if that species inhabits many worlds.
solxrula x1 is a sunflower of species/variety x2.
sol Soul
sombo [som so’o] x1 sows/plants x2
[crop/plants] at/in x3. (See also crepu, tsiju.)
somoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 9 to ordinal selbri; x1 is ninth among x2 ordered by rule
sonci [son soi] x1 is a soldier/warrior/fighter of army x2. (See also
bilni, damba, jenmi, xarci, pulji.)
songripausle x1 is an army platoon, a subdivision of army unit x2 which serves country/nation/group x3. (Cf. sonci, girzu, pagbu,
selci, songri, songripau, jempausle.)
songripau x1 is an army company, a subdivision of army unit x2 which serves coun-

try/nation/group x3. (Cf. sonci, girzu, pagbu,
songri, songripausle, jempausle.)
songri x1 is an army battalion, a subdivision of
army unit x2 which serves country/nation/group
sonjamkarce k1 is an armoured personnel carrier propelled by k3
sonono [PA*] number/quantity: 900 [nine
sono [PA*] number/quantity: 90 [ninety].
sopselneizgi z1 = n2 is pop music produced/performed at/by z2 (event
sopselnei n1 is liked by most peopol
sorbaucre c1 is a polyglot, proficient in languages c2 = b1. (Cf. baucre.)
sorcinpa’i x1 = c1 = p1 is sexually
polyamorous/sexually loves many people/more
than one person including, but not limited to, set
x2 = p2 in situation/activity/state x3 = c2, exhibiting sexuality/gender/sexual orientation (ka)
x4 = c3 by standard x5 = c4. (Leaving in all the
places of cinse doesn’t do much, but it probably
doesn’t hurt. See also cinse, prami, so’i, sorpa’i.)
sorcu [soc sro] x1 is a
store/deposit/supply/reserve of materials/energy x2 in containment x3. (x3 need not be
a container, but could merely be a site/location
restriction; e.g. a heap. The sumti indicates how
the supply is identified and distinguished from
other occurrences of the stored x2 that are not
part of the store. (cf. panka; vreji for information
storage; sabji for a store or reserve that is not
necessarily tied to a site, banxa, panka))
sorgugje’a j1 is an empire govening over g1
provinces with j2 = g3 territories. (Made out of
so’i, gugde, jecta)
sorgu [sog] x1 is a quantity of sorghum of
species/strain x2. (See also gurni.)
sorjaknykarce k1 is a multiple rocket launcher
propelled by k
sorjontai t1 is a web-shape, manifested by t2.
sornai n1 is an international group of peoples
n2. (from so’i natmi)
sorpa’a p1 hopes for p2 (event); p1 hopes that p2
happens. (p2 is possible and has medium probability. Cf. pacna, sotpa’a, sojypa’a.)
sorpa’i x1 = p1 is polyamorous/loves many
people (romantic love implied), including, but not limited to, set x2 = p2
sorpeka x1 is a bus/coach for carrying passengers x2, propelled by x3 (This is a zi’evla of the
word sorprekarce.)
sorprekarce k1 is a bus/coach for carrying passengers p1 = k2, propelled by k
sorprekarcytcana t1 is a bus terminal/station/depot in transport system t2 for
buses for carrying p1 = k2 (from sorprekarce
sorselcei c2 believes in many gods/deities c1
with dominion over c3; c2 is a polytheist. (Cf.
cevni, ceikri, nalceikri, selcei, pavyselcei, nonselcei, ceirsenpi.)
sorsipydi’u d1 is a dormitory (building/place)
where people x2 (complete mass) sleep. (x1 is from
dinju and x2 is invented but related to sipna1. x2
should be used for all the people; e.g. ”mi se sorsipydi’u” incorrect speaking for yourself.)
sosoce’i [PA*] number/quantity: 99% (number).
sostartai t1 is a constellation of stars
sosyzda x1 is a hamlet/settlement with inhabitants x2 (from so’o zdani c.f. cmatca)
sotpa’a p1 wishes for p2 (event); p1 wishes that
p2 happened. (p2 is unlikely. It has low probability
sovda [sov so’a] x1 is an
egg/ovum/sperm/pollen/gamete of/from
organism [mother/father] x2. ((poorly metaphorical only due to gender- and species- being
unspecified): ovoid, oblate (= pevyso’aseltai, but
better: claboi); egg, specifically female (= fetso’a),
of a bird (= cpifetso’a, cpiso’a), of a chicken (=
jipcyfetso’a, jipcyso’a. (but note that Lojban does
not require specificity, just as English doesn’t
for either milk or eggs; ”sovda” is fine for most
contexts); If fertilized, then tsiju or tarbi. (cf. ganti,
gutra, mamta, patfu, rorci, tsiju, lanbi, tarbi; also
djine, konju for shape, tarbi))
154spatrkamomili spofu
soviet x1 is Soviet. (Cf. sesre, softo, gugdesu’u)
sovykruji k1 is made of/contains a quantity of
sozepimu [PA*] number/quantity: 97.5.
sozmast September. (Cf. xlima’i, sozymasti.)
sozmoija’a j1 has the rank of General/Admiral/Air Chief Marshal (equivalent
of NATO OF-9) in military unit /organization

sozymasti x1 is September/the ninth month of
year x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti, nanca.)
so [soz] [PA1] digit/number: 9 (digit)
spabi’u b1 is a hedge separating b2 and b3 in b4
made of plants of species s2. (Cf. spati, bitmu.)
spacivla x1 is an aphid of genus/species x2.
spaji [paj] x1 (event/action abstract) surprises/startles/is unexpected [and generally sudden] to x2. (Also expectation (= nalspaji), alarm (=
spali x1 (agent) polishes object/surface x2 with
polish x3, applied using tool x4. (See also mosra,
sraku, xutla.)
spano [san] x1 reflects Spanispeaking
culture/nationality/language in aspect x2.
(Metaphorical restriction to Spain by contrast
with xispo (comparable to the distinction between
glico and merko/sralo/brito/kadno); Spain (=
sangu’e); Spanish dialects spoken in Spain, especially Castillian (= sansanbau
sparagusa x1 is a quantity of asparagus of
species/strain x2
spaske sa1 is botany concerned with plants of
type sp2 based on methodology sa3
spati [spa] x1 is a plant/herb/greenery of
species/strain/cultivar x2. (Also (adjective:) x1
is vegetable/vegetal/vegetative
spatnrafanu x1 is a radish (plant) of variety
x2 (from spati and ’Rapharus sativus’ c.f. stagnrafanu)
spatrbasiliko x1 is basil of variety x2. (syn.
spatrdauko x1 is Queen Anne’s lace of species
x2. (See also gejrdauko, rulsantyspa.)
spatrkamomili x1 is a camomile plant of
species/strain/cultivar x2. (Cf. spati.)
spatrleoxari x1 is a water chestnut (plant) of
species/variety x2. (see also stagrleoxari)
spatrnakardiace x1 is a
cashew/mango/poison ivy/sumac of
genus/species x2; x1 belongs to the Anacardiaceae.
spatrpiperi x1 is pepper (”Piper”) of
species/variety x2. (see also kapsiku, tsaprpiperi)
spatrxamameli x1 is a quantity of witchhazel/hamamelis/winterbloom of species/strain
spatrxapio x1 is a celery plant of
species/variety x2. (Cf. ampigravle, gejrdauko,
najgenja, rulsantyspa, stagi.)
spe’ato x1 reflects Esperanto culture/nationality/language in aspect x2. (Cf.
pa’arbau. No corresponding nation exists at the
spebi’o x1 marries x2 according to marriage traditions/custom/law x3.
specfari’i r1 is a wedding ceremony marrying
x2 = s1 to x3 = s2. (Cf. detke’u, jbedetnunsla.)
speme’a m1 = s1 is a concubine/lesser spouse
of s2 under law/custom/convention s3
speni [spe] x1 is married to
x2; x1 is a spouse of x2 under
law/custom/tradition/system/convention x3.
spenu’e x1=s1=n1 is engaged to x2=s2=n3 by
law/convention x3=s3
sperlanu x1 is a smelt of species x2
spesti x1=sp1=st1 is divorced from x2=sp2 by
law/convention x3=sp3
spisa [spi] x1 [object/substance] is a
piece/portion/lump/chunk/particle of x2
spitaki x1 is a parrot of species/breed x2
spita x1 is a hospital treating patient(s) x2 for
condition/injuries/disease/illness x3. (Hospice (a
place where x2 of spita is lenu mrobi’o = mrospita).
spofu [pof po’u] x1 is broken/inoperable/broken down/non-utile/not
usable for function x2. (Agentive break, cause
to become inoperable (= pofygau, pofyzu’e);
accidentally break, as a result of an event, nonagentive (= pofyja’e, nutpo’uja’e). See also daspo,
katna, porpi, se xrani, cikre.)
spogau g1 destroys, using/through event d1,
object/person d
spoja [poj po’a] x1
bursts/explodes/violently breaks
up/decomposes/combusts into
pieces/energy/fragments x
spostapa sp1 = st1 crushes/destroys by stomping sp2 = st2 using limbs st3.
spranto x1 reflects Esperanto language/culture/community in aspect x2. (Cf.
esperanton, bangepu’o.)
spuda [spu] x1 answers/replies to/responds
to person/object/event/situation/stimulus x2
with response x3. (x3 also answer/reply. If x2
is a person/object, it will usually require ”tu’a”
indicating that the reply/response is to that person/object doing something. ”tu’a” may not be
needed if the person/object itself is the stimulus,
rather than something it is doing. See also cusku,
preti, nabmi, danfu, frati, cpedu.)
sputu [put pu’u] x1 spits/expectorates x2
[predominantly liquid] from x3 to/onto x4.
(Saliva/spit/sputum/spittle (= molselpu’u). See
also jetce, kafke, vamtu.)
sraji [raj] x1 is vertical/upright/erect/plumb/oriented straight
up and down in reference frame/gravity x
sraku [rak] x1 [abrasive/cutting/scratching object/implement]
scratches/[carves]/erodes/cuts [into] x2. ((cf.
guska, katna, mosra, plixa, kakpa (unlike kakpa,
sraku does not imply material is removed), spali))
sralo x1 reflects Australian culture/nationality/geography/dialect in aspect
sralybau s1 = b1 is the Australian English
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote
sralygu’e s1 = g1 is Australia (from sralo gugde
c.f. sralytu’a)
sralytu’a s1 = t1 is Australia/Oceania/Australasia (from sralo tumla
c.f.zdotu’a rontu’a tcotu’a bemtu’a frikytu’a
srana [ra’a] x1 pertains to/is germane/relevant to/concerns/is related/associated
with/is about x2. (Also: x1 is a question of/treats
of x2; can be symmetric, although x1 is conventionally more specific or constrained in scope than
srasu [sas] x1 is a blade/expanse of grass of
species x2. (Lawn/meadow (= sasfoi
srebadbi’a bi1 = ba2 is allergic to ba3 with
symptoms bi
srebandu x1 erroneously defends x2 against x3;
x2 is allergic to x3. (Cf. srebadbi’a, urci.)
srera [sre] x1 errs in doing/being/making
mistake x2 (event), an error under conditions x3
by standard x4. ((cf. drani, which is non-agentive,
cfila, fliba))
sriba’a d1 = b1 is a stripe on surface b2 of material d2 = b3 (This could also be a striped pattern
although srimo’a might be more suited to that.)
srimakyvelvei v4 = m1 is a magnetic
tape/cassette storing v2 (data/facts/du’u) about
v3 (object/event) in file(s v1
srito x1 reflects Sanskrit language/Sanskritic/Vedic culture/nationality
in aspecty
srubo’u s1 = b1 is a rib of s2 = b2. (During
the development of mammalian embryos, fusedon remnants of ribs can be traced in neck vertebrae
(cervical ribs) and sacral vertebrae. In reptiles, ribs
sometimes occur in all vertebrae from the neck to
the sacrum. Cf. bongu, cutne.)
srukla k1 = s1 comes/goes to k2 from k2 around
s2. (Cf. sruri, klama.)
sruma [ru’a] x1 assumes/supposes that x2
(du’u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology].
(Words usable for epistemology typically have a
du’u place. See also smadi, birti.)
srumu’a m1 is an iris/diaphragm covering m2,
made of m3.
srumu’u m1 = s1 orbits s2 in direction s3 using
orbit m4
srupunji p1 puts/places p2 around s2
sruri [rur sru] x1 encircles/encloses/is surrounding x2 in direction(s)/dimension(s)/plane
x3. ((jinsru =) x1 is a ring/belt/band/girdle
around/circling/ringing x2 near total containment in some dimension(s). See also karli, senta,
snuji, vanbi, se nenri, se jbini, bartu, djine.)
sruta’u t1 = s1 is a scarf worn on body part t2 =
s2. (Includes ”neckscarf” (nebysruta’u), ”headscarf” (sedysruta’u), and ”waistscarf” (befsruta’u).
Worn for warmth, cleanliness, fashion, or religious
reasons. Cf. dasri.)
stace [sac] x1 is honest/truthfully revealing to/candid/frank with x2 about matter/fact x3
stagau g1 parks/moors/berths/anchors vehicle s1 at s2.
stagi x1 is the edible x2 portion of plant x3; x1
is a vegetable. (Note that fruits and nuts are also
vegetables; generally this word will be used for either the general category of edible plants, or for
non-fruit vegetables (= nalrutstagi). See also grute,
kobli, narge, sluni, spati, sunga, tamca.)
stagnrafanu x1 is a radish (root/bulb) of variety x2 (from stagi and ’Rapharus sativus
stagrleoxari x1 is a water chestnut (corm) of variety x2. (see also spatrleoxari)
stagycti c1 is a vegetarian that eats vegetables
stakolm Stockholm (capital city of Sweden)
staku [tak] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of ceramic made by x2, of composition x3,
in form/shape x4. (Made of baked clay or other
non-metallic solid; x3: composition including x3,
which need not be complete specification
stali [sta] x1 remains/stays at/abides/lasts
with x2
stani x1 is a/the stalk/stem/trunk [body-part]
of plant/species x2; [metaphor: main support].
stanycma c1 = s1 is a/the sprout/shoot of
plant/species s2 by standard/norm c3
stanyxruba x1 is a quantity of rhubarb of
species/strain x2. (Cf. stani, xruba.)
stapa [tap] x1 steps/treads on/in surface x2
using limbs x3
stasu x1 is a quantity of soup/stew/olla/olio
[food] of ingredients including x2. (x2 is in x1, an
ingredient/part/component of x
stati x1 has a talent/aptitude/innate skill for
doing/being x
steba [seb] x1 feels frustration about x2 (abstraction). (See also cinmo.)
steci [tec te’i] x1 (ka) is specific/particular/specialized/[special]/a defining
property of x2 among x3 (set). ([x2 are members/individuals of a subset of x3; object whose
association is specific/defining of a subset
or individuals (= tecra’a, also cf. cmavo list
po’e, [x2 is also special to x1]); also: especially/strongly/specifically associated]; (x3 is
completely specified set
stedu [sed] x1 is a/the head [body-part] of
x2; [metaphor: uppermost portion]. (Skull (=sedbo’u)
stela [tel] x1 is a lock/seal of/on/for sealing x2 with/by locking mechanism x3
stero [te’o] x1 is x2 steradian(s) [metric unit]
in solid angle (default is 1) by standard x
stici [sic] x1 is to the west/western side of x2
according to frame of reference x3
stidi [sid ti’i] x1 (agent) suggests/proposes idea/action x2 to audience
x3; x1 (event) inspires x2 in/among x3. (Event
which inspires/suggests/is suggestive (= faurti’i,
sidyfau). See also cmavo list ti’i, tcica, xlura.)
stika [tik] x1 (event) adjusts/regulates/changes x2 (ka/ni) in
amount/degree x3. (Non-resultative, causal
change; agentive adjust (= tikygau, tikyzu’e). See
also cenba which need not be causal, galfi which
is causal and resultative, binxo which need not be
causal but is resultative, zasni, stodi.)
stiri’a x1 is a cause with cease x2 with causation
conditions x3

stizu [tiz] x1 is a chair/stool/seat/bench, a
piece or portion of a piece of furniture intended
for sitting
stodi [sto] x1 is constant/invariant/unchanging in property x2
(ka) in response to stimulus/conditions x3. (Also
stogau g1 maintains/preserves/keeps
up/conserves s1 in condition s2 (ka) under
(external) conditions s3
stotcu n1 = s1 is insatiable in property n2 = s2
despite input n3 = s3
strutione x1 is an ostrich of subspecies x2.
studukti d1 and d2 = s2 are antipodes on s1. (Cf.
stuzi, dukti.)
stuna [sun] x1 is to the east/eastern side of x2
according to frame of reference x3
stura [tur su’a] x1 is a structure/arrangement/organization of x2
[set/system/complexity]. ((x2, if a set, is completely specified
stuselpo’e p2 = s1 is a piece of real estate possessed by p1 in condition p3
stuzi [tuz stu] x1 is an inherent/inalienable
site/place/position/situation/spot/location of x2
(object/event). (Generally used for normally stationary objects/events, to give their ’permanent’
su’anai [UI*2] evidential: I generalize - I particularize; discursive: abstractly - concretely.
su’a [UI2] evidential: I generalize - I particularize; discursive: abstractly - concretely
su’e [sup su’e] [PA4] digit/number: at
most (all); no more than.
su’i [VUhU1] n-ary mathematical operator:
plus; addition operator; [(((a + b) + c) + ...)].
su’oremei [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert at
least 2 to cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with plural
membership x2.
su’oremoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert at
least 2 to ordinal selbri; x1 is at-least-2nd among
x2 by rule x3.
su’o [suz su’o] [PA4] digit/number: at
least (some); no less than.
su’u [suv] [NU] abstractor: generalized abstractor (how); x1 is [bridi] as a non-specific abstraction of type x2.

suckancu x1 = k1 estimates numerical value
x2 = k3 = s1 about x3 = s2
sucta [suc] x1 (si’o) is abstracted/generalized/idealized from x2 [something concrete] by rules x)
sudgau g1 dries/dehydrates s1, removing liquid s2 (The implied g2 is the lo nu s1 sudga s2. )
sudga [sud] x1 is dry of liquid x2; (adjective:)
x1 is arid. (See also cilmo, litki, runta.)
sudmau z1 = s1 is drier than z2 by amount z4
of liquid s2. (Cf. sudga, zmadu, sudrai.)
sudnabybli s1 = n1 is a crouton of bread b1,
made from grains b2.
sudrai t1 = s1 is the driest among set/range t4
of liquid s2. (Cf. sudga, traji, sudmau.)
sudvanjba j1 = v2 = s1 is a
raisin/sultana/currant processed from a grape of
species j2. (Cf. sudga, vanju, jbari.)
sudytu’a t1 = s1 is a desert with land location t2
sufti [sfu] x1 is a/the hoof [body-part] of x2
sujysi’u x1 add up to x2. (See also simsumji)
suksa [suk] x1 (event/state) is sudden/sharply changes at stage/point x2 in
process/property/function x3. (Also abrupt,
discontinuous. See also spaji, vitci, vlile.)
sumgadri x1 is a sumti qualifier labelling sumti
x2 with semantics x3
sumji [suj] x1 is a mathematical
sum/result/total of x2 plus/increased by x3
sumka’i x1 is a pro-sumti/pronoun representing x2 as argument of predicate/function x3 filling
place x4. (See also sumti, krati)
sumne x1 (experiencer) smells/scents (transitive verb) x2; x2 smells/has odor/scent to observer x1. (See also nazbi, panci, cpina, ganse,
sumpoi x1 is a termset/set of arguments of
predicate/function x2 filling places x3. (See also
ce’e, nu’i)
158suzyn tabykrili
sumti [sum su’i] x1 is a/the argument
of predicate/function x2 filling place x3
(kind/number). ((x1 and x2 are text
sunga [sug] x1 is a quantity of garlic [bulb] of
species/strain x2. (See also stagi.)
sunko’o s1 reflects Scottish culture/nationality/language in aspect s2.
sunla [sul] x1 is a quantity of/made
from/consists of wool [tight curly hair] from
animal/species/source x2. (See also kosta, kumte,
lanme, kanba, bukpu, kerfa.)
sunsicyjudri j1 is the longitude/right ascension of j2 in system j3 (From stuna, stici, judri,
sunxi’o x1 is Orthodox Christian in aspect x2.
svomen inlanq
svomi finland.
suomne x1 is Finnish in aspect x2
surdei x1 is the Sabbath, the day on which x2
rests. (see also redgaudei, tedydei, trudei)
surla [sur] x1 relaxes/rests/is at ease in/by
doing/being x2 (activity
sutkla s1 = k1 quickly comes/goes to destination k2 from origin k3 via route k4 using
means/vehicle k5. (See klama.)
sutli’u l1 = s1 dashes/speeds/swiftly travels
via route l2 using means/vehicle l3. (see also:
sutra [sut] x1 is
fast/swift/quick/hastes/rapid at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state).
sutybajycpi x1 is a roadrunner of species x2.
sutydji d1 is eager/impatient for d2 = s2 to happen. (Cf. sutra, djica, djicni.)
sutygau g1 hurries/rushes/speeds s1 to
do/be/bring about s
sutyze’a z1 = s1 accelerates/[speeds up] at
doing/being/bringing about s2 (event/state) by
amount z3. (Cf. sutra, zenba.)
suzgugje’a j1 is a union or loose federation
of sovereign states. (Cf. su’o, gugde, jecta,
balgu’e. Examples: United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), Association of Southeast Asian
Nations (ASEAN).)
suzyn Susan.
suzyterki’i x1 = k3 is the relationship between
x2 = k1, x3 = k2, x3...; x1 is a property of x2. (From
su’o te ckini. Any number of places may be used.
This word was invented by xorxes and is intended
as an alternative to quantified selbri with bu’a; it
allows the relations to be specified as sumti.)
su [SU] erase to start of discourse or text; drop
subject or start over.
sy [BY2] letteral for s.
ta’arsi’u s1 (set) discuss subject t2 in language
t4. (Cf. tavla, simxu, casnu.)
ta’a [COI] vocative: interruption.
ta’enai [TAhE*] tense interval modifier: nonhabitually; subjective tense/modal; defaults as
time tense.
ta’e [TAhE] tense interval modifier: habitually;
subjective tense/modal; defaults as time tense.
ta’i ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a
method; how?.
ta’irva’u v1 = t1 yawns, expressing fatigue due
to effort/situation t2 (event)
ta’i [BAI] tadji modal, 1st place (in manner 3)
methodically; by method ...
ta’onai [UI*3] discursive: by the way - returning to main point.
ta’o [UI3] discursive: by the way - returning to
main point. (See also denpa, cneterta’a.)
ta’unai [UI*3a] discursive: making a tanru - expanding the tanru.
ta’u [UI3a] discursive: making a tanru - expanding the tanru. (See also tanru.)
tabjme x1 is a diamond (gem) from source x2.
(Cf. kunra, tabykrili.)
tabno [tab] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of carbon/graphite/[diamond]/charcoal;
x1 is organic. (See also kolme.)
tabra x1 is a horn/trumpet/trombone/bugle
[brass-wind/lip-reed musical instrument]. (See
also zgike.)
tabrntromba x1 is a trumpet. (Cf. tabra, zgica’a.)
tabybi’o b1 = t1 is charred/carbonized under
conditions b3.
tabykrili k1 is crystalline carbon (default diamond) in form/arrangement k3 (from tabno krili
tabyselcmu x1 is organic/carbon-based. (organic applies to chemicals; carbon-based to life
forms. The distinction between tabyselcmu and
mivyselkra is that e.g. calcium phosphate in bones
is mivyselkra but not tabyselcmu, while polyethylene is tabyselcmu but not mivyselkra.)
tacpe’u x1 = p1 (agent) touches eir tongue
to/licks x2 = p2 = t2 at x3 = p4 [a locus on x2]. (t1
and p3 are implicitly the tongue of agent x1. See
also pencu, tance.)
tadgri g1 is a study group studying t2.
tadji x1 [process] is a
method/technique/approach/means for doing x2 (event) under conditions x3. (Also
practice/way/mode; style/manner/conduct
(= tratadji); pattern (= montadji, tadjymo’a, or
platadji, tadjypla). See also ciste, pruce, zukte,
pluta, cmavo list ta’i.)
tadjycpa c1 adopts c2 = t1 (method) for purpose t2.
tadni [tad] x1 studies/is a student of x2; x1
is a scholar; (adjective:) x1 is scholarly
taflumca’a c1 is a washing machine
tafrcemize x1 is a chemise/shift/smock of material x2. (Usually women’s undergarments and
dresses. cmeize for type 4. Cf. taxfu.)
tafrjerzi x1 is a jersey of material x2. (Knitted clothing, traditionally in wool or cotton, with
sleeves, worn as a pullover, as it does not open
at the front, unlike a cardigan (tafrkardiga
tafrkardiga x1 is a cardigan of material x2. (A
type of sweater (nivycreka) or jumper (luzbarcreka) that fastens up the front with buttons or
a zipper, usually machine- or hand-knitted from
wool. kardiga for type 4. Cf. creka.)
taftcaci tc1 is a clothing custom/fashion
of tc2 = ta1 under conditions tc3
tafyfe’a f1 is a hole in garment x2 = t1 for wearing by x3 = t2 (gender/species/body part). (Cf.
tagji [tag] x1 is snug/tight on x2 in dimension/direction x3 at locus x4. (See also trati, jarki,
kluza, rinju.)
tagygau g1 tucks t1 onto/into t2
tai'van Taiwan
taibei Taipei
taifnu b1 = c1 is a typhoon/hurricane/cyclone
moving from direction b2 at speed b3 rotating
around centre /eye c2 with rotational direction c3

tairmupli m1=t2 is a t1 form of m3
tairva’u v1 = t1 pants because of tiring effort/situation t2 (event). (Cf. tatpi, vasxu.)
taiske x1 is the morphology of x2 according to
methodology x3. (see also rafske)
tai [BAI] tamsmi modal, 1st place (like)/(in
manner 2) resembling ...; sharing ideal form
... (tamsmi is x1 resembles x2 sharing ideal
form/shape x3 in property x4)
tajgai g1 is a thimble. (Cf. tamji, gacri, degygai.)
takside x1 is a badger of species x2
talsa [tal] x1 (person) challenges x2 at/in
property x3. ((cf. jinga, damba, darlu, jivna, nandu
for a challenging event/situation))
tamca x1 is a tomato [fruit/vegetable/plant] of
species/strain x2. (See also grute, stagi.)
tamgau g1 defines t2 into form t1. (Cf. tarmi.)
tamji [taj] x1 is a/the thumb/big toe [bodypart] on limb x2 of x3; [metaphor based on relative
shape]. (Thumb (specifically the hand = xantamji),
big toe (= jmatamji)
tamjycausmani x1 is a colobus of species x2.
(see also smani)
tamne x1 is cousin to x2 by bond/tie x3; [nonimmediate family member, default same generation]. (Probably preferred for metaphorical siblings (over bruna
tamsmi x1 has form x2, similar in form to x3 in
property/quality x4.
tamtigypre p1 = ti1 is a model/mannequin
serving fashion/artistic/commercial concept ti2 =
ta1. (Cf. tigni, tarmi, larcu, taxfu.)
tamxri m1 = t2 is a quantity of macaroni/penne/fusilli/shaped pasta in shape t1
made from grains m2. (Cf. grusko, grupu’o.)
tanbargu b1 is a rainbow at location b2 = t2.
tanbo [ta’o] x1 is a board/plank [3-
dimensional long flat rectangle] of material
x2. (See also bliku, kubli.)
tance [tac] x1 is a/the tongue [body-part] of
x2; (metaphor: similar to nazbi, tamji, degji). ((adjective:) x1 is lingual. See also moklu, bangu,
nazbi, tamji, degji.)
tanjo x1 is the trigonometric tangent of angle/arctangent x2
tanko x1 is a quantity of tobacco [leaf] of
species/strain x2. (See also sigja, marna.)
tankyxu’i xu1 is nicotine with chemical purity
tanminli x1 is x2 (default 1) parsec(s) (from tsani
minli c.f. gusminli solminli.)
tanru [tau] x1 is a binary metaphor formed
with x2 modifying x3, giving meaning x4 in usage/instance x5. ((x2 and x3 are both text or both
si’o concept) See also gismu, smuni.)
tansi [tas] x1 is a pan/basin/tub/sink, a
shallow container for contents x2, of material/properties x3. (Also bowl. See also baktu,
palne, palta, patxu, kabri for a bowl that is normally lifted for use, botpi.)
tanta’o t1=t1 is a skysurfingboard of material/property t2. (From tanbo, tsani. See also
si’erta’o, jacta’o, xilta’o)
tanxe [tax ta’e] x1 is a
box/carton/trunk/crate for contents x2, and
made of material x3
tapla x1 is a tile/cake [shape/form] of material x2, shape x3, thickness x4. (A tile is a 3-
dimensional object, relatively uniform and significant in the 3rd dimension, but thin enough that
its shape in the the other two dimensions is a significant feature; ’city block’ is conceptually a tile;
polygon (= taplytai or kardytai - shaped like an
approximately-2-dimensional block, lijyclupa - a
loop composed of lines). (cf. bliku, kubli, matci;
karda, for which the 3rd dimension is insignifi-
cant, bliku, kurfa, matci, plita, tarmi))
tapsni si1 is a track of st1 treading on surface
st2 using limb st3 (from stapa sinxa)
tapygutci g1 is g2 pace/paces (length unit)
tarbi x1 is an embryo/zygote/fetus/fertilized egg with mother x2, and father x3
tarboi b1 is a globular cluster consisting of stars
with properties t2
tarbu’i x1 is an asterisk (* character)
tarbyskori s1 is the/a umbilical cord connecting
t1 = x2 to mother t2 = x3. (Cf. tarbi, skori)
tarbyvi’u v1 performs abortion/induces delivery of embryo/zygote/fetus/fertilized egg t1 = v2
on t2 = v3. (The survival/death of t1 = v2 is not implied
tarci’e c1 is a solar system based on star(s) t1
(default is the Solar System) with stellar properties
t2 with components c3 displaying c
tarci [tar] x1 is a star/sun with stellar properties x
tarkesyske x1 is stellar astronomy based on methodology x
tarksako x1 is dandelion of species x2.
tarla x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
tar/asphalt from source x
tarmi [tam tai] x1 [ideal] is the conceptual
shape/form of object/abstraction/manifestation
x2 (object/abstract). (Also pattern; x1 is the
mathematical or theoretical ideal form, while x2
is an object/event manifesting that form; e.g.
circular/circle-shaped (= cukseltai) vs. circle
(=cuktai, while cukla alone is ambiguous); model
(= ci’ersaptai, saptai, ci’ersmitai, smitai)
tarsire x1 is a tarsier of species x2
tarske s1 is astronomy based on methodology
tarso miei tarso’imei s1 is a/the galaxy komz Milky Way le default au s oo sni dea e el vern dea
tartai tarm1 tartai tarc
tarti [tra] x1 behaves/conducts oneself
as/in-manner x2 (event/property) under conditions x3. (Also (adjective:) x1 is behaviora
taske x1 thirsts for x2; x1 needs/wants
drink/fluid/lubrication x
tatpi [ta’i] x1 is tired/fatigued by effort/situation x2 (event); x1 needs/wants rest.
tatru [tat] x1 is a/the breast/mammary/teat
[body-part] of x2; [metaphor: projection providing liquid]. (Nipple (= tatyji’o
tatybi’o b1 = t1 gets tired from t2 (event
tatydenxanto x1 = d2 is a mastodon of species
x2 (The mastodon’s English name (and former
genus name) comes from ”breast-tooth” due to the
unusual shape of its molars. They are not in the
same family as elephants or mammoths xantrmamutu.)
tatyji’o t1 = j1 a nipple/teat (mammary papilla)
of t
tatyta’u tax1 is a bra with purpose tax2.
tau [LAU] 2-word letteral/shift: change case for
next letteral only.
tavla [tav ta’a] x1 talks/speaks to x2 about
subject x3 in language x4. (Not limited to vocal
speech, but this is implied by the x4 without context of some other medium of conversation (use
cusku, casnu, skicu, ciksi for weaker implication
of vocal communication); converse/discuss/chat
(= simta’a, simsku, vricysimta’a for a conversation
not clearly delimited by subject). See also bacru,
cusku for actual expression, casnu, darlu, skicu,
ciksi, bangu.)
taxfrbikini x1 is a bikin/two piece skimpy
woman’s garment of material x2 consisting of top
x3 and bottom x4 (Can be used in the sense of
swimwear, or coordinated underwear, or even
skimpy outerwear. The key aspects are two piece,
for women, and covering little more than the
breasts and crotch.)
taxfu [taf ta’u] x1 is dress/a garment/clothing for wearing by x2 (gender/species/body part) serving purpose x3.
(Also: x2 can wear/is wearing x1; refers to something intended for use as a garment, not merely
something that happens to be worn at some time
(which need not be true for dasni). See also creka,
cutci, daski, dasni, gluta, kosta, mapku, palku,
pastu, skaci, smoka, lunbe.)
ta [taz] [KOhA6] pro-sumti: that there;
nearby demonstrative it; indicated thing/place
near listener.
tca’anka x1 is a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) of breed x2 (See tcempedake)
tcabriju b1 is the city/town hall of city/town t1
ney tcaci [cac] x1 is a custom/habit/[ritual/rut]
of x2 under conditions x3. (Also: x1 is customary/usual/the practic
tcacpi c1 is a pigeon of subspecies c
tcadu [tca] x1 is a town/city of metropolitan area x2, in political unit x3, serving hinterland/region x4. (Also (adjective:) x1 is urba
tcakali x1 is a jackal of species/breed x
stana tcana x1 is a station/node of/in/on
transport/communication/distribution system/network x2. (x2 may be represented by
massed vehicles of system
tcandana x1 is sandalwood of species/variety
tcanylu’a x1 = p1 is a network route/path to
node x2 = p2 = t1 from node x3 = p3 = t1
via points/nodes x4 = p4 within transport/communication/distribution system/network x5 = t2. (Unusual in that t1
appears more than once. x4 is also really a set of
t1s. See also tcana, pluta)
tcati x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of tea
brewed from leaves x2. (See also ckafi.)
tcatru tu1 is the mayor of tu2 = tc1.
tcatypalne p1 is a tea tray made of p3
tce’exo x1 is Czech in aspect x
tcebra b1 = m1 is huge/enormous/very big in
property b2 with criterion b3. (mutce+barda
tcecrogau g1 (person/agent) tortures/inflicts
severe pain on x2 = c1 at locus x3 = c2
tcegei g1 is delighted/ecstatic/overjoyed about
g2 (event/state).
tcekau x1 (property - ka) is global among x2.
tcempedake x1 is a cempedak (Artocarpus
champeden) of breed x2 (See tca’anka, zduriane)
tcena [ten] x1 stretches/extends to range x2
[interval/extent] in dimension x3 from relaxed
range x4. (See also kuspe, pruni, preja, ranji, trati.)
tceprujurme x1 is an archaeon of
species/defining property x2. (The Archaea
are a group of single-celled microorganisms. In
the past they had been classed with bacteria as
162tcimpazi tebykre
prokaryotes (=pruslemijyji’e) and named archaebacteria, but this classification is regarded as
outdated. See also tcepru, jurme.)
tcepruske x1 is archeology of/about subject
matter x2 based on methodology x3
tcepru x1 (object/thing) is ancient.
tcesnosli x1 is an oscillate with oscillation state
tcetce m1 is very much/very extreme in property m2 (ka), towards m3 extreme/direction. (Differs from mutce only in intensity; add more ”tce”
to taste. Made from mutce + mutce.)
tcica [tic] x1 (event/experience) misleads/deceives/dupes/fools/cheats/tricks x2
into x3 (event/state). (Agentive deception (=
ticygau, ticyzu’e); x3 could be an action or a belief
on the part of x2; harmful intent or result is not
implied (= malticyzu’e for such harmful intent);
self deception (= sezytcica); deceive/trick into
misguided action (= ticyxlu); misguided belief (=
tickri); fib/lie/tell an untruth/lie/fib (= ticysku,
jifsku), white lie (= zanticysku). See also stace,
xlura, stidi, kajde.)
tcidu [tid] x1 [agent] reads x2 [text] from
surface/document/reading material x3; x1 is a
reader. (See also ciska, cukta, karni.)
tcikai c1 = t1 is practical, likely to be applicable
to event c2 = t2.
tcika x1 [hours, minutes, seconds] is the
time/hour of state/event x2 on day x3 at location
x4. (Also o’clock, time-of-day. (time units in x1 are
specified as numbers separated by pi’e or are unit
values massified with joi); See also cmavo list ti’u,
cacra, cerni, detri, donri, djedi, junla, nicte, mentu,
snidu, temci, vanci, dirba, mokca.)
tcikyga’i x1 reschedules from time x2[hours,
minutes, seconds] state/event x3 to time x4[hours,
minutes, seconds]. (Cf. tcika, galfi, tcikygau, detytcikygau, bavypunji, prupu’i.)
tcikygau g1 schedules time t1 [hours, minutes,
seconds] for state/event t2 on day t3 at location
t4. (Cf. tcika, gasnu, detytcikygau, tcikyga’i, bavypunji, prupu’i.)
tcila [til] x1 is a detail/feature/particular of
x2. (See also diklo, steci.)
tcima [tim ti’a] x1 is weather at
place/region x2; (adjective:) x1 is meteorological. (Climate (= citsyti’a, timymo’a). See also
brife, bumru, carvi, dilnu, bratu.)
tcimpazi x1 is a chimpanzee of
species/subspecies x2. (Cf. jbonobo, smani.)
tcini x1 [state/property] is a situation/condition/state/position/are conditions/circumstances of x2. (Characteristics or
environment of an object/event/process stage or
state that are typically/potentially only temporary
tcita x1 is a label/tag of x2 showing information
x3. (See also sinxa, cmene, judri.)
tcitygau g1 puts a label t1 on t2 showing information t3. (Cf. tcita, gasnu, ba’argau.)
tciveljai j4 = t1 is a handle on object j2 with
purpose t2. (Cf. batke.)
tcokumte x1 is a
llama/vicuna/alpaca/guanaco of species x2
tcotu’a k1 = t1 is South America (from
ketco tumla c.f.zdotu’a rontu’a bemtu’a sralytu’a
frikytu’a ziptu’a)
tcoxarju x1 is a peccary of species x
tcuji’e n1 = j1 is a parasite on n2.
tcunCIN Chongqing
te’a [VUhU2] binary mathematical operator: to
the power; exponential; [a to the b power].
te’ekno x1 is a form of techno music performed/created by x2 with characteristics x3. (Cf.
zgike, dja’aza, sopselneizgi, naizgi, nolzgi.)
te’e [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
edged by/edging up to ...
te’iski sk1 specifies sk2 = st2 among st3 to audience sk3 as having property sk4 = st1
te’o [PA5] digit/number: exponential e (approx 2.71828...).
te’u [TEhU] elidable terminator: end conversion between non-mex and mex; usually elidable.
tebau [BAI*] bangu modal, 3rd place (expression) language expressing ...
tebe’i [BAI*] benji modal, 3rd place (source)
sent to receiver ...
tebrulspa x1 is a plant of the mint family, of
genus/species/variety x2. (see also kurtsapi, spatrmenta)
tebykre k1 is the moustache of k2 = c2.
teca’i [BAI*] catni modal, 3rd place authoritatively; with basis of authority ...
teci’e [BAI*] ciste modal, 3rd place of system
components ...
teci’o [BAI*] cinmo modal, 3rd place (attitude
about) emotionally; emoting about ...
tecu’u [BAI*] cusku modal, 3rd place (3rd party
hearsay) as told to ...
tecyju’i j1 is particular/fastidious about j2 =
s1. (Cf. jundi.)
tecyse’u s1 is committed to s2 with service s3
tecyvla v1 is a term/jargon (from a specialised
area of knowledge) meaning v2 = s2 in language
v3. (Cf. valsi, steci, bangu.)
tede’i [BAI*] detri modal, 3rd place on a date
measured at location ...
tedi’o [BAI*] diklo modal, 3rd place locally; at
specific locus within range ...
tedmre m1 surveys t1=m2 as m3 (map or measurements) in unit m4 with accuracy m5 (see also
tedu’i [BAI*] dunli modal, 3rd place equally;
equal in property ...
tedu’o [BAI*] djuno modal, 3rd place knowingly; knowing about ...
tedydei x1 is Saturday of week x2 on calendar
tedyske s1=t1 is earth science [science about
earth/soil] based on methodology s3. (terdi2,
terdi3 and saske2 subsumed. x1 is an allembracing term for the sciences related to the
planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science. Not limited to reductionistic science,
but also embrace holistic views. See also derske.)
tefi’e [BAI*] finti modal, 3rd place creatively;
created for purpose ...
tefpi’i x1 is x2 times the x4th power of x3.
tefsujme’o m1 is a polynomial in t2 of degree t3
interpreted by rules m2
tega’a [BAI*] zgana modal, 3rd place observed
by means ...
tei [TEI] composite letteral follows; used for
multi-character letterals.
teja’i [BAI*] javni modal, 3rd place orderly; by
rule within system ...
teji’e [BAI*] jimte modal, 3rd place limitedly;
limited in property/domain ...
teji’o [BAI*] jitro modal, 3rd place controlledly;
controlling event ...
teka’a [BAI*] klama modal, 3rd place with origin ...
teka’i [BAI*] krati modal, 2nd place representingly; representing in matter...
teki’i [BAI*] ckini modal, 3rd place with relation ...
tekoi [BAI*] korbi modal, 3rd place (bounding)
bordering ...
tela’u [BAI*] klani modal, 3rd place quantity
measured on scale ...
telcaugau g1 unlocks/unseals c1 = s2 using
lock/seal s1 with mechnism s
tele’a [BAI*] klesi modal, 3rd place (category)
defined by quality ...
telga’o g1 = s2 is locked, preventing access to g2
by g3, the lock being s1 using mechanism s
telgau g1 locks lock s1 on s2 by mechanism s3.
teli’e [BAI*] lidne modal, 3rd place ordered
within sequence ...; non-time sequence.
tema’e [BAI*] marji modal, 3rd place in material form ...
tema’i [BAI*] manri modal, 3rd place (of reference) observed/measured with/by rules ...
temau [BAI*] zmadu modal, 3rd place (relative!) more than/exceeding in property ...
temcimni c1 is eternal/everlasting.
temci [tem tei] x1 is the timeduration/interval/period/[elapsed time]
from time/event x2 to time/event x3. (Also
age/elapsed time (= niltei
teme’a [BAI*] mleca modal, 3rd place (relative!) less than in property ...
teme’e [BAI*] cmene modal, 3rd place as a
name used by ...
temfesti f1 is a ruin that has decayed from
time/event t2 to time/event t3 (from temci festi)
temsepcau c1 = s1 is immediately next to s2 in
time. (Cf. temci, sepli, claxu, sepcau, zi.)
temu’i [BAI*] mukti modal, 3rd place motivated/motivating per the volition of ...
temu’u [BAI*] mupli modal, 3rd place as an example out of the set of ...
tenfa [tef] x1 is the exponential result of base
x2 to power/exponent x3. (See also dugri.)
tengau g1 extends t1 to range t2 [interval/extent] in dimension t3 from relaxed range t4.
tengu [teg te’u] x1 (property-ka) is a texture of x2. (See also rufsu, xutla.)
teni’i [BAI*] nibli modal, 3rd place entailment
under logic system ...
tepa’a [BAI*] panra modal, 3rd place (property) contrastingly; contrasting in property ...
tepi’o [BAI*] pilno modal, 3rd place (instrumental) a tool usage for purpose ...
tepo’i [BAI*] porsi modal, 3rd place sequentially; as an order on set of items ...
tepselspaji s2 = t1 is alarmed/startled by s1 =
t2. (Cf. spaji, terpa.)
tepspaji s1 = t2 alarms/startles s2 = t1. (Cf.
terpa, spaji.)
tepu’a [BAI*] pluka modal, 3rd place pleasingly; being pleasing under conditions ...
tepu’e [BAI*] pruce modal, 3rd place (outputs)
processing into outputs ...
terai [BAI*] traji modal, 3rd place (superlative)-est; most extremely; at extreme ...
terba’a x3 = b1 is a mark/spot on x2 = b2 of
material x1 = b3. (te barna; see also cinta, xinmo)
terba’i x3 = b1 is great/grand in property x2 =
b2 (ka) by standard x1 = b3. (te banli)
terba’o x3 = b1 grows/expands [an increasing
development] to size/into form x2 = b2 from x1 =
b3. (te banro)
terbajra x3 = b1 runs on surface x2 = b2 using
limbs x1 = b3 with gait x4 = b4. (te bajra)
terbakfu x3 = b1 is a bundle/package/cluster/clump/pack [shape/form]
containing x2 = b2, held together by x1 = b3. (te
terbakri x3 = b1 is chalk from source x2 = b2 in
form x1 = b3. (te bakri)
terbaktu x3 = b1 is a bucket/pail/can/deep,
solid, wide-topped container of contents x2 = b2,
made of material x1 = b3. (te baktu)
terbancu x3 = b1 exceeds/is beyond
limit/boundary x2 = b2 from x1 = b3 in
property/amount x4 = b4 (ka/ni). (te bancu)
terbandu x3 = b1 (event) defends/protects x2 =
b2 (object/state) from threat/peril/potential x1 =
b3 (event). (te bandu; see also ckape, bradi, gunta)
terbanxa x3 = b1 is a bank owned by/in banking system x2 = b2 for banking functions x1 = b3
(event). (te banxa)
terbanzu x3 = b1 (object) suffices/is
enough/sufficient for purpose x2 = b2 under
conditions x1 = b3. (te banzu; see also crutcini)
terbargu x3 = b1 arches/curves over/around
x2 = b2 and is made of x1 = b3; x3 = b1 is an
arch over/around x2 = b2 of material x1 = b
terbarja x3 = b1 is a tavern/bar/pub serving
x2 = b2 to audience/patrons x1 = b3. (te barja)
terbasna x3 = b1 emphasizes/accentuates/gives emphasis/stress/accent
to x2 = b2 by (action) x1 = b3. (te basna)
terbasti x3 = b1 replaces/substitutes
for/instead of x2 = b2 in circumstance x1 = b3;
x3 = b1 is a replacement/substitute. (te basti)
terbatci x1 is the locus where x2 is bitten/pinched by x3 with x4.
terbatke x3 = b1 is a button/knob/handle
on/for item x2 = b2, with purpose x1 = b3, made
of material x4 = b4. (te batke)
terbau x3 = b1 is a language/dialect used
by x2 = b2 to express/communicate x1 = b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (te bangu)
terbe’e x3 = b1 is a
crew/team/gang/squad/band of persons x2 = b2
directed/led by x1 = b3 organized for purpose
x4 = b4. (te bende)
terbe’i b3 receives b2 from sender b1 and origin
b4 by means b5. (Cf. benji, cpacu.)
terbei x3 = b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports
cargo x2 = b2 to x1 = b3 from x4 = b4 over path
x5 = b5; x3 = b1 is a carrier/porter. (te bevri)
terbejbi’o be3 = bi1 signs up / subscribes to
be1 for publication be2 from be4 by means be5. (Cf.
benji, mrilu.)
terberti x3 = b1 is to the north/northern side
(right-hand-rule pole) of x2 = b2 according to
frame of reference x1 = b3. (te berti)
terbi’a x3 = b1 is ill/sick/diseased with symptoms x2 = b2 from disease x1 = b3. (te bilma)
terbi’e x3 = b1 is a breeze/wind/gale from direction x2 = b2 with speed x1 = b3. (te brife)
terbi’o x3 = b1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x2 = b2
under conditions x1 = b3. (te binxo)
terbi’u x3 = b1 is a wall/fence separating x2 =
b2 from x1 = b3, and subdividing x4 = b4. (te
terbilga x3 = b1 is bound/obliged to/has the
duty to do/be x2 = b2 in/by standard/agreement
x1 = b3; x3 = b1 must do x2 = b2. (te bilga)
terbilni x3 = b1 is military/regimented/is
strongly organized/prepared by system x2 = b2
165tercanci terfagri
for purpose x1 = b3. (te bilni)
terbinra x3 = b1 insures/indemnifies x2 = b2
against peril x1 = b3 providing benefit x4 = b4. (te
terbli x3 = b1 is a 3-dimensional block of material x2 = b2 with (typically flat) surfaces/sides
x1 = b3. (te bliku)
terblo x1 = b3 propels a boat/ship/waterplying vehicle carrying x2 = b2 that is x3 = b1
(te bloti, if x1 is a human, it may have the meaning
terbo’a x3 = b1 is a wave/periodic pattern in
medium x2 = b2, with wave-form x1 = b3, wavelength x4 = b4 and frequency x5 = b5. (te boxna)
terbo’i x3 = b1 is a bottle/jar/urn/flask/closable container for x2 = b2,
made of material x1 = b3 with lid x4 = b4. (te
terbo’u x3 = b1 is bone, performing (abstract)
function x2 = b2 in organism x1 = b3. (Cf.
kamjybo’u, bogykamju, bongu.)
terbradi x3 = b1 is an enemy/opponent/adversary/foe of x2 = b2 in
struggle x1 = b3. (te bradi)
terbra x3 = b1 is big/large in property/dimension x2 = b2 (ka) as compared with
standard/norm x1 = b3. (te barda)
terbriju x3 = b1 is an office/bureau/work-place
of worker x2 = b2 at location x1 = b3. (te briju)
terbri x3 = b1 (text) is a predicate relationship
with relation x2 = b2 among arguments x1 = b3
(ordered set). (te bridi)
terbru x3 = b1 is a brush for purpose x2 = b2
(event) with bristles x1 = b3. (te burcu)
terbu’a x3 = b1 is brother of/fraternal to x2 = b2
by bond/tie/standard/parent x1 = b3. (te bruna)
terbunda x3 = b1 weighs x2 = b2 units of local
weight standard x1 = b3. (te bunda)
terca’a x3 = c1 is apparatus/mechanism/device/equipment for function
x2 = c2 controlled or triggered by x1 = c
terca’e x1 is the locus where x2 is
pushed/shoved by x3.
tercacra x3 = c1 is x2 = c2 hours in duration by
standard x1 = c3. (te cacra)
tercakyjme j1 is a pearl from shell of material
j3 = c3 from source c2. (Cf. boijme, cakyjmepi’a.)
tercalku x3 = c1 is a shell/husk/hard, protective covering around x2 = c2 composed of x1 = c3.
(te calku)
tercanci x3 = c1 vanishes/disappears from location x2 = c2 according to senses/sensor x1 = c3.
(te canci)
tercange c1 is a farmer/rancher, c2 being the
location of farm/ranch c1, raising/producing c4.
tercanja x3 = c1 exchanges/trades/barters
commodity x2 = c2 for x1 = c3 with x4 = c4. (te
tercanre x3 = c1 is sand/grit from source x2 =
c2 of composition including x1 = c3. (te canre)
terckasu c3 (property/event) is ridiculous of c2
(object) to observer c1 with reaction c4. (Cf. ckasu,
tercma x3 = c1 is small in property/dimension
x2 = c2 (ka) as compared with standard/norm
x1 = c3. (te cmalu)
terctu x1 is a teaching/ something taught to audience x2 by teacher x3 about subject x4 by method
terdei x3 = d1 is x2 = d2 full days in duration
by standard x1 = d3. (te djedi)
terdejni d3 is a creditor that is owed d2 by d1
for provision of goods/services/loans d4. (Cf. dejni, seldejni, kagyseldejni, ze’i zei seldejni, ze’u zei
seldejni, paurseldejni.)
terderske s1=t1 is pedalogy [science about soil
composition] based on methodology s3. (terderske2, terderske3 and saske2 subsumed. Pedalogy
is one of two main branches of soil science (=derske). See also rokske,kunske.)
terdi [ted] x1 is the Earth/the home planet of
race x2; (adjective:) x1 is terrestrial/earthbound.
((cf. lunra, plini, solri, kensa, tsani; dertu for
ground, dirt, except when used to express physical relative frame of reference E.g. on the ground,
the ground beneath us. tsani))
terdji x1 is the purpose for which x2 is wanted
by x3.
terdrata d3 distinguishes between d2 and d1.
terdzu x3 = c1 walks/strides/paces on surface
x2 = c2 using limbs x1 = c3
terd Earth. (Cf. terdi.)
terfagri x1 is an oxidizer (by default
air/oxygen) for fuel x2 burning in fire x3 (This is
derived from fagri)
terfarnilfrica x1 is the difference between frame
of reference x2 and frame of reference x3. (magnetic variation is the difference between the magnetic reference frame and the rotational reference
frame; see makfartci)
terfendi f3 is a section of f2 divided by agent f1
and method f4. (Cf. pagbu.)
terfra f3 incites reaction f2 from reactor f1 under condition f4. (Cf. frati.)
terfu’e f3 charges responsibility f2 to f
terganzu g3 is a setup of g2 arranged by g1 based
on principle g4. (Cf. ganzu, cnici.)
tergu’i x1 is a light source with lit x2 with light
teri’a [BAI*] rinka modal, 2nd place
(phys./mental) causally under conditions ...
terjbe j3 is the birthday,the parents(s) being j2,
of j1, at place j4. (Cf. jbena, jbedetri, jbedetnunsla.)
terjde x1 is a danger that x2 is warned of by
event x3.
terjeftu x3 = j1 is x2 = j2 weeks in duration by
standard x1 = j3. (te jeftu)
terji’i x1 is an opinion about/considered to be
x2 by x3 with grounds for opinion x4.
terjmi x1 is a subject with fact/truth x2 understood by x3.
terjonma’o x1 is a connective/conjunction of
grammatical class x2 for joining x3 and x4 in language x5. (See also terjo’e, cmavo)
terjutsi x1 is a family [biology] with genus
x2, species x3, within order x4, class x5. (From
jimca, jmive, klesi. For biological cathegory in
general (=mivyske klesi), domain (=?), kingdom
(=seljimcymivykle), phylum (=jicymivykle), class
(=xeljutsi), order (=veljutsi), family (=terjutsi),
genus (=seljutsi), species (=jutsi).)
terjvi x1 is a contest/competition between rival/opponent x2 and participant/competitor x3
with gain/prize x4 (Cf. jivna, nunkei, ci’erkei,
nundamba, nunda’a.)
terkagni k3 is the charter/business/purpose
granted/authorized/agreed to by authority k2
to/for company/corporation/firm/partnership
k1. (Cf. kagni.)
terkai x3 considers x1 as x2 (ka). (Cf. jinvi.)
terkarni k3 publishes journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] k1 with
content k2 for audience k4. (Cf. ckupra.)
terkavbu x1 is a trap/restraint with x2 being
captured/restrained by x3 (object/event).
terkla From x1 to x2 goes x3 via x4 by means x5.
terlisri l3 tells/narrates about subject l2 with
narration l1 to audience l
terma’i x3 = m1 is x2 = m2 months in duration
by standard x1 = m3. (te masti)
terme’u x3 = m1 is x2 = m2 minutes in duration by standard x1 = m3. (te mentu)
termi’u m3 identifies m2 with m1.
termonsi’o s1 = m3 is a model of forms/events
m2 by which m1 = s2 is arranged, as thought by
termosra m3 (non-agentive)
rubs/brushes/scrubs against m2 with frictional
force m1. (Cf. mosra, termosygau, catke.)
termosygau g1 rubs m3 against/with m2 using
frictional force m1
termu’eske s1 (mass of facts) is science of /
about physics / universal rules of universe /
cosmos tm3 of domain / sphere tm2, science in
question based on methodology s3. (Made from
termu’e + saske. termu’e1 and saske2 subsumed.
saske3 moved to end based on relative uselessness.)

terna’a x3 = n1 is x2 = n2 years in duration by
standard x1 = n3. (te nanca)
ternoi n3 notifies / reports about n2 in message
n1 to audience n4. (Cf. notci.)
ternupcpe n3 = c1 makes a reservation n2 = c2
from service provider n1 = c3 by means c
terpa [tep te’a] x1 fears x2; x1 is
afraid/scared/frightened by/fearful of x2
(event/tu’a object). (Also: x1 feels terror about x2;
x2 is fearsome/fearful/frightening/scary to x1 (=
selte’a to reorder places). See also snura, xalni,
xanka, virnu.)
terpikta p3 (NU) is a privilage entitled to p2
guaranteed by p1 under conditions p
terpinxe x3 = p1 (agent) drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x2 = p2 from/outof container/source x1 = p3.
terpygau g1 frightens t1 with/by t2 (event
tersei x1 is the interval/distance/gap between
x2 and x3. (See also vi, va, vu, temci)
tersla s3 is a activity/[party] for celebrating/recognizing/honoring s2 (event/abstract)
with participants s
tersmu x1 understands/interprets/perceives
the meaning of utterance/message/communication/symbol x2 as
meaning x3 (du’u)
tersnidu x3 = s1 is x2 = s2 seconds in duration
by standard x1 = s3. (te snidu)
terspe x1 is a marriage tradition/custom/law
according to which x2 is married to x3.
tertcidu t3 is a reading material / literature consisting of texts t2 with audience t1; t3 is literary.
(Use lo’i for ”literature”. Cf. cukta.)
terto [tet] x1 is a trillion [10^12
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units)
terva’i v3 evaluates v2 (object) as v1 (quality).
tervai x3 = v1 (object/event) is important/significant to x2 = v2 (person/event) in aspect/for reason x1 = v3 (nu/ka). (te vajni)
terve’u x1 is a buyer purchasing goods x2 from
seller x3 for amount/cost/expense x4. (Made
from te + vecnu.)
tervencpe v3 = c1 orders/requests v2 = c2 from
v1 = c3 by means c4. (Cf. vecnu, cpedu, zarci.)
tervi’a Under conditions x1, x2 is seen by x3.
terxra p3 makes an image of p2 (object/concept)
with result p1 (picture) in medium p
teryrorci x3 = r1 engenders/procreates/begets
x2 = r2 with coparent x1 = r3. (te rorci; see also:
rirni, selpanzi )
terzbasro s1 is a/the production inventory of
sub-assemblies/components s2 = z3 used by z1
in the production/building/assembly of z2. (Cf.
zbasu, sorcu, zbacu’u, selvensro.)
terzbi n3 is a nostril of n2 (main body) in nose
terzi’e x1 is a right (entitlements/permissions of
a legal/moral nature) of x2 (action/quality) entitled to / held by x3
terzu’e z3 is the purpose of action z2 by agent
tesau [BAI*] sarcu modal, 3rd place (conditions
2) necessarily; necessarily under ...
tesi’u [BAI*] sidju modal, 3rd place assisting in
doing/maintaining/achieving ...
teta’i [BAI*] tadji modal, 3rd place methodically doing (something) under conditions ...
tetai [BAI*] tamsmi modal, 3rd place similarly;
sharing common ideal form ... (tamsmi is x1 resembles x2 sharing ideal form/shape x3 in property x4)
teti’i [BAI*] stidi modal, 3rd place suggestively;
suggested to ...
teti’u [BAI*] tcika modal, 3rd place (for letters)
as a time on day ...
teva’u [BAI*] xamgu modal, 3rd place
good/beneficial by standard ...
tezu’e [BAI*] zukte modal, 3rd place purposefully; (as an action) with goal ...
te [ter] [SE] 3rd conversion; switch 1st/3rd
ti’a [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
rearwards/to the rear of ...
ti’ekla k1 withdraws to k2 from origin k3 = t2
via route k4 using means/vehicle k5. (Cf. trixe,
ti’erbi’o b1 gets behind t2. (Cf. trixe, binxo.)
ti’evro v1 = c1 is a back door/gateway/access
between v2 and v3 of structure v4. (Cf. cravro.)
ti’e [UI2] evidential: I hear (hearsay). (See also
tirna, sitna, tcidu.)
ti’i [BAI] stidi modal, 1st place suggested by ...;
proposed by ...
ti’o [SEI] mathematical expression (mex) operator precedence (discursive).
ti’u [BAI] tcika modal, 1st place (for letters) associated with time ... ; attach time stamp.
ticta’u ta1 is a disguise/camouflage worn by ta2
to deceive tc2 into tc3. (The implied tc1 is the event
of ta2 wearing ta1. The implied ta3 is deceiving tc2
into tc3.)
ticyja’o j1 = t1 stages, deceptively demonstrating j2 to audience j3 = t2. (Cf. jarco, tcica, jitfa.)
ticysku c1 = t1 lies, falsely expressing c2
(text/concept) to audience c3 = t2 by means c4.
(Harmful intent or result is not implied. Cf. cusku,
tcica, jitfa.)
ticyve’u v1 fraudulently sells v2
[goods/service/commodity] to buyer v3 = t2
for amount/cost/expense v
tienjin Tianjin (city in northern China)
tigni [tig] x1 performs x2 [performance]
for/before audience x3. (See also jarco.)
tikpa [tip] x1 kicks [hits with x1’s foot/feet
x4] x2 in/at locus x3, using x1’s foot/feet x
tikygau g1 adjusts/regulates/changes g2 = s2
in amount/degree s3.
tilju [tij] x1 is heavy/weighty in
mass/weight by standard x
tilnipa x1 is a linden of species x2
tiltro j1 micromanages j2 in activity/event performance j3 = t2.
tilvi’a v1 sees/discerns/makes out the details of
t2 under conditions v3. (Cf. tcila, viska.)
timske s1 is meteorology with methodology s2.
tinbe [tib] x1 obeys/follows the command/rule x2 made by x3; (adjective:) x1 is
tinci x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tin
(Sn); [metaphor: cheap or base tal
tinju’i t1 = j1 listens to/pays attention to
sound t2 = j2 with ambient background t
tinsa x1 is stiff/rigid/inflexible/resistant in direction x2 against force x3 under conditions x4.
(Also sometimes: firm, hard; not limited to physical forces; e.g. mental rigidity
tinydjutci s1 = tu1 is a tool that aids s2 = ti1
in hearing ti2. (Usually an electroacoustic apparatus that fits in or behind the wearer’s ear, and is
designed to amplify and modulate sound for the
wearer. Cf. tutci, cabra.)
tinzga z1 = t1 listen(s) to z2 = t2 against background/noise t3. (Cf. tirna, zgana. )
tirlasino x1 is a thylacine of species/breed x2.
tirna [tin] x1 hears x2 against background/noise x3; x2 is audible; (adjective:)
x1 is aural
tirse [tir] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of iron (Fe); [metaphor: strong, durable, tarnishing]. (Also (adjective:) x1 is ferric/ferrous.
tirxrpardu x1 is a leopard of species/breed x2
with coat markings x
tirxrponka x1 is a jaguar of species/breed with
coat markings x
tirxu x1 is a tiger/leopard/jaguar/[tigress] of
species/breed x2 with coat markings x3. (A great
cat noted/recognized by its markings, metaphorically: stripes, tiger marking
tisna [tis] x1 (object) fills/becomes stuffed
[up]/inflates/blows up with material x2; x2 pours
into x1. (Implies some relative degree of fullness will result; agentive filling (= tisyse’a, tisygau, tisyzu’e); inflate/become inflated/blow up
(= gacytisna, agentive gacyse’a); pour into (= liktisna, agentive likse’a
tisycanti t1 = c1 is a sausage filled with t
titla [tit] x1 is sweet/sugary/saccharine to
observer x2. (See also sakta, slari, kurki.)
titnanba n1 is a cake/cookie made from grains
titspi s1 = t1 is a sweet/candy/confect
tityzme g1 is a melon of cultivar g2
tivni [tiv] x1 broadcasts/televises programming x2 via medium/channel x3 to television receiver x4. (Also x1 is a broadcaster; x2 programming (mass), program/show (ind
tixmamta m1 = t2 is the mother of daughter
m2 = t1. (Cf. besmamta, tixpa’u.)
tixnu [tix ti’u] x1 is a daughter of
mother/father/parents x2; [not necessarily
biological]. (See also bersa, panzi.)
tix Daughter (Cf. tixnu, bes, mes, bun, mam,
ti [tif] [KOhA6] pro-sumti: this here; immediate demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near
to’a [BY1] lower-case letteral shift.
to’ebo [NAhE+BO ] negation sumti qualifier:
the opposite of
to’e [tol to’e] [NAhE] polar opposite
scalar negator.

to’i [TO] open editorial unquote (within a
quote); contains grammatical text; mark with editorial insert.
to’o [FAhA4] location tense relation/direction;
departing from/directly away from ...
to’unai [UI*3] discursive: in brief - in detail.
to’u [UI3] discursive: in brief - in detai
todbi’olanka l1 is the chrysalis of species t
togra’ijmavra v1 is a sostenuto pedal of instrument x2 = t3. (Cf. togysmajmavra, pipno.)
togygu’i x1 [energy] is laser illuminating x2
from light source x3 with frequency x4.
togysmajmavra x1 is a soft pedal of instrument
x2 = t3. (Cf. togra’ijmavra, pipno.)
toi [TOI] elidable terminator: right parenthesis/end unquote; seldom elidable except at end of
tokió Tokyo
toknu [tok] x1 is an oven [enclosure that
heats its contents] for baking/heating/drying x2.
tolba’i b1 is low/inferior/abject in property b2
(ka) by standard b3. (Cf. to’e, banli, malfadni.)
tolba’o b1 shrinks/contracts to size/into form b2
from b3. (Cf. banro, cmaze’a, brame’a, cmabi’o.)
tolbanzu x1 (object) is utterly insufficient for
purpose x2 under conditions x3. (to’e+banzu)
tolcanci c1 materializes/suddenly appears at
location c2 according to senses/sensor c3. (to’e
canci, see also spaji, zgana)
tolcando c1 is busy. (Cf. to’e, cando, zukcfu.)
tolcfagau g1 stops/ends c1
[state/event/process]. (Cf. to’e, cfari, gasnu,
tolcfari’i r1 is/are the ritual/proceedings for
adjourning/ending c1[event/state/process] by
community r2 with rules c4. (to’e, cfari, cfari’i,
sisti, mulgau, fanmo.)
tolcfa c1 [state/event/process] concludes/ceases/stops/ends its occurrence.
tolci’o c1 is old (opposite of young) by standard
tolckape c1 is safe for c2 under conditions c3
(from to’e ckape c.f. nurxru tolnu’a)
tolclite c1 is rude in matter c2 according to standard/custom c3. (Cf. clite, to’e, le’o, sezytoltro.)
tolcpa c1 leaves c2, which he brought, at c3 (Cf.
to’e, cpacu, cirko, punji, norcpa, fesli’a, radycru.)
tolcru x1 forbids/prohibits x2 under conditions
x3. (See also e’anai)
tolcu’i c1 (event/state/property) is impossible
under condition c2. (Cf. cumki.)
tolcumla x1 = c1 is cocky/chesty/arrogant
about x1 = c2 (abstraction).
toldarsi x1 is timid/shy/abashed/reluctant to
do /be x2. (See also u’ocu’i)
toldarsygau x1 discourages x2 from doing/being x3. (See also e’enai)
toldicra d1 (event) resumes/[continues/restarts] d2 (object/event/process) due to quality d3; d2 starts
toldi [tod] x1 is a butterfly/moth of
species/breed x2
toldji x1 is reluctant/unwilling/disinclined to
x2 for purpose x3. (See also aunai)
toldra d1 is wrong in property/aspect d2 (ka) in
situation d3 by standard d4. (Cf. drani, xlali.)
toldu’e x1 is a shortage/deficiency/insufficiency/derth/too little
of x2 by standard x3. (See also mo’a)
tolfa’u f1 rises to f2 from f3 in gravity
well/frame of reference f4
tolfekybi’o f1 = b1 (action/event) becomes
calm/calms down/is pacified under conditions f2
by standard b3. (For person, use tu’a f1 = b1.)
tolgei g1 is gloomy/downcast/unhappy about
g2 (event/state). (Cf. to’e, gleki, badri.)
tolgurgau x1 = ga1 unrolls/unravels object
x2 = gu1 on/against surface x3 = gu2, with axis/
axle of rotation x4 = gu3. (Cf. to’e, gunro, gasnu.)
toljgari j1 lets go/releases j2 from j3 (part of j1)
at locus j4 (part of j2
tolju’i x1 avoids/ignores/directs attentionaway from object/affairye
tolkargu k1 (object/commodity/property/event) is inexpensive
to k2 by standard k3
tolke’i x1 is callous/implacable/heartless/merciless/ruthlesstowards x2 (person) about x3 (abstractio
tolkri x1 disbelieves/rejects x2 as false about x3
tolku’o k1 is a ridge in/on object/surface k2
tolkufra k1 feels discomfort/is uncomfortable
with conditions/environmental property(ies) k2.
tolmadba’i b1 = m3 grandly exhibits the corruptness b2 = m1 of unethical mass b3 = m2.
tolmapti m1 is incompatible with m2 in aspectm3
tolmencre c1 = m2 (person) is unintelligent/dumb/stupid by standard c3
tolmifygau g1 deciphers m1 into m2 out of coding system m3
tolmlemau z1 = m1 is uglier/[more unsightly]
than z2 to m2 in aspect m3 (ka) by amount z4.
tolmleme’a ml1 = me1 is less ugly/unsightly
than ml2 to me2 in aspect me3 (ka) by amount ml4.
tolmlerai m1 = t1 is the ugliest/[most unsightly] among set/range t3 to m2 in aspect m3
by aesthetic standard m
tolmletce m1 = t1 is hideous/grotesque to t2 in
aspect t3 (ka) by aesthetic standard t
tolmle x1 is ugly to x2 in aspect x3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x4
tolmo’i m1 forgets fact/memory m2 about subject m3. (Cf. to’e, morji, nalmo’i. Assumes that
morji refers to a change of state i.e. ’remember’=
’bring to mind’.)
tolmocpla x1 invents strategy (long-term plan)
x2 for achieving x3 (event/state).
tolna’e x1 (du’u) con-
firms/corroborates/verifies x2 (du’u) underrules/logic x3 .
tolnu’a s1 is threatened by s2 (event) (from to’e
snura c.f. ckape )
tolpa’a x1 despairs/is despondent/pessimistic
about x2, expected likelihood x3
tolpo’u x1 is functional/operational/usable for
function x2; x1 works properl
tolprali x1 is a damage/harm/loss to x2 resulting from activity/procesz
tolri’ugau x1 releases x2 from restraint/binding
x3 to do/be x4
tolrinsa r1 opposite of greets / offers goodbyes
to r2 in manner r3 (action
tolse’a s1 (agent) withdraws/pulls
out/extracts/removes s2 from interior/members
of s3 (from to’e setca)
tolselci’i x1 = c2 is bored with x2 = c
tolselmansa m2 is dissatisfied by m1 with regard to property (ka)/state m
tolselto’i t2 (load/force/torque) untwists t1.
tolsi’arai t1 = s1 holds s2 in utmost contempt
among set/range t4
tolsi’a x1 disrespects/disregards/snubs/deridesy
tolsisti x1 [agent] begins activity/process/statey
tolsnuti x1 (event/state) is deliberate/intentional on the part of x2; x1 is deliberate.
(to’e + gi’uste definition for snuti)
tolspe x1 is a bachelor / single / unmarried.
tolsti x1 [agent] begins activity/process/staty
tolsurla s1 expends effort/is actively/effortfully involved in doing/being s2(acti to’e + surla
toltce x1 is little/limited in property x2 towardsx
toltelgau g1 unlocks lock s1 on s2 by mechanisms
toltu’i x1 disagrees with person(s)/position/side x2 that x3 (du’u) is true
about matter x4. (See also ienai)
tolvri x1 is a coward in activity x2 (event) by
tolvu’e v1 is immoral by standard v2.
tolvutu x1 is rabid with symptomy
tolvut rabies. (See also tolvutu.)
tolxanka x1 is calm/tranquil/serene about x2
(abstraction) under conditions x
tolxu’a x1 (agent) denies that x2 (du’u) is true.
tolylaxygau g1 unbalances l1 with force l
tolyli’a c1 arrives at c2 via route c
tolzau x1 disapproves of/objects to plan/action
tolzdi x1 is boring/dreary/wearisome/tedious
to x2 in property/aspecz
tolzi’o x1 is Arctic in aspecy
tonga [tog to’a] x1 is a tone/note of frequency/pitch x2 from source x
torceli x1 is x2 torrs by standard x
torcrida c1 is a dwarf of mythos/religion c2,
short by measurement standard t
tordu [tor to’u] x1 is short in dimension/direction x2 (default longest dimension) by
measurement standard x
torni [ton to’i] x1 twists under
load/force/torsion x
tortei t1 is a short
time/duration/interval/period/elapsed time
from time/event t2 to time/event t
to [TO] left parenthesis; start of parenthetical
note which must be grammatical Lojban text.
tradutxu’a x1 = t1 is hypocritical in action t2 =
d1, which is contrary to assertion x2, under conditions t3
traji [rai] x1 is superlative in property x2 (ka),
the x3 extreme (ka; default ka zmadu) among
set/range x4. (Also: x1 is x3-est/utmost in x2 among x4; x1 is the x3 end of x4; x1 is extreme;x1 is simplyz
mutce, note contrast with milxe and mutce rather
than with mleca and zmadu, which are values for
x3, banli, curve, fanmo, krasi, manfo, prane))
trano x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
nitrogen/ammonia/nitrates. ((adjective:) x1 is nitric/nitrous
trati x1 is taut/tense/strained tight in directionx
treci’e x1 is the metric system with relations x2
among units x3 and properties x4.
trene [ren re’e] x1 is a train [vehicle] of
cars/units x2 (mass) for rails/system/railroad x3,
propelled by x4. (A railed vehicle or train of
vehicles; also subway (tu’unre’e), metro, trolley,
tramway (= lajre’e), roller coaster; monorail (=
dadre’e); cable car, sky car, ski lift (= cildadre’e).
tricnrarekake x1 is a palm tree, species/strainy
tricu [ric] x1 is a tree of species/cultivar x2.
trigonela x1 is fenugreek of species/variety x2.
trina [tri] x1 attracts/appeals to/lures x2
(person/event) with property/quality x3 (ka).
(Also: x1 is alluring to x
trisku c1 = t1 appeals to/lures, expressing c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept), audience c3 = t2 via
expressive medium c4 with property/quality t3
trixexo x1 is a manatee of species x2. (variant
trixexu x1 is a manatee of species x2. (variant
trixe [rix ti’e] x1 is posterior/behind/back/in the rear of x2 which
faces/in-frame-of-reference x3. (Also: x3 is the
standard of orientation for x2; spine (= rixybo’u,
troci [toc toi] x1 tries/attempts/makes an
effort to do/attain x2 (event/state/property) by
actions/method x3
trofli f1 = j1 fails to control j2 in j3 (activity/event/performance
trokamni k1 = t1 is the supervisory
board/board of directors/governing council
of t2 = k3. (Cf. turni, kamni, trukamni, ctakamni,
gazykamni, kagnyja’a.)
tromizona x1 is a lamprey of genus/species x2.
troneim Trondheim.
tropaiolo x1 is a nasturtium of species x2.
troroltruci’e c1 is a totalitarian system in j2 with
power exercised by t1 = t1 (From jitro, ro, turni.
trubasti b1 takes power from t1 over people/territory/domain/subjects t2 in circumstance b3
trucau c1 is an anarchy/is anarchic
truci’ebi’i j1 is intergovernmental / takes
place where the decision-making power is shared
among j2 = t1 = c1 (governments
truci’e c1 = t1 is the government of organizational type c2 of people/territory/domain/subjects t2 displaying
properties c
trucu’u c1 is a political affair involving c2
trudjigri g1 = d1 = t1 is a political party operating in territory t2 with members g
trueno t1 is a privet of species t2.
trukamni k1 = j1 is the management
board/executive committee/executive board of
k3 = j
trukamnycmi c1 is a member of governing
council k1 = t1.
trumapku m1 is a crown made of m2 used by
ruler t1 of people/territory/domain/subjects t2.
trupauja’a r1 is the minister/secretary of ministry/department t2 (From turni pagbu jatna
trupausle s1 is a sub-division of the Ministry/Department of t
trupau p1 is a government ministry/department responsible for t
truralju r1 is the head-of-government of polity
trusi’o s1 is a political ideology about t1 ruling t2 based on the work of thinker s
truspe x1 is married to the governor/ruler of
x2 according to custom x3; x1 is first lady/prince
consort/queen consort of x2.
trutca tc1 = tu1 is the administrative capital
(seat of government) of tu2 = tc3 located in tc3
tsakarce k1 = t1 is a jeep/land rover propelled
by k3. (Cf. tsali, karce, bevma’e, sonjamkarce.)
tsalagi x1 reflects Cherokee culture/nationality/language in aspect x2.
tsali [tsa] x1 is strong/powerful/[tough] in
property/quality x2 (ka) by standard x
tsani [tan] x1 is an expanse of sky/the heavens at place x2; [celestial
tsapi x1 is a seasoning/condiment/spice causing flavor/effect x2 (event/property). (Also: x1
flavors x2 (tu’a). See also vrusi.)
tsaprpiperi x1 is pepper (genus ”Piper”) with
tsarainaitrusi’o s1 is a fascist ideology as applied by t1 among/in people/territory/domain t2
based on the works of thinker s3 (From tsali, traji,natmi, turni, sidbo
tsasmani s1 is a gorilla of species/subspecies s2.
tsebi’o b1 = z1 sits down on surface z
tsesebe x1 is a sassaby/topi/korrigum/damalisk of species/breey
tsestu s1 = z2 is a seat for s2 = z2. (Differs from
stizu in that it focuses on the space rather than the
tsetupyzbe t1 = zb1 is a lap [body part] of
t2 = zu1 supporting zb2
galtupcra. A lap only exists in a seated form, and
not when a being is standing erect or when it islying down. )
tsiju [tsi] x1(s) is/are (a) seed(s)/spore(s)
[body-part] of organism x2 for producing offspring x3. (Also germ cell; implies actual potential
for self-development; seeds generally contain embryo and food, and hence would include a fertilized egg
tsina [sin] x1 stage/platform/dais/[scaffold] at/in x2 supporting x3, made of material x4. ((x3 object/event)
tsiselcigla c2 = t1 is semen secreted by organism c3 for producing offspring t3.
tsukini x1 is a zucchini squash (L. cucurbita
pepo). (A long, dark-green type of guzme eaten
raw or cooked.)
tsunami x1 is a tsunami caused by x2.
tu’a [LAhE] extracts a concrete sumti from an
unspecified abstraction; equivalent to le nu/su’u
[sumti] co’e.
tu’e [TUhE] start of multiple utterance scope;
used for logical/non-logical/ordinal joining of
tu’ifru f1 = t1 makes facial gesture to show
agreement with person(s)/position/side t2 that t3
(du’u) is true about matter t
tu’i [BAI] stuzi modal, 1st place (used to situate
letters) associated with site ... ; label with location.
tu’o [PA5] null operand (used in unary mekso
tu’urbirka b1 = t1 is a tentacle / tube-shaped
arm [body part] of b2. (The other places of tubnu
(outer and inner material of the tube) are dependant on the body with the tentacle; generally
they’ll just be ”skin” and ”blood” or ”flesh” anyways. Made from tubnu and birka.)
tu’urcurnu t1 is a tubeworm of species t2.
tu’urki x1 reflects Turkish culture/nationality/language in aspecy
tu’u [TUhU] elidable terminator: end multipleutterance scope; seldom elidable.
tubnu [tu’u] x1 is a length of tubing/pipe/hollow cylinder [shape/form] of
material x2, hollow of material x3. (Also tube,
sleeve, leg, hose, (adjective:) tubular
tubyspe s1 is a brother/sister-in-law
(brother’s/sister’s spouse) of m2 under
law/custom/tradition/system/convention sp3.
(Omit x4 = s2 = m1
tugbi’o x1 = b1 = t1 settles issue x2 = t4 with
person x3 = t2, agreeing that x4 = t3 (du’u) is true.
tugni [tug tu’i] x1 [person] agrees with
person(s)/position/side x2 that x3 (du’u) is true
about matter x4
tugysi’u t1 = t2 = s1 are unanimous / sharing the same view on t3 = s2 (du’u
tuityr Twitter
tujli [tuj] x1 is a tulip (defined by flower
shape) of species/strain x2. (See also spati.)
tulcti c1 = t1 swallows c2 tunlo citka.)
tumfakli’u l1 explores lands in l2 = t2 discovering facts f2 using means l3 (from tumla facki litru
tumla [tum tu’a] x1 is a parcel/expanse of
land at location x2; x1 is terrain
tumsfe s1 is the ground of land s2 = t1 at location t2
tumymre m1 surveys t1=m2 as m3 (map or measurements) in unit m4 with accuracy m5
tunba [tub] x1 is a sibling of x2 by
tunka [tuk] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of copper (Cu); [metaphor: reddish, electrical
tunlo [tul tu’o] x1 gulps/swallows. (x1swallows down food/drink. x2 (= tulpinxe, tulcti,
ctitu’o (the latter two are more general - for
food or beverage); swallow/engulf (= galxycti,
galxynerbi’o, galxygre
tunta [tun] x1 (object, usually pointed)
pokes/jabs/stabs/prods x2 (experiencer). (Agentive (= tungau, tunzu’e
tupcutci c1 is a boot for covering/protecting leg
c2 = t1, and of material c3
tuple [tup tu’e] x1 is a/the leg [body-part]
of x2; [metaphor: supporting branch
tupyjanco j1 is a hip attaching attaching leg
j2 = t1 to body j3 = t2. (See also tupyjanbo’u
for hip bone)
turni [tru] x1 governs/rules/is
ruler/governor/sovereign/reigns over people/territory/domain/subjects x2. (x2 need not
be complete specification of set of governed;
reign/rule (= noltru); king/queen/sovereign (=
nolraitru); pure democracy (= roltrusi’o), representative democracy (= rolka’itrusi’o), viceroy
(= ka’itru), pure communism (= kaurpo’esi’o),
board of directors/trustees, steering committee (=
trukamni); government (= trugunma, trugri (emphasizing the components), truci’e (emphasizing
the organization
tutci [tci] xtool/utensil/resource/instrument/implement
used for doing x2; [form determines function].

tutpaupau t1 = p1 is a district of p2 administered by t2. (An administrative district is usually a
second-level division of a country, hence the reduplicated ”-paupau”. Cf. turni, gugde.)
tutra’a s1 pertains to territory of s2 = t2 (Cultural gismu replacement for geography: From
gismu tutra and srana.)
tutra [tut] x1 is territory/domain/space
of/belonging to/controlled byy
tutske s1 is geography based on methodology s
tu [tuf] [KOhA6] pro-sumti: that yonder;
distant demonstrative it; indicated thing far from
tyrontos Toronto
ty [BY2] letteral for t.
u’anai [UI*1] attitudinal: gain - loss.
u’a [UI1] attitudinal: gain - loss
u’enai [UI*1] attitudinal: wonder - commonplace.
u’e [UI1] attitudinal: wonder - commonplace.
u’imla x1 is a lolcat (picture of an animal with
a humorous caption) (Etymology: Combination of
u’i and mlatu and meant to parallel u’ivla.)
u’inai [UI*1] attitudinal: amusement - weariness.
u’ivla x1 is a word meaning x2 in language x3
and silly/funny/clever for reason x4 (usually etymological). (The word u’ivla is itself an u’ivla, as it
is an unconventional portmanteau of u’i and -vla-
(a rafsi of valsi) and also a pun on the word fu’ivla.
Another example is u’imla.)
u’i [UI1] attitudinal: amusement - weariness.
u’ocu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: courage - timidity -
u’onai [UI*1] attitudinal: courage - timidity -
u’o [UI1] attitudinal: courage - timidity - cowardic
u’ucu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: repentance - lack of
regret - innocence.
u’unai [UI*1] attitudinal: repentance - lack ofregret - innocence.
u’u [UI1] attitudinal: repentance - lack of regret- innocence
váshigtyn washington
uacintyn Washington
uanai [UI*1] attitudinal: discovery - confusion/searching.
uaransis Varanasi
ov-hha ua [UI1] attitudinal: discovery - confusion/searching
ubu [BY*] letteral for u.
veb World Wide Web
uecu’i [UI*1] attitudinal: surprise - not really
surprised - expectation axis.
uenai [UI*1] attitudinal: surprise - expectation.
uepei [UI*1] attitudinal: surprise question.
ue [UI1] attitudinal: surprise - not really surprised - expectation
uibu [BY*] letteral: happiness symbol (letteral).
uigru x1 is Uyghur in aspecy
uikipedias Wikipedia.
viffedía uikis Wiki, WikiWikiWe
uinai [UI*1] attitudinal: happiness - unhappiness.
hvisk x1 is whiskey distilled from x2
vitki x1 is a wiki/collaborative web site with subjectx2
ui [UI1] attitudinal: happiness - unhappiness
ulmu x1 is an elm of species/variety x
uonai [UI*1] attitudinal: completion - incompleteness.
uo [UI1] attitudinal: completion - incompleteness
urci x1 is poison ivy/oak/sumac / lacquer tree
of species x
uunai [UI*1] attitudinal: pity - cruelty.
uu [UI1] attitudinal: pity - cruelty
u [A] logical connective: sumti afterthought
va’ai [BAI] zvati modal; 1st place (with
thing... located somewhere) (A zvati modal
seemed like such a good idea, especially for it’s
second place seva’ai as a ”with location”. seka’a
didn’t really work become of the implication of direction and tu’i is too permanent and inalienable
va’a [VUhU3] unary mathematical operator:
additive inverse; [- a].
va’e [MOI] convert number to scalar selbri; x1
is at (n)th position on scale x2.
va’inai [UI*3] discursive: in other words - in thesame words.
va’i [UI3] discursive: in other words - in thesame words
va’o [BAI] vanbi modal, 1st place (conditions 1)
under conditions ...; in environment ...
va’urpante p1 = v1 protests with a sigh about
p2 (event/state) to audience p3 with action p4
va’u [BAI] xamgu modal, 1st place beneficiary
case tag complement benefiting from ...
vacmurse m1 = c1 is the dusk of day m2 = c2
at location m3 = c3
vacri [var] x1 is a quantity of air/normallygaseous atmosphere of planet x2, of composition
vacysai s1 (mass) is a dinner composed of
dishes including s2
vairsoi s1 = v1 is a military officer in army s2

vai [PA2] digit/number: hex digit F (decimal
15) [fifteen].
vajni [vaj vai] x1 (object/event) is important/significant to x2 (person/event) in aspect/for
reason x3 (nu/ka). (Also: x1 matters to x2 in aspect/respect x3
vajraifla f1 = v1 = t1 is the constitution of
f3 = v2. (Cf. vajni, traji, flalu, zuktruci’e, flatruci’e,
pairtruci’e, flacfatrugri, flazautrugri. )
vajrai x1 = v1 = t1 is most important/most significant to x2 = v2 in aspect/for reason x3 = v3
among set/range x4 = t4. (vajni+traji)
valsi [val vla] x1 is a word meaning/causing x2 in language x3; (adjective: x1
is lexical/verbal
valtogmo’a t1 = m1 is the tone of word v1 = m2
with characteristics t2 = m3. (The linguistic tone
is used to distinguish a difference in meaning, for
example in xaineese
vamji [vam va’i] x1 (ni) is the equivalent
value/worth of x2 [item(s) of value] to x3 for
use/appreciation x4. (Also: x2 is worth x1 to x3;
(for x2 person:) x2 merits (one sense), (adjective:)
x2 is worthy (= selva’i for reordered places); merit
reward (= nemselva’i); receive merited reward (=
vamselne’u); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity
(= posyva’i, posyselva’i for unambiguous semantics note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, vajni

vamrai v1 = t1 is the most valuable among
items v2 = r4 to v3 for purpose v4vamji + traji.)
vamtolrai v1 = t1 is the most valuable among
items v2 = r4 to v3 for purpose v4vamji + to’e + traji.)
vamtu [vat] x1 vomits/regurgitates x2; x1
throws x2 up; [violent] digestive expulsion. ((x2
is non-gaseous
vanbi [vab] x1 (ind./mass) is part of an environment/surroundings/context/ambience of x2.
((adjective:) x1 is ambient
vanci [vac] x1 is an evening [from end-ofwork until sleep typical for locale] of day x2 at
location x3. (This evening (= cabvanci); tomorrow evening (= bavlamvanci); yesterday evening
(= prulamvanci
vandula x1 is lavender of species/variety x2.
vanjba x1 is a grape of species/variety x2.
vanju [van] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of wine from fruit/grapes x2
vanjyjikru j1 is a brandy distilled from v2
vanslami s1 = v1 is vinegar made from v2
varcavas Warsaw
varkiclaflo’i x1 is a hovercraft for carrying x2,
propelled by x3, riding on/lifted by x
varmebri x1 is the front of air mass x
varmuvgau mg1 is a fan blowing/moving air
mg2 = v1 to/towards/onto mg3 from mg4. (From
vacri and muvgau, or equivalently, vacri, muvdu,
and gasnu.)
varmuvmi’i mi1 is a fan for moving air to destination mu2 from origin mu3 over path/route mu4.
vhani´le varnila x1 is vanilla
varselclu c1 is inflated with air.
varxamsi x1 is the atmosphere of planet x2 =
v2 (default Earth) of composition v3
dhis tradgedik dea
varxasyske s1 is the atmospheric science of
vasru [vas vau] x1 contains/holds/encloses/includes contents x2
within; x1 is a vessel containing x2. ([also accommodates, container; containment need not
be total; x2 is Contained. in x1 (= selvau for
reordered places
vasxu [vax va’u] x1 breathes/respires x2[gas]. ((though used to make the Lojban word,
clue word vascular is erroneous, actually pertaining to the circulatory system that carries the
respired oxygen to the tissues
vau [VAU] elidable: end of sumti in simple
bridi; in compound bridi, separates common trailing sumti.
vaxselnandu n2 = v1 has difficulty breathing
gas v2 under conditions n3; n1 = v1 pants
vaxydicra d1 chokes v1 by/with d3
va [vaz] [VA] location tense distance: near to
... ; there at ...; a medium/small distance from ...
ve’a [VEhA] location tense interval: a
small/medium region of space.
ve’e [ve’e] [VEhA] location tense interval:
the whole of space.
ve’i [VEhA] location tense interval: a tiny region of space.
ve’o [VEhO] right mathematical bracket.
ve’u [VEhA] location tense interval: a large region of space.
vebe’i [BAI*] benji modal, 4th place transmit
origin ...
veci’e [BAI*] ciste modal, 4th place as a system
with synergy in ...
kvncv vecnu [ven ve’u] x1 [seller] sells/vends
x2 [goods/service/commodity] to buyer x3 for
amount/cost/expense x4. (x1 is a salesperson/salesman/vendor; x3 buys x2 from x1 (=
terve’u for reordered terms); x4 is the price of x2
to x3 (= velve’u for reordered terms); for sale (= fitselve’u, selvenfriti); x2 may be a specific object, a
commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity
(= posyve’u, posyselve’u for unambiguous semantics
vecu’u [BAI*] cusku modal, 4th place in expression medium ...
vede’i [BAI*] detri modal, 4th place on a date
according to calendar ...
vedu’o [BAI*] djuno modal, 4th place under
epistemology ...
vefi’e [BAI*] finti modal, 4th place creatively;
created from ideas/elements ...
vega’a [BAI*] zgana modal, 4th place (under
conditions) observed under observing conditions

veisri x1 = d1 = v4 is a signal recording and
playback tape-type medium (cassette/DAT/tape
drive) containing data/sound/image x2 = v2
with data storage mechanism/method x3 (analog/digital
vei [VEI] left mathematical bracket.
veka’a [BAI*] klama modal, 4th place via route
velbajra x4 = b1 runs on surface x2 = b2 using
limbs x3 = b3 with gait x1 = b4. (ve bajra)
velbancu x4 = b1 exceeds/is beyond
limit/boundary x2 = b2 from x3 = b3 in
property/amount x1 = b4 (ka/ni). (ve bancu)
velbatci x1 is the biting tool with which x2 is
bitten at locus x3 by x4

velbatke x4 = b1 is a button/knob/handle
on/for item x2 = b2, with purpose x3 = b3, made
of material x1 = b4. (ve batke)
velbe’e x4 = b1 is a
crew/team/gang/squad/band of persons x2 = b2
directed/led by x3 = b3 organized for purpose
x1 = b4. (ve bende)
velbe’i x4 = b1 transfers/sends/transmits x2 =
b2 to receiver x3 = b3 from transmitter/origin x1 =
b4 via means/medium x5 = b
velbei x4 = b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports
cargo x2 = b2 to x3 = b3 from x1 = b4 over path
x5 = b5; x4 = b1 is a carrier/porter. (ve bevri)
velbi’u x4 = b1 is a wall/fence separating x2 =
b2 from x3 = b3, and subdividing x1 = b4
velbinra x4 = b1 insures/indemnifies x2 = b2
against peril x3 = b3 providing benefit x1 = b4(ve binra)
velbo’a x4 = b1 is a wave/periodic pattern in
medium x2 = b2, with wave-form x3 = b3, wavelength x1 = b4 and frequency x5 = b5. (ve boxna)
velbo’i x4 = b1 is a bottle/jar/urn/flask/closable container for x2 = b2,
made of material x3 = b3 with lid x1 = b4
velcange x4 = c1 is a farm/ranch at x2 = c2, of
rancher x3 = c3 raising/producing x1 = c
velcanja x4 = c1 exchanges/trades/barters
commodity x2 = c2 for x3 = c3 with x1 = c
velcki x1 is an explanation of x2
(event/state/property) to x3 by x4
veljbe j4 is the birthplace, the parent(s) being j2,
the birthdate being j3, of j1. (Cf. jbena.)
veljutsi x1 is an order [biology] with genus x2,
family x3, with species x4, within class x5. (From
jimca, jmive, klesi. For biological cathegory in
general (=mivyske klesi), domain (=?), kingdom
(=seljimcymivykle), phylum (=jicymivykle), class
(=xeljutsi), order (=this definition), family (=terjutsi), genus (=seljutsi), species (=jutsi))
velkakpa x1 is a digging limb/tool for digging
material x2 up/out of x3 (source/hole) with agentx4
velkla x1 = k4 is a route that leads to x2 = k2,
from x3 = k3, travelled by x4 = k1 by means x5 =
velski s4 is a description of s2 to audience s3 bydescriber s1
veltcika x1 is the time zone where x2 happens
on day x3 at time x4.
veltcikybi’a x1 is jetlagged with symptoms x2
going to x3 from x4.
velve’u x1 is the sales price of x2 to x3 from/at
vendor x4.
velventerzu’e z3 = v4 is the sales quota for
v1 = z1 to sell v2 to v3
velvi’u v1 is the result/remnant/remainder
when v2 is removed/subtracted/deducted/takena way from v3 by v4
vemau [BAI*] zmadu modal, 4th place (relative!) more than/exceeding by amount ...
veme’a [BAI*] mleca modal, 4th place (relative!) less than by amount ...
venci’e c1 is a market (system) interrelated
by structure c2 (social relations / institutions
/ procedures / infrastructures) of components
c3 = v2 (goods/services/information) displaying
c4 (economy).
vencu’u c1 is/are the sales function/activities
of c2 = v1 selling v2 to v3; c1 is sales. (Cf. vecnu,
cuntu, selvensro, janta, faircu’u, zbacu’u.)
venfu [vef] x1 takes revenge on/retaliates
against x2 (person) for wrong x3 (nu) with
vengeance x4 (nu). (Also avenge; (adjective:) x1
is vengeful. See also sfasa, cnemu.)
vensa [ves] x1 is spring/springtime [warming season] of year x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1
is vernal
venvei x1 = vr1 is a record of x2 = ve1 [seller]
having sold x3 = ve2 [goods/service/commodity]
to buyer x4 = ve3 for amount/cost/expense x5 =
ve4, stored on medium x6 = vr4
venxa’a x1 is a mailer about v2 from x3 = v1for audience x2 = v3
venxatrycu’u c1 the directmail business/activity/function for
goods/products/services/activities v2 from/by
x3 = v1 to audience x2 = v3
venynoicu’u c1 the advertising business/activity/function aboutgoods/products/services/activities n2 = v2

from/by n2 = v1 to audience n4 = v3
venynoi n1 is an advertisement about n2 =v2 by n3 = v1 to intended audience n4 = v3
venzmi z1 is a vending machine offering v2 to v3
for sale cost v4 under condition z3.
vepa’a [BAI*] panra modal, 4nd place (standard/geometry) similarly; similar by standard ...
vepu’e [BAI*] pruce modal, 4th place (set of
stages) passing through processing stages ...
verai [BAI*] traji modal, 4th place (set) -est;
most extremely; superlative among ...
verba [ver ve’a] x1 is a child/kid/juvenile
[a young person] of age x2, immature by standard
x3. (Not necessarily human. See also cifnu, makcu,
citno, panzi, nanla, nixli, se rirni, bersa.)
vercka c1 is a crib made of c2 for a child c3=v1 of
age v2. (not necessarily with bars; see also slicka)
verclibau b1 = c3 is a native language of b2 =
v1 = c1 to express b3.
vetai [BAI*] tamsmi modal, 4th place similarly;
sharing ideal form in property ... (tamsmi is x1 resembles x2 sharing ideal form/shape x3 in property x4)
veti’u [BAI*] tcika modal, 4th place (for letters)
as a time at location ...
ve [vel] [SE] 4th conversion; switch 1st/4th
vi ma [VA*] sumti question asking for a location: at/near what?.
vi’a [VIhA] dimensionality of space interval
tense: 2-space interval; throughout an area.
vi’ecpe c1 = v2 invites c3 = v1 to v2
(place/event) in manner c4
vi’e [VIhA] dimensionality of space interval
tense: 4-space interval; throughout a spacetime.
vi’i [VIhA] dimensionality of space interval
tense: 1-space interval; along a line.
vi’o [COI] vocative: wilco (ack and will comply).
vi’u [VIhA] dimensionality of space interval
tense: 3-space interval; throughout a space.
vibna [vib] x1 is a/the vagina [body-part] of x2
vicra’e v1 = r1 cuts (removes during editing)
v2 = r2 from v3 leaving v4
victerlu’i v2 = l3 is
trash/rubbish/garbage/refuse removed from
v3 = l2 by v1 = l1 (agent)
vidni x1 is a video monitor/CRT/screen [machine] serving functioy
vidnysle s1 is a pixel of screen s2 = v1.
vidru [vir] x1 is a virus of
species/breed/defining property x2 capableof infecting [at]z
fivhno vifne [vif] (adjective:) x1 is fresh/yet spoiled
vijblo b1 is an aircraft carrier carrying b2, propelled by b3
vijysazri s1 maneuvers/pilots/is a pilot of aircraft v1 = s2
vijysoi s1 is a paratrooper in military unit s2
vijytcana t1 is an airport in transport system t2
for aircraft of type v2 propelled by v
tratgedik vermuqqh dea
vikmi [vim vi’i] x1 [body] excretes waste x2
from source x3 via means/route x4
vhík vhiknv x thick/viscous under conditionsy
viktsispa x1 is mistletoe of species/variety x2.
viltce m1 is very/extremely violent
vilti’a t1 = v1 is a storm at place/region t2
vimcu [vic vi’u] x1 removes/subtracts/deducts/takes away x2 from
x3 with/leaving result/remnant/remainder x4.
(Also appropriates, confiscates; alienation is
vimku’a x1 = k1 is a loo/water closet/[room
with toilet], in which x2 = v1 excretes x3 =
v2, in home/building/structure x4 = k2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x5 =
k3 (mass/jo’u) (From vimstizu. As distinct from
lumku’a, which is a room that primarily features
washing facilities, this is a room that primarily features a means of relieving one’s self.)

vimstizu s1 is a toilet for v1 to excrete v2 from
source v3 via means/route v4
vindu [vid] x1 is poisonous/venomous/toxic/a toxin to x2
vinji [vij] x1 is an airplane/aircraft [flying
vehicle] for carrying passengers/cargo x2, propelled by x3
violbasu x1 is a double bass / contrabass
violna x1 is a viola
violni x1 is a violin
violtcelo x1 is a cello
vipci’e c1 (mass) is a hierachical / subordinate
system / tree (computer science sense) interrelated by hierachical property / property determining subordinate relationships / subordination in
aspect [or organization principle] c2 = v2 (ka)
among components c3 displaying common property c4 (ka) with leaves v1 and topmost / root element v3. (Made from vipsi + ciste.)
vipkagni k1 = v1 is a subsidiary company
to k2 = v3 chartered/mandated for purpose k3.
(From vipsi, kagni. )
vipnoltru v1 = t1 is the appointed
over territory t2 representing principal v3 (Cf.
vipsi, nobli, turni, nolraitru, vliraitru, gugja’a,
truralju, trupauja’a.)
vipsi [vip] x1 is a deputy/vice/subordinate
in aspect [or organization principle] x2 (ka) to
principal x3. (Also assistant, adjutant
vipygu’e g1 = v1 is a state/province/canton of
federal state v3
virnu [vri] x1 is brave/valiant/courageous
in activity x2 (event) by standard x3
virske s1=v1 is virology of viruses s2 based on
methodology s3. (Virology is the study of viruses.
visfa’i f1 = v1 spots f3 = v2 under condition v.
viska [vis vi’a] x1 sees/views/perceives visually x2 under conditions x3
(adjective:) x1 is visual; x3 can include ambient lighting, background
visnda x1 is a bison of species x2
vistci t1 is an optical tool used by v1 to see v2
vitci [vit] x1 is irregular/occasional/intermittent in property/action/aspect x
vitke [vi’e] x1 is a guest/visitor of x2 at
place/event x3; x1 visits x2/x
vitno [vi’o] x1 is permanent/lasting/[eternal] in property x2 (ka) by
standard x3 [time-span/expectant one]. (Also everlasting
vizbei b1 brings cargo b2 here from x3 = b4 over path x4 = b5
vi [viz] [VA] location tense distance: here at
... ; at or a very short/tiny distance from ...
vlabacru x1 = b1 pronounces x3 = v1 as x2 =b2
vlacku c1 is a dictionary concerning c3 authored
by c3 intended for c4 in medium c5.
flaci vlagi [lag] x1 is a/the vulva [body-part] of x2
vlagri g1 is a verse/stanza with property (ka) g2
meaning v2 in language v
vlali’i l1 is a line of text defined by set of
words/string l2 meaning x3 = v2 in language
x4 = v
VLANDeren Flanders.
vlasatci s1 is verbatim/to the letter
vlasfa s1 = v1 (agent) reproaches s2 for infraction s3 (event/state/action) (from valsi sfasa)
vlaste x1 = l1 is a dictionary with words x2 =
l2 = v1 in order x3 = l3, medium x4 = l4, and
language x5 = v3. (See also: valsi, liste)
vlatai t1 is the pattern/shape of word v1 = t2
with meaning v2 in language v
vlika’a k1 (tool/blade/force) rips/tears/shreds
k2 (object) into pieces k3
vlile [vil] x1 is an event/state/act of violence
vlina x1 is a logical alternation/disjunction, stating that x2 (du’u) and/or x3 (du’u) is/are true
vlipa [vli] x1 has the power to bring about
x2 under conditions x3; x1 is powerful in aspect x2
under x3. (Also potent, has control/mastery
vliraitru tu1 = tr1 = v1 is a dictator over/in subjects/territory tu2 under conditions v
vlixlu x1 = v1 influences the power dynamics
of situation x2 = v3 towards end x3 = v2 through
means of influence x4 vlipaxlura.)
vo’a [KOhA4] pro-sumti: repeats 1st place of
main bridi of this sentence.
vo’e [KOhA4] pro-sumti: repeats 2nd place of main bridi of this sentence.
vo’i [KOhA4] pro-sumti: repeats 3rd place of main bridi of this sentence.
vo’otka x1 is a vodka distilled from x2
vo’o [KOhA4] pro-sumti: repeats 4th place of
main bridi of this sentence.
vo’u [KOhA4] pro-sumti: repeats 5th place of
main bridi of this sentence.
vofli [vol voi] x1 flies [in air/atmosphere]
using lifting/propulsion meansy
voifan x1 is a kite. (From falnu, vofli (f2, f3, v2
voikla k1 = v1 flies to destination k2 from origin
k3 to destination k4 using means/vehicle k5 = v2.
voi [NOI] non-veridical restrictive clause used
to form complicated le-like descriptions using”ke’a
voki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 4,000 expressedwith comma
voksa [vok vo’a] x1 is a voice/speechsound of individual x
voksli voice x1 = s1 = v1 of individual x3 = v2
oscillates at frequency x2 = s2.
voksnaske s2 is phonetics based on methodology s2.
voksna v1 = s1 is a vowel soun
vokygenkantu k1 is a minimal phonological
feature of language k2 = g2.
vokygenske s1 is phonology based on methodology s3.
volfanjacta’o t1=d1=f1=v1
is a board for use in water/(wind/kite)surfingboard/bodyboard/wakeboard
of material/property t2. (From tanbo, djacu, falnu,
vofli (f2, f3, v2 subsumed). See also sufingboard
(=bonjacta’o), windsurfingboard (=fanjacta’o),
wakesurfingboard (=blobonjacta’o).)
vombatu x1 is a wombat (family Vombatidae)
of species/breed x2
vomoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 4 to ordinal selbri; x1 is fourth among x2 ordered by rule
vonca’u x1 is a 4-dimensional spacetime/region occupied byy
vondei x1 is a Thursday of week x2 in calendarz
vondi’o d1 is a caltrop (tetrahedral nail) of size
d2 made of d3.
vonmasti x1 is April/the fourth month of year
x2 in calendarz
vonmast April
vonmoija’a j1 has the rank of LieutenantColonel/Commander/Wing Commander (equivalent of NATO OF-4) in military unit /organization j2
vonmomdegji m1 = d1 is the ring finger of d2.
vonono [PA*] number/quantity: 400 [four
vono [PA*] number/quantity: 40 [forty].
vonpaso x1 swindles x2 into state/event x3 by
promising x4; x1 commits 419/advance fee fraud.
(generally x1 is Nigerian, but may be in another
country; see also tcica)
vonplini p1 is the fourth closest planet (default
is Mars if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2 (default is the Sun), with planetary characteristics p3,
orbital parameters p4. (Cf. vonplin, pavyplini,
relplini et
vonplin Mars
vonseldansu d2 is quadrille music accompanying dancers d1 (individual, mass
vonseltu’e t2 is four-legged with legs t
vonynundansu n1 is a quadrille with dancers
d1 to music/rhythm d
vorlon Vorlon.
vorlu’a p1 = v1 is a passage between p2 = v2
and p3 = v3
vorme [vor vro] x1 is a doorway/gateway/access way between x2 and x3
of structure x4. (Note: emphasis on route nature;
solid door (= vrogai/vrobi’u/vrozu’itci
vo [von] [PA1] digit/number: 4 (digit)
vrabatke b1 = v1 is a switch/actuating lever
on/for item b2, with purpose b3, made of material b4. (Though there has been a great amount of
debate in Lojbanistan over the need for a lujvo as
such, I thought I would submit it anyway.)
vraga [vra] x1 is a lever [tool] [of apparatus]
for doing x2 [function/action], with fulcrum x3
and arm x4
vraike x1 is kelp of genus/species x2
vreji [rej vei] x1 is a record of x2
(data/facts/du’u) about x3 (object/event) preserved in medium x4
vrepu’i p1 lays p2 = v1 on/at surface/locus p3 =
vreta [vre] x1 lies/rests/reclines/reposes on
x2; x1 is reclining/recumbent/lying ony
vrici x1 (set/mass/ind.) is miscellaneous/various/assorted in property x2 (ka).
vricykricrutrusi’o s1 is a liberal political ideology as applied by t1 = c1 among/in people/territory/domain t2 based on the works
of thinker si3 (From vrici, krici, curmi, turni,sidbo
vricykricru c1 is liberal/open-minded with regard to beliefs k2 about subject k3 under conditions c3 vroca’o c1 = v1 is a French window/sidehinged window. (vorme canko; typically in pairs
extending to the floor
vrodarxi d1 knocks at door d2 = v1 to v
vrogai g1 is a door/gate (movable barrier) in
portal/doorway (opening) v1 = g2 between v2
and v3, in structure v
vrokoi k1 = v1 is the threshold defining access
through the boundary between k2 = v2 and k3 =
vroloi l1 is the threshold/doorsill of doorway/gateway l2 between v2 and v3 of structure v4.
sabru shabra - vruca’a c1 is a horn/buzzer/siren producing
strident noise c2 = s1, operated by c3
vrude [vud vu’e] x1 is virtuous/saintly/[fine/moral/nice/holy/morally
good] by standard x2. (Holy/saintly (= cesyvu’e).
Virtue the attribute is ”ka vrude
vrumli m1 = s1 is a squeak/creak/quiet noise
to s2
vrusi [vus vu’i] x1 (ka) is a taste/flavor
of/emitted by x2; x2 tastes of/like x1. (Also: x2
tastes of seasoning x1, x1 is a seasoned flavor of x2
(= tsapyvu’i); vrusi may overlap the senses of taste
and smell, since the latter is a significant component of tást
vu’a [FAhA1] location tense relation/direction;
west of.
vu’enai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: virtue - sin.
vu’e [UI5] attitudinal modifier: virtue - sin.
vu’izga z1 tastes v2 using taste buds z3 under
conditions z4
vu’i [LAhE] sumti qualifier: the sequence made
from set or composed of elements/components;
order is vague.
vu’o [VUhO] joins relative clause/phrase to
complete complex or logically connected sumti in
vu’u [VUhU1] n-ary mathematical operator:
minus; subtraction operator; [(((a - b) - c) - ...)].
vudvri vr1 = vi1 is a hero/heroic in doing vi2
by standard vr2 = vi3.
vudypai v1 = p1 is fair / does justice to p2 by
standard v2.
vukro [vur vu’o] x1 reflects Ukrainian language/culture/nationality in aspecy
vurbau v1 = b1 is the Ukrainian language used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
vusyga’e g1 tastes g2 = v1 (flavor) emitted by
vu [vuz] [VA] location tense distance: far
from ... ; yonder at ... ; a long distance from ...
vy [BY2] letteral for v.
xa’anzu x1 reflects Han Chinese
[Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, etc.] culture/nationality/language in aspect x
xa’arvau v1 is an envelope for/containing letter
xa1 = v2
xa’o [ZAhO] opposite of za’o: event contour:
refers to the portion of the event which occurs before the natural beginning; starting too early before ...; ¡―
xa’urbi’o b1 = xa1 settles in xa
xa’urjudri j1 is the home address of xa1 = j1
with address system j3.
xabju [xa’u] x1 dwells/lives/resides/abides
at/inhabits/is a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode x
xabmapti xa1=m1 is the mate of xa1=m2 with
property m3 in pair xa2.
xabmau x1 is most/a majority/more than half
of x2 in property x3 by amount x4 by standard x5.
xabme’a x1 is a minority/less than half of x2 in
property x3 by amount x4 by standard x
xabyxadba x1 is exactly/approximately a quarter of x2 by standazx
xacyce’a xa1 = c1 is a gun/cannon/firearm
launching projectile c2 propelled by c3, for use
against xa2 by xa3. (jvajvo definition; Gismu deep
structure is ”xarci gi’e cecla”)
xacyga’a g1 = x1 is a
club/cudgel/truncheon/bludgeon made of
g2 used against x2 by x3
xadba [xab] x1 is exactly/approximately
half/semi-/demi-/hemi- of x2 by standard x3.
xadbixma’u xa2 = b1 = m1 is adolescent/pubescent/in puberty/maturing in physical/bodily development-quality m2 (ka
Between prepubescent child and postpubescent
xadmidju x1 = m1 is the waist of x2 = m2.
xadni [xad] x1 is a/the body/corpus/corpse
of x2; (adjective:) x1 is corporal/corporea
xadycla c1 = xa1 is tall / has a long body by
standard c3. (Made from clani + xadni.)
xadykelci’e c1 is/are a/the physical sport(s) exercised/played by x2. (Cf. xadni, kelci, ciste.)
xadyplijvi j1 = xa2 competes with opponent j2
in sport/athletics j3 for gain j4 = p3
xagjijnu j1 is optimistic about j3
xagji x1 hungers for x2; x1 needs/wants
food/fuel x2
xagmau xa1 = z1 is better than z2 for xa2 bystandard xa3, by amount z4
xlame’a, xauzma, xagmau, xagrai. The canonical
form is xauzma.)
xagme’a xa1 = m1 is worse than/not as good
as m2 for xa2 by standard xa3, by amount m4
xagrai t1 = x1 is the best among set/range t4 for
x2 by standard x
xagri x1 is a oboe/clarinet/saxophone [reed
musical instrument] with reedy
xagrnklarineto x1 is a clarinet with reed x
xagrnsaksofono x1 is a saxophone with reed x2
xagryspa x1 is a reed of species/variety x
xagyfarvi f1 progresses towards f2 = x1 from
f3 through stages f4. (Cf. farvi, banro.)
xagzengau g1 (agent) improves z1 = x1 for
x2 by amount z
xagzenri’a r1 (event/state/process) improves
z1 = x1 for x2 by amount z3 under conditions r3.
xairgau g1 causes event x1 which injures/harms/damages victim x2 in property
x3 (ka) resulting in injury x4 (state xranigasnu
4 xai [KOhA] they.(repeat ¿1 preceding sumti)
(repeats two or more preceding sumti, not one plural sumti)

xazhmi [xam] x1 is funny/comical to x2 in property/aspect x3 (nu/ka); x3 is what is funny about
x1 to x2. (Also: x1 is a comedian (= xampre, xamseljibri for a professional comedian). (x1 can be a person/object or an abstraction; be careful about
possible sumti-raising
xajycmo c1 = x1 is a/the grunt of a
pig/hog/swine of species x2 expressing c3 (property
xajyzbi z1 is the snout of pig/hog/swine/[boar]
z2 = x1 of species x2, with nostril(s)/nasal passage(s) z3
xaki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 6,000 expressed
with comma.
xaksu [xak] x1 (event) uses
up/depletes/consumes/[wastes] x2 [resource].
(Waste (= fesxaksu, dusxaksu
xalbarja x1 = b1 is a saloon/pub/bar primarily serving alcoholic beverages to x2 = b3.
xalbebna x1 is drunk/tipsy in manner x2 from
drinking x3 (alcohol).
xalbo x1 uses levity/is non-serious/frivolous
about x2 (abstraction). (See also junri, linto.)
xalkai xa1 = c1 is alcoholic of alcohol type xa2
from source/process xa3.
xalka [xal] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of alcohol of type x2 from source/procesx
xalni x1 (person) is panicked by crisis x2(event/stat
xalnunvindu n1 is alcohol poisoning of x2 = v2
from alcohol type x3 = xa2.
xalpixydu’e p1 drinks to much alcohol of type
p2 from p3 by standard d3; p1 is a drunk (from
xalka pinxe dukse c.f. xalbebna)
xalsixa x1 pertains to the Sikh culture/religion/ethos in aspect x2
xalvamtu v1 throws up v2 due to alcohol of type
xamgau g1 does/brings about event/state g2 =
xa1 which is funny/comical to xa2 in property/aspect xa3 (nu/ka).
xamcv xac xav qh x d objeto/ev good/beneficial/nice/[acceptable] for x2 by
standard x3. (Acceptable (= mlixau, norxau,
xamoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 6 to ordinal selbri; x1 is sixth among x2 ordered by rulez
xampo [xap xa’o] x1 is x2 ampere(s) [metric
unit] in current (default is 1) by standard x
xamsi [xas] x1 is a
sea/ocean/gulf/[atmosphere] of planet x2, of
fluid x3; (adjective:) x1 is marine. (Also atmosphere (= varxamsi, varsenta
xamsku x1 tells/expresses joke x2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience x3
via expressive medium x4. (Cf. zdilisri.)
xanbau b1 is a Signed Language used by x2 = b2
to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not quote).
((x1) ”Sign Language” in the sense of visually
transmitting patterns using hands, arms, body,
and facial expression to convey meaning. (i.e.,
Manual communication, body language.) (x2)
”Sign Language speaker.” (x3) ”thing expressed in
Sign Language
xance [xan xa’e] x1 is a/the hand [bodypart] of x2; [metaphor: manipulating tool, waldo].
((adjective:) x1 is manual. See also birka, degji,
xancidja’i j1 is a bracelet adorning j2 = xa1 =
c1. (Bracelets are used not only for fashion
but also for medical and identification purposes,
such as allergy bracelets and hospital patientidentification tags
xancidni x1 = c1 is a wrist of x2 = c
xandegycalku c1 is a fingernail of finger c2 = d1
of body d3. (Cf. jgalu, degycalku, jmadegycalku,
jmatajycalku, xantajycalku.)
xangle g1 masturbates/fucks g2 with her/his
xangulu x1 is a hangul (Korean alphabet) of
xanjaisi’u s1 hold hands/are hand-in-hand
xanjirnymirli m1 = j2 is a moose/Eurasian
elk of species m2 (Alces alces noted for its handshaped antlers. See also mirlruapiti)
xanka x1 is nervous/anxious about x2 (abstraction) under conditions x
xankydji x1 = d1 is anxious/earnestly desirous
for x2 = d2 (abstract), the purpose being d
xanlai x1 is x2 handfuls in volume/amount (default is 1) by standard x3.
xanono [PA*] number/quantity: 600 [six hundred].
xano [PA*] number/quantity: 60 [sixty].
xanri [xar] x1 [concept] exists in the imagination of/is imagined by/is imaginary to x2. (Also
(adjective:) x1 is mental (one sense), x1 is unreal
(one sense); in spite of the synonym, note that x1
is imaginary does not imply that it doesn’t exist in
the real world; the definition is crafted so that one
can talk about imaginary things without claiming
that they thereby don’t exist. See also fatci, senva,
sucta, zasti, cfika, dacti, menli, sidbo.)
xanse’agle g1 = s1 = xa2 fist-fucks/performs
fisting on g2 in opening s3
xansli s1 = xa2 waves hand
xantajycalku c1 is the thumbnail of body t3 =
xantergu’i x1 = g3 is a flashlight/portable light
source for illuminating g2, emitting light form
x3 = g1
xanto x1 is an elephant of species/breed x2.
xantydenmai m1 is elephant/mammoth ivory
from species/breed xa2
xanvruzau z1 = x2 gives applause to
plan/action z2 (object/event
xarci [xac xa’i] x1 is a weapon/arms for
use against x2 by x3. (Gun/cannon (= celxa’i
xarcufu x1 is an artichoke of species/variety x2.
xarju [xaj] x1 is a pig/hog/swine/[boar]
[pork/ham/bacon-producer] of species/breed x2.
(Sow (= fetxarju), boar (= nakyxarju), pork (= xajre’u), piglet (= citxarju). See also mabru, cange.)
xarnu x1 is stubborn/willfully opposing/resisting x2 about x3 (event/state). (x2
may be a person, a state or condition, or a force;
the essence is willful resistance
xarpei p1 = x2 imagines / visualizes imaginary
subject / concept p2 = x1. (Not limited to visual
imagination. Made from xanri + pensi; technically
should be selxarpei, but I can’t see ”xanri pensi”
having any other meaning.)
xarpre xa1 = p1 is a character/role/imaginary
person created by xa2.
xaskoi k1 is a beach/coast of sea xa1 = k2 on
landmass k3.
xasli x1 is a donkey/jackass of species/breed
x2. (See also xirma, kumte.)
xasne x1 is a/the sweat/perspiration from
body x2, excreted by gland(s)/organsz
xasni’a x1 is under sea x2 in reference frame x3.
xasycurnu c1 is a sea worm of species c2
xasydanti d1 is a torpedo launched by d2
xasyjbama j1 is a sea mine with explosive material/principle j2
xasyjukni j1 is a
crustacean] of species j2
xasyske s1 is the oceanography/marine science
of planety
xas Sea
xatra [xa’a] x1 is a letter/missive/[note] to
intended audience x2 from author/originator x3
with content x4. ((cf. notci, which has places in
a different order; the emphasis in xatra is on the
communication between author and recipient, and
not the content, which in a letter may not easily be
categorized to a ’subject’; ciska, mrilu, papri))
xatsi [xat] x1 is 10

of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
xauzma xa1 = z1 is better than z2 for xa2 by
standard xa3, by amount z4
xagmau, xagrai. The xagmau form is far more frequently used.)
xavdei x1 is a Saturday of week x2 in calendarz
xavmasti x1 is June/the sixth month of year x2
in calendarz
xavmast June
xavmoija’a j1 has the rank of Brigadier
General/Brigadier/Rear Admiral/Commodore
(equivalent of NATO OF-6) in military unit
/organization j2. (Cf. xa, moi, jatna, jemja’a,
vairsoi, zelmoija’a, mumymoija’a. Based on
STANAG 2116: NATO Codes for Grades of
Military Personnel.)
xavoki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 64,000 expressed with comma.
xavyplini p1 is the sixth closest planet (default
is Saturn if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2
(default is the Sun), with planetary characteristics
p3, orbital parameters p
xavyplin Saturn
xavyrebyfagdaskycizborda’u c1 =da1 is a
Vulpix [six-tailed fox Pokemon]
xaxre x1 is x2 ares in area by standard x
xazdo [xaz zdo] x1 reflects Asiatic culture/nationality/geography in aspect x
xa [xav] [PA1] digit/number: 6 (digit) [six].
xebe’i [BAI*] benji modal, 5th place (medium)
transmitted via ...
xebni [xen xei] x1 hates/despises x2 (object/abstraction); x1 is full of hate for x2; x2 is odious to x1. (x1 is hateful (one sense); x2 is hateful
(different sense
xebro [xeb bro] x1 re
flects Hebrew/Jewish/Israeli culture/nationality/language in aspect x
xecto [xet cto] x1 is a hundred [100; of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units).
xedja [xej xe’a] x1 is a/the jaw [body-part]
of x2. (See also stedu.)
xei [PA2] digit/number: hex digit E (decimal 14) [fourteen] (Used as an alternative to rei to
avoid confusion with re.)
xejni’a c1 is a/the chin [body part] of x
xejrespa r1 = x2 is an alligator/caiman of
species/type r2 (cf. krokodilo This is family Alligatoridae.)
xejykre x1 is the beard of x2.
xeka’a [BAI*] klama modal, 5th place by transport mode ...
xekcpi c1 is a blackbird of species c
xekri [xek xe’i] x1 is black/extremely darkcolored [color adjective
xeksodva x1 is is made of/contains/is a quantity of a black/very-dark colored carbonated beverage/soda of cola-flavor, of brand x2. (Not any
black, carbonated beverage, but one with colaflavor, like Coca-Cola (=kokaKOlys), Pepsi, Julmust (=a soft drink that is mainly consumed in
Sweden around Christmas;=(sfe’ero) xisyjbenunsla xeksodva) or similar. Another flavor may
be added and expressed as a tanru, as long as
the combination doesn’t differ too much from the
characteristics of xeksodva.)
xekykrexruba x1 is ho-shou-wu/fleeceflower
of variety x
xelbe’i x5 = b1 transfers/sends/transmits x2 =
b2 to receiver x3 = b3 from transmitter/origin x4 =
b4 via means/medium x1 = b
xelbefru’e b2 (person/animal/plant) digests p2
with output p3 passing through stage p
xelbei x5 = b1 carries/hauls/bears/transports
cargo x2 = b2 to x3 = b3 from x4 = b4 over path
x1 = b5; x5 = b1 is a carrier/porter. (xe bevri)
xelbo’a x5 = b1 is a wave/periodic pattern in
medium x2 = b2, with wave-form x3 = b3, wavelength x4 = b4 and frequency x1 = b5. (xe boxna)
xelbonseljimte j2 is a radio band with borders
xeljutsi x1 is a class [biology] with genus x2,
family x3, order x4, and with species x5. (For
biological cathegory in general (=mivyske klesi),
domain (=?), kingdom (=seljimcymivykle), phylum (=jicymivykle), class (=this definition), order (=veljutsi), family (=terjutsi), genus (=seljutsi),
species (=jutsi).)
xelkla Using means/vehicle x1, to x2, from x3,
via x4, goes x5.
xelso [xes] x1 reflects Greek/Hellenic culture/nationality/language in aspect x
xelvetik Switzerland. (Cf. gugdrxelvo, gugdecuxe, xelvet.)
xelveto x1 is Swiss in aspect x2.
xelvet Switzerland. (Cf. gugdrxelvo, gugdecuxe, xelvetik.)
xendo [xed xe’o] x1 (person) is kind to x2
in actions/behavior x
xenru [xer xe’u] x1 regrets/rues (abstraction) x2; x1 is regretful/rueful/sorry/[remorseful]
about x2. (Also: x1 feels remorse about x2 (= zugyxe’u). (cf. cmavo list .u’u, zungi))
xesygu’e x1 is Greece. (Cf. gugdeguru.)
xexso [xex] x1 is 10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
xe [xel] [SE] 5th conversion; switch 1st/5th
xilbate x1 is a gibbon of species x2. (cf. smani)
xilbati x1 is a gibbon of species x2

xilcelxa’i xa1 = c1 is an artillery gun for use
against xa2 by xa3, launching projectile c2 propelled by c3
xilckabu c1 = xi3 is a wheel tyre/tire. (The rubber source can be expressed with ”ra’i ...”, the composition with ”ma’e ...”.)
xiljamkarce k1 is a military armoured car
propelled by k
xilta’o t1=xi1 is a board with
[default skateboard], of material/property t2 with
wheels [material/property] xi3. (From tanbo,
djacu, boxna (b2-b5 subsumed). Also longboard
(=clani xilta’o), streetboard, snakeboard etc.)
xinbau x1 = b1 is the Hindi language used by b2
to communicate b3 (Cf. xindo, bangu, banxe’inu.)
xindo [xin] x1 reflects Hindi language/culture/religion in aspect x2. (Defaults to
not include Urdu; Indian (Bharat) nationality may
be implied (when constrained by xingu’e)
xinglibau x1 = g1 = b1 is the Indian English
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
xingu’e x1 = g1 is Indi
xinmo [xim] x1 is a quantity of ink of
color/pigment x2 used by writing device x
xin Indian Ocean.
xiptamu x1 is a hippopotamus of species/breedx
xircmo c1 neighs.
xirdegmei m1 is a mass of set m2 with an odd
number of members m3 (see also landegmei)
xirgana x1 is a hiragana (Japanese syllabary) of sound x2
xirma [xir xi’a] x1 is a
of species/breed x2. ((adjective:) x1 is
xirno’i x1 is a noble with nobility standard x2.
xirsoi s1 is a horse cavalryman of army s2. (Cf.
xirma, sonci, dzusoi.)
xirzda z1 is a stable for
horse/equine/[colt/mare/stallion/pony] z2 = x1
of species/breed x2 (c.f. cagdaidi’u)
xislivnunsla n1 is Easter celebrated by s1 with
activities s3 (from xriso cliva nu salci c.f. xisyjbenunsla)
xislu [xil xi’u] x1 is a wheel [tool] of device/vehicle x2, made of materials/having properties x3. xispo [xip] x1 reflects Hispano-American
culture/nationalities in aspect x2. (Refers to
Spanishspeaking LatinAmerican countries, notBrazil/Guyana
xisyjbecte n1 is Christmas Eve of Christmas
Day n2 at location n3. (Cf. xisyjbenunsla, xisyjbedetri.)
xisyjbedetri d1 is Christmas Day at location d3
in calendar d4. (c.f. xisyjbenunsla, xisyjbecte)
xisyjbenunsla n1 is the Christmas celebrated by
s1 with activities s3. (Cf. xisyjbedetri, xisyjbecte,
xislivnunsla, cmuxi’ojbetersla.)
xi [XI] subscript; attaches a numer of letteral
string following as a subscript onto grammar
xladji d1 is spiteful/malevolent/malicious/mean to/towardx
xlafri x1 suffers from x2 (event, process, object).
xlafu’a f1 = xl1 is unlucky/unfortunate for
f2 = xl2 by standerd xl3.
xlajijnu j1 is pessimistic about j3. (Cf. xlali, jijnu, xlajijnu, tradutxu’a.)
xlali [xla] x1 is bad for x2 by standard x3; x1
is poor/unacceptable to x2. (Be careful to distinguish between a bad/unacceptable event, and a
bad/unacceptable agent: x1 does poorly (= lenu
ko’a gasnu cu xlali and not normally ko’a xlali).
See also palci, mabla, xamgu, betri.)
xlamau x1 = m1 is worse than m2 for x2 by
standard x3, by amount m
xlame’a x1=m1 is better/[less bad] than m2 for
x2 by standard x3, by amount m4. (Cf. mleca, xlali,
traji, xagmau, xlamau, xlarai, mecyxlarai. )
xlamu’ijijnu j1 is cynical/suspicious about the
motives of m3 with regard to action/event m2 =j
xlarai t1 = x1 is the worst among set/range t4
for x2 by standard x3. (Cf. xlali, traji, xlamau.)
xlati’a t1 = xl1 is bad weather at place/region
t2 for x3 = xl2 by standard x4 = xl3. (Cf. carvi,
xlima’i x1 is September of year x2 in calendar
x3. (Cf. sozymasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
xlura [xlu] x1 (agent) influences/lures/tempts x2 into action/state x3
by influence/threat/lure x4. (Also impresses; x4
is alluring (= trivelxlu for place reordering); x3
may be an achieved action/state, or an attempt to
perform an action/enter a state). (x3 and x4 are
normally events or states); See also djica, mukti,
trina, jitro, sazri, tcica, xance, stidi, kajde, maksi.)
4 xo’a [XOhA] Loglan toggle: Toggles the nekst text
4 xo’e [LE] Generic article: simply converts a
selbri to a sumti. (Avoids obligatory marking for
veridicality and quantity. Under xorlo, this is identical to lo.)
xod Xod. (A name used by Charles Hope.)
4 xoi [ROI / NA]
emph1. to the degree of...When prefixed by a
number, turns the number into a selbri that expresses some truth value between zero and one,
emph2. it may or may not be the case that ...
(This experimental cmavo form has been assigned
meanings several times independently. The first
sense, suggested on the Lojban Wiki by Xod, generalizes na and ja’a by creating a scale between
them. This can be seen as an implementation
of fuzzy logic. This sense has now been retired
in favor of subscripting ja’a with xi. The other
sense, apparently invented by Nora Lechevalier
some time earlier (at least before 1997), is not intended seriously, but rather as a kind of reductioad-absurdum. As it makes any sentence true, regardless of the content, it shows that a language
that is excessively free to interpretation is impossible to express anything in.)
xomxeci x1 is an ocotillo of species x2
xonkon Hong Kong
xonxoli x1 is sesame of species/variety x
xorjina x1 is a saddlebag/pair of saddlebags to
use on animal/vehicle x2.
xorxes Jorge.
xotli [xol xoi] x1 is a hotel/inn/hostel at location x2 operated by x3. (See also barja, gusta.)
xo [PA5] digit/number: number/digit/lerfu
xrabo [rab] x1 reflects rabic-speaking culture/nationality in aspect x2
xraci’a c1 = p3 draws picture c2 = p1 on
medium c3 = p4 with implement c4 depicting
p2. (Cf. pixra, ciska, xraselci’a, xratai, kacmyxra,
kacmyterxra, kacmyxragau, kacmyxrazu’e. )
xrakarni k1 = p4 is an illustrated magazine/journal with content k2 = p1 published by
k3 for audience k4.
xrani [xai] x1 (event) injures/harms/damages victim x2 in property
x3 (ka) resulting in injury x4 (state). (Also hurts.
xraselci’a c2 = p1 is drawn by artist c1 = p3
on medium c3 = p4 using implement c4 depicting p2. (Cf. pixra, ciska, xraci’a, xratai, kacmyxra,
kacmyterxra, kacmyxragau, kacmyxrazu’e. )
xratai t1 = p1 is an image of t2 = p2 created by
agent p3 on medium p4. (Cf. pixra, tarmi.)
xrebau b1 = m1 = s1 is creole used by b2 to
express/communicate b3, created from sources including m2. (Cf. sapxrebau.)
xremi’i x1 = min1 is a blender/mixer for ingredients x2 = mix2 to produce mixture x3 = mix1.
xrison Christ.
xriso [xis xi’o] x1 pertains to the Christian
religion/culture/nationality in aspect x
xrisrbiblia x1 is the Christian Bible of Christian
denomination x2
xrixruba x1 is buckwheat of variety x not necesi for nn nn ni kaciranaji di alle losvt ma xuh rok dea
xruba [xub] x1 is a quantity of buckwheat/rhubarb/sorrel grass of species/strainx
xrubei b1 = x1 takes/carries back b2 = x2 to
origin/earlier state b3 = x3 from b4 = x4 over path
xrucpe c1 requests/asks c2 to go back/return
to x2 from x3. (Cf. xruti, cpedu. Based on proposed redefinition of xruti by xorxes: x1 returns to
x2 from x3.)
xrugau g1 causes x1 to return to state x2 from
state x3. (Cf. xruti, gasnu. Based on proposed
redefinition of xruti by xorxes: x1 returns to state
x2 from state x3.)
xruki [xuk] x1 is a turkey [food/bird] of
species/breed x2. (See also cipni.)
xrukla x1 = xr1 = xr2 = k1 returns to earlier
location x2 = xr3 = k2 from x3 = xr4 = k3 via
route x4 = k4 using means/vehicle x5 = k
xrula [rul] x1 is a/the
flower/blossom/bloom [body-part] ofplant/species x2; (adjective:) x1 is floral
xrulnranunkulu x1 is a quantity of ranunculus/buttercup/spearwort/water crowfoot of
species/strain x2 (Cf. matnyxrula.)
xrulrlavandula x1 is a quantity of lavender of
species/strain x2
xruti [xru] x1 (agent) returns x2
to origin/earlier state x3 from x4; x1
moves/gives x2 back to x3 from x4. (x2 goes
back/reverts/Retreats. to x3 (= se’ixru for agent
self-returning to a previous location/situation:
renumber places in the lujvo); (x3 may be a location or a person or an event/situation; the latter
may also be expressed with krefu or rapli and
a causative like rinka/rikygau
xrvatsk Croatia.
xu’icmu x1 is an element of compound x2.
xukmi [xum xu’i] x1 is an instance of substance/chemical/drug x2 (individual or mass)
with purity x
xukske x1 is meleagrology based on methodology x2.
xulbuktci x1 = t1 is an iron for straightening
cloths x2 = b1 = xu1 of material x3 = b2.
xumjimcelxa’i x1 = c1 is a gun/chemically
launched metal slug throwing weapon for use
against x2 by x3; weapon fires metallic objects
x4 using chemical propellant x5. (Cf. xilcelxa’i, mi’ircelxa’i, clacelxa’i, janjaknyxa’i, celgunta. Made from xukmi + jinme + cecla + xarci.)
xumrkonkreto x1 is a quantity of concrete made
from ingredients x2.
xumske x1 is chemistry based on methodology
xumsle s1 is a molecule of chemical x
xumsutri’a r1 = x1 catalyzes chemical reaction
r2 = s2 under conditions r3. (Cf. sutri’a, selfusra.)
xumtau t1 is a chemical compound of t2 and t3.
xunblabi b1 = x1 is pink. (Cf. xunre, blabi,
xunre [xun xu’e] x1 is red/crimson/ruddy
[color adjective]. (See also skari, blabi, xekri,
kandi, carmi, nukni, narju, rozgu, zirpu.)
xurbau x1 = b1 is the Urdu language used by b2
to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not quote).
xurdo [xur xu’o] x1 reflects Urdu language/culture/nationality in aspect x
xusra [xus xu’a] x1 (agent) asserts/claims/declares x2 (du’u) is true [can
be used for epistemology of authority]. (Also:
x1 states/says that/affirms/purports to know
that x2. (cf. natfe which is propositional and
non-agentive, nupre))
xusxusu x1 is vetiver of species/variety x2.
xutla [xul] x1 is smooth/even/[soft/silky] in

xu discursive: true-false question
xvgkog Hong Kong
exy letter x
y’y [BY2] letteral for ’.
ybu [BY*] letteral for y.
y [Y] hesitation noise; maintains the floor while
speaker decides what to say next.
za’ai [ZI] time tense distance: an unspecified
distance in time (Used to express a time distance
without specifying any subjective notion about its
size. May typically be used in a question when the
subjective notion is not known
za’a [UI2] evidential: I observe
za’e [BAhE] forethought nonce-word indicator; indicates next word is nonce-creation and may
be nonstandard.
za’i [zaz] [NU1] abstractor: state (event) abstractor; x1 is continuous state of [bridi] being true.
za’o [za’o] [ZAhO] interval event contour:
continuing too long after natural end of ...; superfective ― ―-¿.
za’umai [MAI*] discursive: further utterance
za’ure’u [ROI*] again; in addition to the firsttime; for the (¿ 1)th time
za’u [PA3] digit/number: greater than
zabna [zan za’a] x1 is a favorable connotation/sense/wayoflooking-at x2 used byz
zacfoncu’u c1 the telemarketing business/activity/function forgoods/products/services/activities z2
zacpanka p1 = z1 is a market
place/square/area managed by p2 for selling/trading z2 by traders z3
zaglamtu’e t1 is the thigh of t2 = z2. (The
thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee
Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb
zaircu’u c1 is a marketing/business/activity/function for goods/products/services/activities z2
zairsnucu’u c1 is the marketing communications business/activity/function
supporting the sales/promotion of goods/products/services/activities z2
zaisle z1 = s1 is a shop/store of market/mall
s2, selling x3 = z2, operated by x4 = z3
zai [LAU] 2-word letteral/shift: alternate alphabet selector follows.
zajba [zaj] x1 is a gymnast at/performs gymnastics featy
zalgosu x1 is a spiny anteater of speciy
zaltapla t1 is a patty of ground/pulverized material t2 = z2, shape t3, thickness t4.
zalvi [zal] x1 [individual or mass of hard surfaces] grinds/pulverizes/crushes x2 into powder
x3. (May need mosra tanru
zanbebna b1 is na¨ıve about z
zancimstu s1 = c1 = z1 is an oasis.
zanfri l1 = z3 enjoys z1 = l2.
zanfu’a f1 = z2 (event/property) is determined
by the good luck/fortune of f2. (Cf. zabna, funca,
zanru [zar zau] x1 approves of/gives favor
to plan/action x2 (object/ev
zanselfu’a f2 is lucky/fortunate in f1 = z2(event/propert
zanvi’e x1 is welcomed by x2 to place/event x3.
zarci [zac zai] x1 is a market/store/exchange/shop(s) selling/trading
(for) x2, operated by/with participants x3. (Also:
mall, marketplace, shopping center, cooperative,
bazaar, trading post, mart; the concept is the
function of selling/exchanging coupled with
a location, and is more oriented to the larger
concept of marketplace than the stalls/shops
that comprise it, though it does not exclude the
latter individual shops (= zaisle); x3 may include
both owners/proprietors and customers in some markets, but in most contexts refers only to theoperators
zarcpa z1 = c1 accepts z2 = c2 (object/event)
from source c3
zargu [zag za’u] x1 is a/the buttock(s)/arse/rear/seat [body-part] of x2;
[metaphor: rounded surface, support]. (Also
ass, behind, butt. See also ganxo, mabla.)
zasmo’isro s1 is temporary memory for fact(s)
s2 = m2 in containment s3.
zasni [zas] x1 is temporary/not permanent/expected to change in property x2 (ka) by
standard/expectant x3. (Also transient
zasti [zat za’i] x1 exists/is
real/actual/reality for x2 under metaphysicsz
ords usable for epistemology typically have
a du’u place. x1 is physical (one sense
zasysti s1 pauses/temporarily halts activity/process/state s2
zasyve’u x1 rents x2
[goods/service/commodity] to x3 for cost x4
for duration x5 (Cf. zasni, vecnu)
zatfa’i f1 discovers the existence of x2 = z1 under metaphysics z3.
zatra’i r1 = z1 exists over interval r2. (r1 = z1 is
r2 years/days etc. old. Not restricted to biological
zausku c1 = z1 praises z2 (object/event) for audience c3 via expressive medium c4.
zau [BAI] zanru modal, 1st place approved by
za [ZI] time tense distance: medium distance in
zbabu [bab] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of soap from source x2 of composition includingz
zbacu’u c1 is a/the production/building/assembling function/activities
involving person(s) c2 = z1(ind./mass) making/building/assembling z2 out of z3
zbafavycu’u c1 is/are the function/activities involving persons c2 developing products f2 = z2
made by z1; c1 is product development
zbagundi g1 is a/the industry sector of z1 building/assembling/constructing g2 = z2 z3 = g3
zbani x1 is a bay in/of coast/shoreliney
zbaske s1 is the engineering/technologyof/behind products z2 made of materials/parts/components z3 zbasu [zba] xmakes/assembles/builds/manufactures/creates
x2 out of materials/parts/components x3.
(Should not be used to express causation
zbepi [zbe] x1 is a
pedestal/base/stand/pallet supporting x2
(object/event), of materials/properties x3. (Pallet
(= lafyzbe). See also jamfu, jicmu, jubme, tuple,
ckana, cpana, loldi, sanli.)
zbibu’u b1 is a handkerchief of type/material b2.
zbikre k1 is a/are whisker(s)/hair on/in the
nose of k2 = n2
zbisakci s1 sniffles fluid/gas/powder s2through the neus
zbiseljirna z2 = j2 is a
rhinoceros of species/type x2 (from
zbisnava’u v1 breathes gas v2 producing nasal
sound; v1 snort
zdabartu b1 is outdoors
zdacau c1 is homeles
zdacravro v1 is a hall door/front door of
nest/house/lair/den v2 = z1 = c2.
zdadi’u x1 is a building that is the
house/home/nest/den of/for x
zdane’i n1 is indoors
zdani [zda] xnest/house/lair/den/[home] of/for x2. (Home
(= tercnizda), house (constructed building) (=
zdase’u s1 is a house servant in/of house z1
owned by person s2 = z2
tzvvdasti dea zdasta s1 = z2 stays home/is nidicolous.
zdicaudri z2 = c1 = b1 is bored, lacking amusement c2 = z1.
zdifanza f1 = z1 (event) teases f2 = z2.
zdigau x1 = g1 entertains (agentive) x3 = z2
with x2 = z1; g1 makes z1 entertaining/amusing
for z2 in property/aspect z3
zdile [zdi] x1 (abstract) is amusing/entertaining to x2 in property/aspect x3;
x3 is what amuses x2 about x1. (Also: x1 occupies
x2 pleasantly; x1 is fun for x2; x2 is amused by
x1; x2 has fun (at) doing x1; x1 is an amusement/entertainment/game for x
zdilisri l1 = z1 is an anecdote/funny story/joke
about plot/subject/moral l2 by storyteller l1 to audience l4 = z2, amusing in aspect x5 = z
zdipanka p1 is a park managed by
polity/community p2 for use by z2, with
amenities/amusements z
zdiraxa x1 is a chinaberry of variety x
zdokumte x1 is a Bactrian camel of breed x2.
zdotu’a z1 = t1 is Asia
zduriane x1 is a durian (Durio zibethinus) of
ze’aba [ZEhA*] time tense: a medium time interval offset towards the future; (tense/modal).
ze’aca [ZEhA*] time tense: a medium time interval spanning the present; (tense/modal).
4 ze’ai [ZEhA] time tense interval: an unspecified amount of time (Used to express a duration
without specifying any subjective notion about its
length. May typically be used in a question when
the subjective notion is not known
ze’apu [ZEhA*] time tense: a medium time interval offset towards the past; (tense/modal).
ze’a [ZEhA] time tense interval: a medium
length of time.
4 ze’ei [ZEhEI] nonce word with existing
grammar (Binds two arbitrary words together to
form a nonce word whose semantics are indicated
by the left word and whose grammar is the same
as that of the right word. Useful for creating function words without having to allocate experimental cmavo forms.)
ze’erpezytricu x1 is an evergreen tree of
species/variety x2. (see also pezyfaltricu, ckunu)
ze’e [ze’e] [ZEhA] time tense interval: the
whole of time.
ze’i zei seldejni d2 is/are the short-term indebtedness/liabilities of company/corporation/firm
d1 to creditor(s) d3 for the provision of goods /services/loans d4. (Cf. ze’i, dejni, zei, seldejni, kagyseldejni, ze’u zei seldejni, terdejni, paurseldejni,
ze’i [ZEhA] time tense interval: an instantaneous/tiny/short amount of time.
ze’o [zev ze’o] [FAhA4] location tense relation/direction; beyond/outward/receding from
ze’u zei seldejni d2 is/are the long-term indebtedness/liabilities of company/corporation/firm
d1 to creditor(s) d3 for the provision of goods /services/loans d
ze’u [ZEhA] time tense interval: a long amount
of time.
zei [ZEI] joins preceding and following words
into a lujvo.
zeki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 7,000 expressed
with comma.
zekri [zer zei] x1 (event/state) is
a punishable crime/[taboo/sin] to people/culture/judges/jury x2. (Taboo (= kluzei,
cacyzei); sin (= madzei, jdamadzei); heresy (=
zeldei x1 is a Sunday of week x2 in calendar x3.
zelmasti x1 is July/the seventh month of year
x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti, nanca.)
zelmast July. (Cf. mlajukma’i, zelmasti.)
zelmoija’a j1 has the rank of Major General/Rear Admiral/Air Vice-Marshal (equivalent
of NATO OF-7) in military unit /organization j2.
(Cf. ze, moi, jatna, jemja’a, vairsoi, bivmoija’a,
xavmoija’a. Based on STANAG 2116: NATO
Codes for Grades of Military Personnel.)
zelplini p1 is the seventh closest planet (default
is Uranus if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2
(default is the Sun), with planetary characteristics p3, orbital parameters p4. (Cf. zelplin, pavyplini, relplini et
zelplin Uranus. (Cf. zelplini.)
192zerxai zgike
zemoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 7 to ordinal selbri; x1 is seventh among x2 ordered by
rule x3.
zenba [zen ze’a] x1 (experiencer) increases/is incremented/augmented in property/quantity x2 by amount x
zengau x1 increases/augments x2 (experiencer)
in property/quantity x3 by amount x
zenono [PA*] number/quantity: 700 [seven
zeno [PA*] number/quantity: 70 [seventy].
zenri’a r1 (event/state) increases/increments/augments x2 = z1 in property/quantity x3 = z2 by amount x4 = z3
zepti [zep] x1 is quantum 10 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
zerfu’e x1 is guilty of crime x2 accountable to
judge/authority x3. (Cf. zernalfu’e.)
zerfuzyxu’a x1 accuses x2 of charge/crime x3
before judge/authority x
zergau g1 (person/agent) commits a crime g2 =
z1, punishable to people/culture/judges/jury
x3 = z2. (Cf. zerxaigau, zerxai.)
zerjbera j1 borrows j2 from j3 without permission of z2.
zerkalte k1 is a poacher on prey/quarry/game
k2, punishable to people/culture/judges/jury
x3 = z2.
zerle’a l1 steals l2 from l3, which is a crime according to z2.
zermbeto x1 is zerumbet/shell ginger of
species/variety x2. (This is Alpinia zerumbet. Zingiber zerumbet (awapuhi) is krelu’i zingibero
zernalfu’e f1 is innocent/not guilty of crime
x2 = f2 = z1 (action/state) to judge/authority f3.

zerxaigau g1 commits a violent crime g2 = z1 =
xr1, injuring/harming/damaging victim x3 = xr2
in property x4 = xr3 (ka), resulting in injury x5 =
xr4. (Cf. zergau, zerxai.)
zerxai xr1 = z1 is a violent crime, injuring/harming/damaging victim xr2 in property
xr3 (ka), resulting in injury xr4. (Cf. zergau, zerxaigau.)
zetro [zet] x1 is 10 21
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units
zevykla k1 comes/goes out/forth towards destination k2 from origin k3 via route k4 using
means/vehicle k5. (Cf. ze’o, klama, barkla.)
ze [zel] [PA1] digit/number: 7 (digit)
zgamuvjga x1 is the parallax of x2 as seen by x3
who moves to x4 from x5 (Cf. kesyske)
zgana [zga] x1 observes/[notices]/watches/beholds x2 using senses/means x3 under conditions
x4. (Behold/watch/gaze (= vi’azga);
guard/watchman/sentinel (= zgaku’i, jdeku’i).
zgatirna t1 = z1 listens to t2 = z2 against background noise t3 under conditions z4. (Cf. tinju’i.)
zgavinji v1 is a surveillance aircraft of type/for
carrying v2, propelled by v
zgica’a x1 = c1 is a musical instrument played
by x2 = c3. (Cf. zgike, cabra.)
zgifau f1 is a musical event with music x2 = z1
performed/produced by x3 = z2 (event).
zgifi’i f1 composes music f2 = z1 for purpose
zgigri x1 = z2 = g1 is a band that has members
x2 and plays music x3 = z1. (See also zgike, girzu)
zgika’usni s1 is a music note (symbol). (Cf.
zgike, kantu, sinxa, zgika’u, zgica’a.)
zgika’u k1 is a music note (tone). (Cf. zgike,
kantu, zgika’usni.)
zgikabri k1 is a glass harp/musical glass, performed by z2 (event).
zgike [zgi gi’e] x1 is music performed/produced by x2 (event). (x2 event
may be person playing instrument, singing, musical source operating/vibrating, etc.; instrument
(= zgica’a); play an instrument (= zgica’apli,
zgiterca’a, selzgigau, selzgizu’e); song (= sagzgi,
zildatni zmajavdu’i
selsa’a); voice, as used musically (= zgivo’a);
composed music (= finzgi
zgipli x1 = p1 plays x3 = z1 on x2 = p
zgirpopu x1 is a form of pop music performed
by x2 with characteristics x
zgiselfi’i f2 = z1 is a musical composition composed by f1for function/purpose f3 from existing
elements/ideas f
zgiske s1 is musicology with methodology s2.
zgitci t1 is a music instrument used for producing sound t2 = z1. (Cf. zgike, tutci.)
zgoptera x1 is a damselfly of species x
zi’ejva j1 is the right for z1 to do z2
zi’erbi’o z1 = b1 becomes free to do/be x2
(event/state) under conditions x
zi’evla v1 is a fu’ivla-form word meaning v2 (in
Lojban); v1 is morphologically a fu’ivla. (Generalization of fu’ivla to include non-borrowings;
specialization of fu’ivla to exclude non-Lojban
zi’ezva j1 is the right for z1 to do z2
(event/state). (Cf. zifre, javni, selzi’e, nunzi’e,
kamyzi’e, rarzi’ejva, prezi’ejva.)
zi’e [ZIhE] joins relative clauses which apply to
the same sumti.
zi’o [zil] [KOhA7] pro-sumti: fills a
sumti place, deleting it from selbri place structure;changes selbri semantics.
zifcru x1 releases x2 to do/be x3 under conditions x4. (Cf. zifre, curmi, toljgari.)
zifre [zif zi’e] x1 is free/at liberty to do/which'd be x2 event/state under conditions x3. (Also unrestricted, unfettered, unconstrained; (adjective:) independent; (adverb:) willingly, voluntarily, freely,
may, optionally; (potential:) x1 voluntarily does
x2. See also pinfu, rinju, bilga, curmi, kakne, frili.)
zifyje’a z1 = j1 is a sovereign state having
supreme, independent authority over j2 (people/territory). (Cf. jecta.)
zigzagi z1 is a line with the shape of a zigzag.
zildatni x1=d1 is information gathered/produced by method/from source x2=d3.
(not necessarily meaningful or about anything)
zilfadni f2 (ka) is an ordinary / common / general / typical / usual property among f3. (Made of
zi’o + fadni. See also kampu for the fully-universal
zilkancu x1 numbers/adds up to/consists of x2
(number) counting by units x3; x1 are x2 in number.
zilpa’a x1 has probability x2 of occurrin
ziltau t1 is a tanru component
zimbabues Zimbabwe. (Cf. zimbabu.)
zimbabu x1 is Zimbabwean in aspect x
zingibero x1 is ginger of species x
zinki [zin zi’i] x1 is a quantity
of/contains/is made of zinc (Zn); [metaphor:
hard metal]. (See also jinme.)
zipcpi x1 = dzipo1 = cipni1 is a penguin of
species x2 = cipni2.
ziptu’a d1 = t1 is Antarctica (from dzipo tumla
c.f.zdotu’a rontu’a tcotu’a sralytu’a frikytu’a bemtu’a)
zirjbo l1 is bad Lojban.
zirpu [zir zi’u] x1 is purple/violet [color
zirxu’e x1 = z1 is crimson/carmine/ruby/cerise/deep red
zivle [ziv vle] x1 (agent) invests resources
x2 in investment x3 expecting return/profit x4 (object(s)/event). ([also ties up/Risks/gambles. x1
is an investor; x2 are invested assets of x1; bond
(= jertervle
zi [ZI] time tense distance: instantaneous-toshort distance in time.
zmadu [zma mau] x1 exceeds/is more
than x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni) by
amount/excess x4. (Also positive (= nonmau).
zmajavdu’i x1 is greater than or equal to x2 in
property/quantity x3 by amount/excess x4. (See
also su’o)

zmana’u z1 = n1 is a positive number relative to
origo z2. (Cf. ni’u, nonmecna’u, fatna’u, mecna’u,
nonmau, ma’u.)
zmanei n1 prefers n2 = z1 over z2, because of
property/quantity z3, by margin z4
zmiku [zmi] x1 is automatic in function x2 under conditionsz
zo’a [zon zo’a] [FAhA4] location tense relation/direction; tangential to/passing by ...

zo’ei [LAhE] Something associated with;
equivalent to ”zo’e pe”. (There are a lot of cases
where people use ”tu’a” where they actually mean
zo’ei; once I noticed the usefulness of such a word
to elide whole chunks of sentences, I started wanting it all the time. -camgusmis)
zo’e [KOhA7] pro-sumti: an elliptical/unspecified value; has some value which
makes bridi true.
zo’i [zor zo’i] [FAhA4] location
tense relation/direction; nearer than .../inward/approaching from ...
zo’obu [BY*] letteral: humor symbol, ”:-)” and
its related forms expressing humor (letteral).
zo’ocu’i [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: humorously - dully - seriously.
4 zo’oi [ZOhOI] quote next non-Lojban word
only; quotes a single non-Lojban word delimited
by pauses (in speech) or whitespace (in writing)
zo’onai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: humorously - dully - seriously.
zo’o [UI5] attitudinal modifier: humorously -
dully - seriously. (See also xajmi, junri.)
zo’u [ZOhU] marks end of logical prenex quantifiers/topic identification and start of sentence
zoi [ZOI] delimited non-Lojban quotation; the
result treated as a block of text.
zo [ZO] quote next word only; quotes a single

zu’a [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
leftwards/to the left of ...
zu’edji z1 = d1 intends/wishes to do z2 = d2 for
z3 = d3.
zu’e [BAI] zukte modal, 1st place (purposed
agent) with goal-seeking actor ...
zu’i [KOhA7] pro-sumti: the typical sumti
value for this place in this relationship; affects
truth value.
zu’o [zum] [NU1] abstractor: activity (event)
abstractor; x1 is abstract activity of [bridi] composed of x2.
zu’unai [UI*3] discursive: on the one hand - on
the other hand.
zu’u [UI3] discursive: on the one hand - on the
other hand. (See also karbi, frica, dukti)
zugyxu’a z1 = xu1 confesses guilt about z2 (abstraction).
zuKAM common cold
zukpei z1 = p1 is a volitional thinker consdering taking action z2 = p2 toward end/goal z3 (cf.
zukte, pensi, bavgaupei)
zukselpla p2 = z2 is a policy of p3 = z3 (nu)
prescribed by p1.
zuksi’a s1 = z1 honors s2 with action z2.
zuktadji t1 is the manner of action t2 = z2 under
condition t3
zuktce m1 = z1 is [busy doing]/[working hard
at] z2 for purpose/goal z3
zukte [zuk zu’e] x1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x2 for purpose/goal
x3/to end x3. (Also acting at, undertaking, doing; agentive cause with volition/purpose; also
x3 objective, end
zukti’i s1 gives advice z2 to s3 = z
zuktruci’e c1 = t1 = z1 is the executive branch of the government of people/territory/domain/subjects t2 of organizational type c2 with components c
zukybajra b1 = z1 goes jogging on surface b2
for purpose z3. (To run volitionally and steadily,
especially for exercise.)
zukyka’e k1 has volition/is a volitional entity.
zulxa’e xa1 = z1 is a/the left hand of xa2 = z2,
which faces/in-frame-of-reference z3
zumri [zmu] x1 is a quantity of maize/corn[grain] of species/strainy
zungi [zug] x1 feels guilt/remorse about x2(abstraction
zunle [zul] x1 is to the left/left-hand side ofx2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3. (Also x3 is the standard of orientation fory
zunsna s1 is a consonant sound made by articulation z1 (event/state).
zunti [zun zu’i] x1 (evt./state) interferes
with/hinders/disrupts x2 (evt./state/process)
due to quality x3 (ka). (Also blocks, obstructs,
baffles; not necessarily forcing cessation
zutse [zut tse] x1 sits [assumes sitting position] on surfacy
zu [ZI] time tense distance: long distance itime
zvacpe c1 requests/invites z1 = c3 [to attend]/[be present at] z2 (event/location) in manner/form c4
zvafa’i x1 = facki1 finds/locates x2 = zvati1 =
facki3 (object) at x3 = zvati2 (event/location) ((=
zvaste l1 is a list/catalog/register of objects/events l2 = z1 (sequence/set) present
at/attending x3 = z2 (event/location).
zvati [zva] an object/event is at//present at x2 location).
to a nonce location for an object/activity that
is mobile

A per (a düp = per hour); at (at 2 dollarseach = a dolars tel
AB but
AD for, in order to, to
ADAS that, to (after positive: Binom tu liegik,
adas vedom tifan = e is too rich tobecome a thief
ADEL today
ADELO to day
ADYÖ! good-bye
AG! oh! (cry of pain/surprise
AGÖDO this morning
AI alvays
AIPO aftereach
AIPOS after every... (aipos dels tel = every otherday
AL, ALIK each, every
ALMULIK monthly
ALNA each time
ALO at any rate, in any event
ALSEIMIK any; whatever; whichever
ALYELIK annual, yearly
ANEITO to-night
ANIK several, some
ANU at this moment; now
APOSZEDELO this afternoon
AS as
ASOAR this evening
ASOARO this evening
ASÄ as (conjunction)
AT this
ATIMO at present
ATOS this (abstract pronoun)
ÄDEADÖL deceased
ÄDEL yesterday
ÄDELO yesterday
ÄL facing; toward(s)
ÄNEITO last night
ÄNU (just) recently
ÄS as (preposition); like
ÄSÄ as, like (conjunction)
ÄSI as also
ÄSOARO last evening
ÄSVA as if, as though
ÄSVO as it were
ÄVIGO last week
ÄYELO last year
adejo dea
BA perhaps
BADIKUMO worse (adverb)
BADIKUMÖN to deteriorate
BADIM pessimism
BADIMAN a pessimist
BADIMIK pessimistic
BADINILUD a suspicion
BADOCEDÖN to take amiss
BADÖF spite
BADÖFAFREDIK frivolous, mischievous
BADÖFIL mischievousness
BAFOD a moustache
BAGAF a paragraph
BAI... according (to)
BAIÄDIKO accordingly, correspondingly
BAIÄDÖN (BAI) to agree, to be in accordance (with), to correspond (to)
BAICEDÖN (KO) to agree (with)
BAIK eventual
BAIKO possibly
BAILÖN to let (house, etc)
BAIODÖN (KO) to confer (with); to liaise (with)
BAISENÄL sympathy
BAITIMÄDIK up-to-date
BAITON harmony
BAITONIK harmonious
BAITONÜKÖN to tune (a musical instrument)
BAIVÖGÖN (BAI, KO) to agree (with)
BAKAN a baker
BAKASTON a brick
BAKÖP a bakery
BAKTER a bacterium
BAKTERAV bacteriology
BAKUD an abacus
BAKUN a balcony
(bakun balid = dress circle;
(bakun telid = upper circle;
(bakun kilid = (the) gallery)
BAL one (number) (bal len votik = next to eachother)
BALAN one (person)
BALAT a piece, a unit
BALATIK single
BALÄD a contract, an essay, a treaty(bai baläd = on a contract)
BALÄDIKÖN (KO) to come to terms (with)
BALÄDÜKÖN to arrange (by mutual consent); to reconcile
BALÄT unity
BALHON a unicorn
BALIB a beard
BALID first
BALIDAN former (person)
BALIDBITID first performance
BALIDNAEDO for the first time
BALIDO firstly
BALIK single, sole, unique
BALION a million
BALIONAN a millionaire
BALNA once
BALÖN to unite
BALSAMÜKÖN (to) embalm
BALSOTIK one kind of
BALUGIK simple
BALUGÖF simplicity
BAM a bench, a seat
BAMBUD bamboo
BANACEM a bathroom
BANATOP a (seaside) resort
BANATÜB a bath (tub)
BANOREM a panorama
BANK a bank (commercial)
BANKAZÖT a banknote
BANÖN (IN) to bathe (in)
BANÖP a seaside resort
BAOL a ball (dance)
BAOLET ballet
BAONAN a baron
BAPÄLIK base, mean
BAPIK inferior, low
BAPÜKÖN to abase
BARAK a barn
BASIN a (water) basin
BARIKAD a barricade
BASKÜL a weighing machine
BATATONÄT crack of the whip
BATÜL a whip
BAVET an apron, a pinafore
BAZIL a bacillus, a germ
BÄAD ebony
BÄK a back
BÄKABOM a backbone, a spine
BÄKABOMAKÖLÜM a spinal cord
BÄKASIEM (the) reverse edge
BÄKAVIREB vertebra
BÄL a berry
BÄLÄT a meadow
BÄLÄTÖP grazing land, pasture
BÄLD old age
BÄLDÄDAN an old pal (= a mate)
BÄLDÄDIK longstanding, old
BÄLDIK old (in years)
BÄLDIKAM the ageing process
BÄLDOT (years of) age
BÄLDOTAKOMPENAN a contemporary (person)
BÄLID abdomen, belly
BÄLUN a balloon
BÄLUNAFLITAN a balloonist
BÄN low tide, ebb tide
BÄNSIN petrol
BÄNSINACUB a petrol tank
BÄNSINAFEGEB petrol consumption
BÄNSINÖP a petrol station
BÄNÜPO at low tide
BÄNYUN a banjo
BÄTAZIB a bait
BÄSET a basket
BÄSIN china
BEB an onion
BEBÜL a chive
BED a bed
BEDASTOFED bedlinen, bedsheets
BEFEILÖN to cultivate
BEFEIT a dispute
BEFEITOVIK disputable
BEFOÖN to precede
BEG a request
BEGAPENÄD a (written) request
BEGESAG a reply
BEGESAGÖN to reply
BEGÖ! (if you) please!
BEGÖN to beg, to supplicate
BEGÖN SÄKUSADI (EKE) to apologize (to someone)
BEGUN a begonia
BEIAN a passer-by
BEIGOLÖN to go past
BEITIL a bite, a snack
BEITÖN to bite
BEIVEGÖN to go past
BEJEDÖN to strew
BEJÄFÖN to attend (to), to deal (with), to supervise
BEKOMÖN to attend, to be present at
BEL a mountain
BELEGIVÖN to reward
BELESEATÖN to lay siege to, to occupy
BELETÄVÖN to explore
BELIFOT an experience
BELIFÖN to experience, to undergo
BELODÖN to load
BELÜGÖN (EKI) to mourn, to grieve (for someone)
BELUTED hawking, peddling
BEM a beam (structural)
BEMAGIVÖN to charm, to enchant
BEMASTIKÖN to master, to overcome
BEMASTÖN to master, to rule
BEMEKÄDÖN to overpower
BEMÜL a perch
BENÄD grace
BENEN a banana
BENODÄLIK beneficent
BENOBLÄFÖN (EKE BOSI) to reward (someone with sthg)
BENODAN (HI / JI) benefactor, benefactress
BENODISTÜKÖN OKI (to) distinguish oneself
BENODUGÄLIK well brought up, well-reared
BENOFÄT (good) fortune
BENÖF harmony
BENOKÖMÖ (INI) welcome (to)
BENOLAB prosperity, well-being
BENOSEK a 'hit', a success
BENOSEVÄDIK well-known
BENOSMEKIK delicious
BENOSMELOT a perfume, scent
BENOSUF success
BENOSÜPOT a surprise
BENOVIM a good mood
BENOVIPÖN to congratulate
BENÜKÖN to benefit
BENÜPENÖN to fill in (forms)
BEPENAM a description
BEPENÖN to describe
BER a bear
BERAV booty, plunder
BERAVÖN to despoil, to plunder
BERJEN egg-plant
BERÜL a bear-cub
BESÄKÖN to interrogate
BESEIDÖ! engaged (not free)
BESEITÖN to lay (with concrete, pebbles, etc)
BESEPEDÖN to tread (grapes)
BESMILÖN to ridicule
BESPIKAN an interviewer
BESPIKÄB an interviewee
BESPIK an interview
BESPIKÖN to interview
BESTEIFÖN to aspire to; to strive after
BESTEPÖN to set out
BESTÜRÜLÖN to scatter
BET a (flower) bed
BETAD beetroot
BETIKÖN to consider
BETUN concrete
BETIKÖN to consider
BEVEGÖN to travel
BEVOBÖN to work on
BEVÜ among, between
BEXÄNÖN to ascend, to go up
BI because
BIAD a birch (tree)
BIB a bible
BID a kind, a race, a sort, a species
BIDÄD a breed, a race
BIDÜ of the kind . . .
BIEDIK bitter
BIEGÄDÖN (OKI) to bend, to stoop
BIEN a bee
* bienadomil = a beehive
BIGIK fat, thick
BIJOP a bishop
BIJUT a jewel
BIJUTEL a jeweller's (shop)
BLEGÄL (mental) flexibility
BIL bile
BILASTON gallstone
BILIET a ticket
BILIETABÜR a booking-office
BILIET GEIK a return ticket
BILIET MOIK a single ticket
BIMÜL a bush
BINÄD a component, an ingredient
BINÄDON (ME) to consist (of)
BINÄDÖL composite
BINÄL being, heart and soul
BINÄLIK essential
BINÄLIKO in essence
BINET ele3ment
BINOD a structure
BINÖN to be
BIOMAGODEM a biopic, film, motion picture, movie
BIOSKOPÖP a cinema
BIR beer
BIRÖN to brew
BISÄ provided that
BISAR oddity
BISARIK odd, strange
BISKIT a (cream) cracker
BISKUT a biscuit
BIT a procedure
BITIKAM behaviour, conduct
BITIKÖN to make an appearance
BITÖN to act, to behave
BITÜRAN a graduate
BLADOKVÄNÖN o blow out
BLADÖN to blow
BLADOSVOLÜKÖN to blow up, to inflate
BLAMILÖN to quibble
BLAMÖN to blame, to reproach
BLASFÄMÖN (DÖ) to curse, to swear (about)
BLÄFÖN to repay
BLÄGAKOLAT anthracite
BLÄGIK black
BLÄNDANAF a battleship
BLÄNDAVAB a tank (military)
BLEBÖN to remain (to be)
BLEDEMABOBOT a leafy arch
BLEGIK bent, curved
BLEGÜLOVIK flexible, pliable
BLEGÜKÖN to bend, to flex
BLEIBÖN (+ INFIN) to remain (bleibön stanön = to remain
BLEIN blindness
BLEINANIPLED blind man's buff (= game)
BLEINIKÖN to become blind
BLEINÜKÖN to blind
BLESIRIK nice, pleasant
BLIBÖN to remain, to stay
BLIG duty, obligation
BLIGÄD an authorization, an exercise, a lesson, a task
BLIGIDÖN to commit (oneself); to do business)
BLIGÖN to obligate, to oblige
BLIMÖN to equip, to fit out
BLIMOT equipment
BLINÖN to bring
BLIT (a pair of) trousers
BLITIPOLIANS (a pair of) bracers
BLOD a brother
BLOG a sheet
BLOKAFLUT a recorder (musical instrument)
BLOTIKÖN to crouch down
BLOTÖFIK crouching down, stooping
BLOTÜKÖN (OKI) to make (oneself) insignificant
BLÖB blubber
BLÖF a proof (=evidence)
BLÖFÄDÖN to argue, to reason
BLÖFED a syllogism
BLÖFÖN to give proof, to prove
BLÖG a clod, a clump
BLÖT a bosom, a breast, a chest
BLUD blood
BLUDIPED blood pressure
BLUF a test, a trial
BLUFÖN to prove, to test
BLUK a brook, a stream
BLUNEDÖN to baptize
BLUNÖN to dip, to plunge
BLUVIK amazing
BLUV confusion
BLUVIKO in amazement
BLUVÖN to be perplexed
BLUVÜKÖN to amaze
BLÜDÖN to bleed (someone) (medical)
BLÜMÄL attentiveness, presence of mind
BLÜMIK ready
BLUMÜKAMATAB a sideboard
BLÜNOTS supplies (= goods)
BLUNÖN to plunge
BLÜMÜKÖN to prepare
BLÜNÖN to provide
BLÜTÖN to bruise, wound
BO possibly, probably
BOAD wood (substance)
BOATAN a cripple, a lame (person)
BOB bow (=arc)
BOBÄD an arch (= building)
BOAD wood
BOBOTIKÖN to form an arch
BOD bread
BODEL a baker's (shop)
BODIÄR a bread bin
BODIFILÄDÖM a (bread) toaster
BODÜL a (bread) roll, bun
BOED a board, a shelf
BOEDASKAF a platform
BOFIK both
BOG a box, a chest
BOID a ship's deck; (in boid = on board)
BOIDASTUTÖM a balustrade, a handrail
BOIDÖN (OKI) to embark
BOK a box
BOLIÄR a tureen
BOLIT politics
BOLITIK political
BOM a bone
BOMEM a skeleton
BON a (broad) bean
BONÄT a bonnet, a cap
BONED an order (for goods)
BONEDÖN to order (goods); to book (a place)
BORD board (= lodgings)
BORDÖP a boarding-house
BOS something
BOSIL a little bit
BOSKOTAN a scout
BOT a boat
BOTUR a bittern (bird)
BOUM a bomb
BOV a basin
BOVED a plate
BOVIL a dish
BOVILAVACIN a dishwasher
BOVÜL a cup
BÖB a purse
BÖD a bird
BÖDAN a fowler
BÖDAVAN an ornithologist
BÖFÖN to be silly, to have fun, to lark about
BÖKAN a coachman
BÖKET a bucket
BÖLADÖN to annoy, to bother
BÖLADIK annoying, bothersome, a nuisance
BÖMÄNIK Bohemian
BÖNIÄLIK favourable
BÖR butter
BÖSIN porcelain
BÖTAN a waiter
BÖTÄDIL a minibar
BÖTÄDARAMAR a serving cabinet (for food/drinks)
BÖTÖM a tray
BÖTÖN to serve (meals and drinks)
BRAD an arm (=limb)
BRADASTUL an armchair
BRADASTUTÖM an arm-rest (on chair)
BRADÖN to embrace
BRAKAGLOKIL a wrist-watch
BRAMARUBUD a blackberry bush
BRAFIK able, capable, popular
BRAFÖ! Well done!
BRANÖN to vibrate
BRASID a cabbage
BREFIK short
BREFÜKAM an abbreviation
BREIKÖN to break (something)
BREIN a brain
BREKOD a break, a fracture
BREKOTÖN to fragment
BREKOVIK delicate, fragile
BREKÖN to break (= become broken)
BRIDÖN to breed, to bring up, to rear
BRIKOD an apricot
BRIETIK drunk, inebriated, intoxicated
BRIETÜKÖN to intoxicate
BRIKODEP an apricot tree
BROADOT a broadcast
BROADÖP a (radio/TV) station
BRODÖN to embroider
BRODOT an embroidery
BROJÜR a brochure
BROKAN a broker
BROKAT brocade
BRON trachea
BRONSÖT bronze
BRUÄT a wheelbarrow
* bruätavobod = a rough task
BRUL a tangle
BRUMÖN to buzz, to hum
BRUVÖN to sniff
BRÜOM embryo
BRÜYÄR heather
BRÜYÄRALÄN heathland
BUB a cow
BUBÜL a calf
BUÄD an advantage
BUDAN a buddhist
BUFOD a toad
BUEG a beech (tree)
BUFOD a toad
BUG a bay
BUIDÖN to hedge in
BUIKUMO preferably, rather
BUJID a sparking plug
BUK a book
BUKARAMAR a bookcase
BUKÄDAN a book-keeper
BUKEM a library
BUKISELAN a bookseller
BUKISELIDÖP a bookshop
BULÄD a blister
BULIK bubbly
BULIL a bubble
BUM construction
BUMOT a building
BUMÖN to build, to construct
BUN a jump, a leap, a spring
BUNÄDÖN to skip
BUNDAN abundance
BUNDANIK abundant, plenty
BUNÖN (LOVE) to jump, to leap, to spring (over)
BUNASTAFABUNAM (the) pole vault (= athletics)
BUNDANIK abundant, in plenty
BUO preferably
BUON a cork
BUÖN to prefer
BUT a boot
BUÜKÖN to prefer
BÜ ...ago (bü yels tel = two years ago)
BÜ before (preposition)
BÜAD a decree
BÜÄ before (conjunction)
BÜÄTAN (the) late lamented
BÜÄTO formerly
BÜD a command, an order
BÜDAKIP a (mental) reservation
BÜDÖN to command, to order
BÜDÜLÖN to prescribe
BÜFÄT a sideboard
BÜFIK preliminary, provisional
BÜFO for the time being
BÜG a can, a tin
BÜGIMAIFÜKÖM a can-opener, a tin-opener
BÜGOLAN a harbinger, a herald
BÜGUTÖN to taste
BÜIK former, preliminary, previous
BÜIKÜNO first and foremost, firstly, in the first place
BÜK print
BÜKOT a printed paper
BÜKÖN to print
BÜMAL a prerequisite, a sign
BÜMICÖDOT a prejudice
BÜMICÖDÖN to prejudice
BÜN a pear
BÜO before, formerly
BÜOCEDÖN to suppose
BÜOLOGED a preview
BÜOLOGÖN to foresee
BÜOMESÜLÖN (AD) to take precautions (to)
BÜOSAGAN a fortune teller
BÜOSAGÖN to forecast, to predict
BÜOSTIP a prerequisite
BÜOVITÖN to avoid
BÜR an office
BÜSID business
BÜSIDAN businessman
BÜSIDACIF executive, manager
BÜZIB an hors d'oeuvre, a starter
CAFED a kettle
CAFÄD a casserole, a saucepan
CAL employment, occupation, profession
CALAFOVAN a successor
CALAKOMIT an official duty
CALAN a clerk, an official
CALASVIST a colleague
CALONUNODAN a reporter
CALÖFIK official
CAM a chamois
CAN(S) goods
CANAMAGAD a warehouse
CANISELIDÖP a department store
CARAD a locust
CAVÖN to yawn
CÄDIK distinguished, excellent, highly respected
CÄF a beetle
CÄLAN an employer
CÄLÄB an employee
CÄLODÖN to appoint
CÄLÖN to nominate
CÄNAMON change (cash)
CÄNÖN to change, to exchange
CED an opinion
CEDIDÖN to feign, to pretend
CEDÖN to mean
CEK a cage
CEL a cherry
CELABIM a cherry-tree
CELEP a cherry-tree
CEM a room (in house)
CEMAKLOT a dressing gown
CENAVAMIK cold-blooded
CENO alternately, for a change
CENÖN (AD) to change (into), to turn (into)
CIEL a gill (of fish)
CIF a chief, a director, a head
CIFAZIF chief, main, principal
CIFODANEF (the) authorities
CIL a child, an infant
CILAJIDÜNAN a (children's) nurse
CILASAIKUL a tricycle
CILIJIKÄLÄDAN a child-minder
CILIL a baby
CILÖFOT childishness
CILÜP childhood
CILÜL a kiddie
CIM a chimney, a (ship's) funnel
CIMAMULÜR a mantelpiece
CIN a machine
CINALEÜL machine oil
CINÄDAN a (mechanical) engineer
CINEM machinery
CIP a splinter
* (pöteta)cips = crisps
COG fun, humour
COGEDÄL a sense of humour
COGIK funny, humorous, jokey
COGÖN (DÖ) to jest, to joke (about)
COL violoncello
COP a hoe
CÖDAL a judge
CÖDAN a magistrate
CÖDÄD a lawsuit, a trial
CÖDÄDÖN to bring to trial
CÖDETADEIDÖN to execute (= put to death)
CÖDETÖN (EKI AD) to condemn (someone to)
CÖDISPIKED a verdict
CÖDOT a judgment
CÖDÖN to judge
CÖG chess
CÖGAPIÄD a chess piece
CÖPILÖN to chop up
CUB a cistern, a tank
CUBANAF a tanker (ship)
CUBAVAB a tanker (lorry)
CUK a donkey
CUVÖN an axe, a hatchet
CÜG a cheek (part of face)
CÜN a chin
CÜTID a deception
CÜTIDÖN to deceive
CÜTOD a deception, a disappointment
CÜTÖN to deceive
DA through
DABAILÖN to farm out, to lease
DABENO blissfully
DAIF a banquet, a feast
DAIL a parliament
DABIN existence
DABINANEF everyone (in a certain place)
DABINÖN to exist (dabinos = there is (are)
DABLÜNÖN to extradite
DABRIDÖP a nursery (for flowers, plants)
DABÜKAN a publisher
DABÜKÖM a printer (computer, etc)
DABÜKOT an edition
DABÜKÖN to publish
DACEIN a transmutation
DADEADÖN to become extinct
DADEIDÖN to exterminate
DADRÄNÄLIK stressful
DADRANÖN to pierce
DADUNÖN (to) carry out
DAEMED a redoubt (military)
DAEMOD a dyke, a rampart
DAET a date (fruit)
DAF a badger
DAFAINIK shrivelled
DAFAMÜL a family line
DAFOMÖN to develop fully, to train
DAFREDÜKÖL delightful
DAFRONIKÖN to shrivel, to wither
DAG darkness
DAGEBÖN (MONI) to invest (money)
DAGIK dark
DAGLOF development, growth
DAGLOFÖN to develop, to grow
DAIF a banquet, a feast
DAIFAN a connoisseur
DAIFIDAN (HI-/JI-) a host, a hostess
DAIFIDÄB (HI-/JI-) a guest
DAIFOTÜL a morsel, a treat
DAIL parliament
DAIVÖN to dive
DAIVÜLÖN to somersault
DAJÄF (general) activity, coming and going
DAJEK terror
DAJOIKÜLÖN to push, to shove
DAJONÄD an exhibition, trade fair
DAJONÄDÖN to exhibit
DAJONÖN (OKI) to appear
DAKIPÖN to hold, to maintain, to retain
DAKONSÄLAM a consultation
DAKONSÄLÖN (to) counsel
DAKONSÄLAN a counsellor
DAKOSÄD traffic
DAKOSÄDASIRK a (traffic) roundabout
DALABAN an owner, a proprietor
DALABOT a property
DALABÖN to possess
DALABÜKÖN to maintain
DALEBÜD an (official) edict
DALEFAT a great-grandfather
DALEK a Dalek
DALEMOT a great-grandmother
DALESKOP a telescope
DALESTÜM awe, esteem
DALESTÜMIK highly esteemed
DALIAD a dahlia
DALILAN a listener
DALILANEF an audience
DALILÖN to listen to, to pay attention to
DALOGAL an inspector
DALOGAM an inspection
DALON (the) constitution
DALONÖN to constitute (= to adopt constitution)
DALÖN (+ INFIN) to be allowed to (=may)
DALUKÄM a surgical camera
DALUKÖTETAV key-hole surgery
DALUSKOP a microscope
DALUVAL microcosm
DAN thank(s)
DANOTÜKÖN to make known
DANÄDÖN to acknowledge, to be indebted to
DANÄDÜ thanks to...
DANÖF gratitude
DANÖFIK thankful
DANÖN to thank (danön demü/pro = to thank for)
DANÜD a dance
DANÜDÜM a dance (tune)
DANÜDÖN to dance
DAOPTAN an adoptive parent
DAOPTÄB an adopted child
DAPEBÖN pounding, thumping (of heart)
DAREIGÖN to dominate
DAS that (conjunction)
DASAMAN an exemplar, a model, a paragon
DASÄKÖN to interrogate
DASENÄLIK sensitive
DASEVÖN to realize, to recognize
DASLEITÖN to slash, to slit, to tear apart
DASTUN a sensation
DASTUNANUN a sensational report
DASUEMÖN to (mentally) realize
DASUMÖN to accept
DAT so that (conjunction)
DATIKÖN to devise, to think out
DATIKOVIK imaginable
DATOMÖN to torment
DATONÖN to ring out
DATUVOT an invention
DATUVÖN to invent
DAUK a carrot
DAÜKÖN to saturate
DAÜLAN an adult
DAÜLÜP adulthood
DAUN down (=fluffy feathers)
DAUT a daughter
DAV dew
DAVÄL an election
DAVATOF a dewdrop
DAVED emergence
DAVEDÖN to appear suddenly
DAVEDÖP a birth-place
DAVEDÜKÖN to bring about, to cause, to effect
DÄBEJÜTÖN to shoot off
DÄDIK defective, impaired
DÄDIKÖN to break down, to fail
DÄDILEDIKÖN to crumble
DÄDILEDÜKÖN to crumble (bread, et seter et keter
DÄG a dagger
DÄGÖN to stab
DÄK a deck (on board ship)
DÄL permission, concession
DÄLAB charter
DÄLÄDÄB a deputy
DÄLÄLIK indulgent, lenient
DÄLOD (social) atmosphere
DÄLÖN (+ INFIN) to allow, to permit
DÄLTAD a delta
DÄM damage, a disadvantage
DÄMIK harmful
DÄMÜ to the detriment of
DÄMÜKÖN to damage
DÄPÄB an adept
DÄPÖN to initiate
DÄROPÖN to disrupt
DÄRVID a dervish
DÄSÄRT a desert
DÄSINÖN to draw, to sketch
DÄSINOTABIOSKOP a cartoon (= animated film)
DÄSPERÖN to despair
DASTEIF ambition
DÄSTEPÖN to spurn
DÄSTURÖN to disintegrate
DÄT a date (calendar)
DÄTAGÖN to trample down
DE of, from
DEADAM death
DEADANAGALÄD wake (after persons’s death)
DEADANÖP cemetery
DEADAPÖNOD (the) death penalty
DEADIYUF euthenasia
DEADÖN to die
DEB a debt
DEBETÖN to owe (money)
DEBÖN to owe
DEF a defect, a deficiency
DEFAL litter, rubbish, trash
DEFALIÄR bin, waste basket, trash can
DEFÄDÖN to be in need, to be in want
DEFIK deficient, imperfect
DEFÖN to be deficient, to be lacking, to fail
DEG ten
DEGBAL eleven
DEGIV delivery, surrender (of goods)
DEGTEL twelve
DEGTELAT a dozen
DEGYEL a decade
DEIDACÖDETÖN to sentence to death
DEIDÖL fatal
DEIDÖN to kill
DEIFLODÖN to freeze to death
DEIJÜTÖN (EKI) to execute (someone) by shooting
DEIKAM a digression
DEIKÖN to digress, to stray
DEILÄGÖM gallows
DEILÄGÖN (EKI) to execute (someone) by hanging
DEIMÖN to reject
DEKÄTAN a dean
DEKLAM a declamation
DEKLINÖN to decline (nouns)
DEKOTÖN (to) decode
DEKUL December
DEKÖN to decorate
DEL a day
DELABUK a diary
DELAGASED a newspaper
DELAPRIM daybreak
DELFIN a dolphin
DEM regard
DEMILÖN (DÖ) to be petty (about)
DEMOD an indirect object (grammar)
DEMOKRAT democracy
DEMÖN to mind, to note, to regard, to take notice of
DEMÜT extortion
DEN a rapier
DENSITIK dense, thick
DENSITÜKIAN a condenser
DENU from then on, henceforth
DEPÜTANEF a delegation, a deputation
DEPÜTÄB a deputy, a member of parliament
DERÖNÖN to start (a race)
DESEDAN a sender
DESIN an intention, a plan, a purpose
DESINO deliberately, on purpose
DESIR a desire, yearning
DESIRIK anxious
DESIRÖN to desire, to yearn
DETÄV departure
DETÄVÖN (DE) to depart (from)
DETIK right-hand
DEÜKÖN to remove, to take off
DEVEGAM setting out (on journey)
DEVID foreign exchange
DI from, of (with names of cities, countries, regions)
DIABÜL an imp, a little devil
DIAGUNIK diagonal
DIALIM idealism
DIAMET diameter
DIATEK (NULIK) The New Testament
DIÄT a diet
DIB a depth
DIBIK deep
DIBOT a (specific) depth
DICETASITOT digestive system
DICETÖN to digest
DIDO certainly, indeed
DIENTIFÄD identification, an identity card
DIFIK different
DIFÖN (DE) to differ (from)
DIGIDÖN to appreciate, to esteem
DIGIK dear, esteemed, lovable
DIGÄDIK valuable, worthy
DIGÄDÖN to be worthy of, to be of value
DIGIDÖN to appreciate
DIKOT a diktat (of dictator)
DIKTORAN a dictator
DIL a part, a portion
DILAM a division
DILÄDÖN (VÜ) to divide (among)
DILÄM a dilemma
DILED a piece
DILEKÖN to conduct (orchestra)
DILET an element
DILIJAN a carriage, a stage-coach
DILO partly
DILOD a share
DILODÖN to share
DILOT a deal, a part (of a whole)
DILÖN to divide, to part
DIN a matter, a thing
DINAMIT dynamite
DINÄD a circumstance, a condition
DINDUN a turkey
DINIT a dignity
DINITALEOD hierarchy (non-religious)
DINOSAUR a dinosaur
DIOTIK idiotic
DIPAN a diplomat
DIS under
DISÄRT desertion
DISEIN an aim, a plan
DISEINÖN to aim, to mean
DISIN a design, a plan
DISINÖN to design, to plan
DISKUDIJEDAM (the) discus throw (= Olympics)
DISLIENÜKÖN to underline, to underscore
DISMELANAF a submarine
DISÖN to diminish
DISPENÄD a signature
DISPENÖN to sign
DISSILIK open-air
DISSTÜTOT a base, a plinth
DIST an (essential) difference
DISTÖN (DE) to distinguish (from)
DISTIDÖN to distinguish, to make a distinction
DISTIK distinct
DISTÖFIK various
DISTRENAVEG the underground (railway)
DISTUKÖN to destroy; to devastate
DIT separation
DITAVÖL diaphragm
DITIBÖN to hand out
DITÖN (DE) to separate (from); to take leave (of)
DISTRENAVEG underground (railway)
DITRET distress, an emergency
DITRETAJÄNIL communication cord (on train)
DITRETAJOLAM an emergency landing (aviation)
DITRETAKLOK a warning bell (in distress)
DIUM a (spiritualist) medium
DIUR daytime
DIURETIN diuresis (medical)
DIV a treasure
DIVODIK devoted
DIVODÖN (+ dative) (to be) addicted (to)
DIVÖP a treasure house
DO although, though
DOAT a finger
DOATAHÄT a thimble
DOATANUEL a fingernail
DOATÖN to touch
DOBIK false, wrong
DOBÜKAM a falsification
DOBÜKÖN to fasify, to spoil
DOCOD (the) Doge (=Venetian ruler)
DOD disapproval, misgiving
DOFIK dull
DOG a dog
DOJEDÖN (OKI) to prostrate (oneself)
DOJOIKÖN to overturn, to upset
DOK a doctorate
DOKAN a doctor
DOKÜM a document
DOKÜMAM documentation
DOL pain, suffering
DOLIK hurting, painful
DOLÖN to hurt
DOM a house
DOMARAV a (house) burglary
DOMATRIP rates (for house, etc)
DOMAL a master (of household)
DOMINOV dominoes (= game)
DON bottom (not top)
DONADIL LÖPIK upside down
DONAJUL a lower (primary) school
DONAMAXÜL (the) lower jaw
DONAPLANEM undergrowth
DONATEAD ground floor
DONIO downwards
DONO below, down
DONÜ below
DONÜKÖN to lower
DOSLEATÖN to demolish
DOT a doubt
DOTIK doubtful
DOTIMIK sceptical
DOTÖN (DÖ/TEFÜ) to doubt
DÖB guilt
DÖBAT a debate
DÖBIK guilty
DÖBIKÖN to be found guilty
DÖBOT fault(döbot duton lü ol = it's your fault !)
DÖDEL hursday
DÖFÄD a shortcoming
DÖFIK defective
(rif döfik = a flat tyre)
DÖM thumb
DÖNU again
DÖNUAM a repetition
DÖNUAMAPLÄG a rehearsal
DÖNUAMO repeatedly
DÖNUBUMÖN to rebuild
DÖNUKOPAM reincarnation
DÖNUKOPÖN (to) reincarnate
DÖNULOGÖ! see you soon! so-long!
DÖNUPENÖ! write again soon!
DÖNUOD a refrain, a repetition
DÖNUÖN to repeat
DRAK a dragon
DRAMATAN an actor
DRAMATÖN to dramatise
DRANÄDAN an intruder
DRANÄDIK intrusive
DRANÄL a compulsion
DRANÖN to press, to rush (of blood, etc)
DRAT wire
DRÄGUN a dragoon (military)
DRÄNÄL an affliction
DRÄNÖN to press, push, shove
DRÄTODÖN (OKI) to train (= sports)
DRÄTÖN to train (= animals)
DRED fear
DREDÖN to fear
DREDABIK awful, fearful
DREDÄLIK apprehensive, anxious
DREDÄLÜKÖN to alarm, to demoralise
DREDILIK uncanny
DREDIK afraid
DREDÖF cowardice
DREDÖN (DEMÜ) to be afraid (of)
DREFÄB a (human) subject, a victim
DREFIK relevant
DREFÖN to affect, to strike
DREMÄL anxiety
DREMET a vibration
DREMÖN (DUB/SEKÜ) to tremble (with)
DREN a tear
DRENAMEAT tear duct
DRENÖN to cry, to weep
DRENÜKÖN to distress, to upset (= to make cry)
DRIM a dream
DRIMÖN to dream
DRIN a drink
DRINAMON a gratuity, a tip
DRINED a beverage
DRINOD a drink
DRINÖN to drink
DROG a drug
DROLIK comical
DRUMÖN to drone, to hum, to roar
DU while
DUBÄ because (conjunction)
DUBO thereby
DUBÜKÖN (to) reset (page) (computger)
DUGÄDÖN to accompany (to go with)
DUGÄL education
DUGÄLÖN to bring up, to educate, to raise
DUGED a (musical) accompaniment
DUGIAN a 'mains' connection (for gas, water, etc)
DUGOLÖP a corridor
DUGÖN to direct, to manage, to lead
DUINAFÄGIK efficient, competent
DUINAVOTEM a repertoire
DUINOD an achievement
DUINOT an attainment, a deed
DUINÖN (to) achieve
DUJETAPARAT a shower fitting
DUK a dock
DUKÖP a dockyard
DUL a duration
DULIK chronic, lasting
DULOGAMOVIK transparent
DULÖFIK durable, settled (of weather)
DULÖN (DÜ) to last (for)
DUMIK dull (=of tone)
DUN an action
DUNALEFOM active voice (grammar)
DUNAMOD a policy
DUNETATAB a (shop) counter
DUNETÄB a client, a customer
DUNETÖN to serve (someone)
DUNIKOD a fanatical act
DUNODÖN to act (as); to function
DUNOT a deed
DUNÖF activity
DUNÖN to do
DUODEN duodenum
DUBÜKÖN (to) reset (page) (computer)
DUSTODAN an industrialist
DUTÖN (LÜ) to belong (to)
DÜ during
DÜD a paper bag
DÜF hardness
DÜFÄLIKO hard-heartedly
DÜFIK hard
DÜFIKAM hardening
DÜKÄN a duchy
DÜNÄDÖN to do military service
DÜNAN a servant
DÜNASPADÄD a service area
DÜNET an errand
DÜNOT a service
DÜNOTAN a (shop) assistant
DÜNÖN to serve
DÜP an hour, o'clock* a düp = per hour
DÜPAFOLDIL a quarter of an hour
DÜPAKOUN a time zone
DÜPATELDIL half an hour
DÜTÖN to appropriate

E and
EBO just, precisely
ED and (before vowels)
EFE indeed, but...
EK anybody, anyone, someone
EKÖ here is (are)
EKÖMÖLAN a new arrival
EL (article for foreign words)
ENEITO the night before last
ENU just now
ET that (determiner)
ETDELAO from that day on
ETOS that (abstract pronoun)

FA by
FAB a fable
FABRIKAM (the) manufacture
FABRIKÖP a factory
FABRIKÖN to manufacture
FABRIKOT a product
FAD a thread
FAEM hunger
FAEMIK hungry
FAFAR a fanfare
FAG distance
FAGIK distant, far
FAGOT a distance
FAGOTABUNAM (the) long jump (= athletics)
FAGOTILÜ a short distance from
FAIB a fibre
FAILAM a (financial) failure
FAILAN a bankrupt
FAILOT a ruin
FAILÖN to go bankrupt
FAINIKAM fading, withering
FAJISTIK fascist
FAL a fall
FALAJELÖM a parachute
FALOK a falcon, a hawk
FALÖN to fall
FALSÄT a high-pitched voice
FAM fame
FAMIK famous
FAMÜL a family
FAMÜLANEM a surname
FANAPLED a (game of) 'tig'
FANÄBAM imprisonment
FANÄBÖP a prison
FANÄBÖPÄB a prisoner
FANÄBÖPÖN (to be in) prison
FANÄBÜKAMABÜD a warrant (for the arrest of)
FANÄBÜKÖN to arrest
FANÄDÖN to catch, to snatch
FANÖN to catch
FAR a lighthouse
FARIN pharynx
FARM a farm
FARMADOM a farmhouse
FARMAN a farmer
FASAD a facade
FASILOT a facility
FAT a father
FATÜL KRITID Father Christmas
FATÜITIK arrogant, conceited
FAVIK glum, morose, upset
FAVÖN to upset, to worry
FÄD a chance event, a coincidence
(ma fäd = at random)
FÄDIK accidental, by chance
FÄDIKO as it happens, perchance
FÄDO by chance, unexpectedly
FÄG an ability, a faculty
FÄGIK able, capable
FÄGIKO ably, capably
FÄGÖN to be capable, to be in a position to
FÄKAM emotion, fervour
FÄKÄD excitement
FÄKÄDIK excitable
FÄIKNIBÖN to squeeze together
FÄIKNOPÖN to button up
FÄISKRUBÖN to screw down
FÄISTEIGÄDÖN to plug, to stop up
FÄITANÖN to bind up
FÄKÄDIKO emotional
FÄKÄDÜKÖN to excite (emotionally)
FÄKIK emotional, moved (emotionally)
FÄKIKÖN to be moved (emotionally)
FÄKÖN to be touched (emotionally)
FÄKÜKÖL ardent, highly emotional
FÄKÜKÖN to move (emotionally)
FÄLID a valley
FÄNÄDÖN to flutter, to wave
FÄNÖM a ventilator
FÄRMÜKÖN to close, to shut
FÄTOT destiny, fortune
FE it's true that
FEABLUNEDÖN to re-baptize
FEAFOMÖM a tramsformer (electrical)
FEAJAFÖN (AD) to convert (into)
FEALOTÄDÖN to remove (= move house)
FEAPLADÖN to download [computers]
FEATONATAM transliteration
FEATONATÄT a transliteration
FEATONATÖN (to) transliterate
FEBAKATÄD working capital
FEBÄD a (commercial) enterprise
FEBOD occupation, trade
FEBUL February
FED a federation, league
FEDIK federal
FEDÖN (KO / TA) to be in league (with / against)
FEELID a freckle
FEFIK grave, serious
FEFILÜKAM combustion
FEFO in earnest
FEGEBÖN to squander
FEIFÖN to whistle
FEILALÄNED arable land
FEILAM agriculture
FEILAN a peasant, a rustic person
FEILAV agriculture
FEINÜKÖL rarefied
FEL a field
FELIFÄDÖN to spend (time)
FEMUR a femur
FENIK tired
FENÄT a window
FENÄTABOED a window-sill
FENÄTIKLINÜKAN a winder cleaner
FENÜKÖN to exhaust, to tire
FERABEM an iron beam
FERIN iron
FERINAMÜN iron ore
FEROD a rail
FERODARUTAVEG a train track
FESÜL a (blood) vessel
FEUDIM feudalism
FIBIK weak
FID food
FIDACAN crockery
FIDACEM a dining room
FIDASTAFIL a chopstick
FIDÄD a meal
FIDÄDAKAD a menu (table d'hôte)
FIDED a dinner
FIDEDÖN to dine
FIDOVIK eatable, edible
FIDÖN to eat
FIDUIN completion
FIDÜP a mealtime
FIED faith
FIEDIK faithful
FIEN interest (=financial return)
FIF a fever, a temperature
FIFÖN to have a fever, a temperature
FIG a fig
FIGUR a figure, a form
FIJESIPED (= fibot jelasita pedagetöl) = Aids
FIKULIK difficult, hard
FIL a fire
FILASEPÜLÖP a crematorium
FILAZÄP a (pair of) tongs
FILÄT a net
FILED a burn (=injury)
FILETATOP a hearth
FILETATOPAFÖN an (open) fireplace
FILID ignition (of car)
FILIDÖM a lighter
FILIDÖN to ignite, to kindle, to light
FILIG a fern
FILM a film (filmastelan = a film star)
FILOSOP philosophy
FILÖN to burn (=be burning)
FILÜKÖN to burn up
FIMÄDÖN to harness, to make firm
FIMEKÖN to complete, to finish
FIMIK fast, firm
FIMÜKÖN to fasten, to fix
FIN a conclusion, an end
FINEN finance
FINIDÖN to abolish, to bring to an end
FINOT an (ultimate) end, an extremity
FINÜKÖN to conclude, to end, to finish
FIR a fir (tree)
FIT a fish
fish and chips = fit e pötetüls
FITAVATIÄR an aquarium
FIV a pool
FIZIR an officer
FLAB a piece of cloth
FLAD a bottle
FLAG a flag, a standard
FLAGEDÖN to ask, to demand, to insist on
FLAGIÄLIK demanding
FLAGÖN to require
FLAM a flame
FLAMOT a taper. a torch
FLAMÜLÖN to flicker, to glimmer
FLAN a side
FLANÜ apart from
FLANÄD a wing (of building)
FLANATAB a sideboard
FLAP a hit, a smack
FLAPIL a slap
FLAPILAKREM whipped cream
FLAPÖN to beat, to hit, to slap, to strike
FLÄKÖMALAMPAD a (reflective) headlight
FLÄKÖN to reflect (light)
FLÄNO duty free
FLÄNÜKAMAMÄK a (pre-paid) postage stamp
FLÄTÖN to flatter
FLED a load
FLEDANAF a freighter
FLEDASPADÄD a cargo hold
FLEDAVAB a lorry
FLEDINAIF (the) freight trade
FLEDOT a load
FLEDÜLÖN to load (a gun)
FLEGED a hinge
FLEGOT compliance
FLEGÖN to bend, to flex
FLEK a rev, a turn
FLEKAM a rotation
* talaleflekam = rotation of the earth
FLEKIK flexible, supple
FLEKÖN to turn (to)
FLEN a friend
FLENALÖF (close)friendship
FLENAM friendship
FLENÄDAN a comrade, a mate, a pal
FLENÖFIK amiable, kind
FLIB a flea
FLIFÄDIK fresh, new
FLIFÄDÜKÖL refreshing
FLIFÜKÖN to refresh
FLIFIK fresh
FLIODABUK an in-folio album
FLITAMUG a bat (= creature)
FLITAPOF an airport
FLITÄM a wing
FLITAJIDAIFIDAN an air-hostess
FLITÖM an aeroplane
FLITÖN to fly
FLOD frost
FLODAM freezing
FLODÖFÖN to freeze (due to actions, emotions)
FLODÖN to be frozen
FLOG a flake
FLÖDACIN a freezer
FLÖDÖN to freeze
FLÖKASTUL a wickerwork chair
FLÖKOT a plait (of hair)
FLOM a forehead
FLOR a flower
FLORABRASID a cauliflower
FLORED a bouquet
FLORÖN to blossom, to flower
FLOTED a raft
FLÖRÖN to prompt (in theatre)
FLUD flow, high tide* flud süpik = Spring tide
FLUDÜP at high tide
FLUK a fruit
FLUKEPAGAD an orchard
FLUM a current
FLUMED a river
FLUMEDAJEVOD a hippopotamus
FLUMOT a liquid body
FLUMÖN to flow
FLUNÖN to affect, influence
FLUTÜLÖN to whistle (for)
FO before (place), in front of
FOAD a liver (anatomy)
FOBEL headland, promontory
FOD a scythe
FODÖN to cut, to mow, to reap
FOG a mist, a fog
FOGALÄDÖP a remote watch (building)
FOGINAN an outsider, a stranger
FOGINIK foreign, strange
FOGINÄN abroad, overseas
FOGOLAN a predecessor
FOGOLÖN to go before, to precede
FOGÜLÖN to become hazy
FOIKÖN to arise
FOK a fork
FOL four (folo = in fours)
FOLDIL a quarter
FOLLIEN a square (shape)
FOLLIMAFLAP quadriplegia
FOM a form, a shape
FOMAM a version
FOMÄD a feature
FOMÄL imagination
FOMÄLOD a figment (of the imagination)
FOMÄLÖN (BOSI) to imagine (something)
FOMÄT a format, a size
FOMET a form (to fill out)
FOMÖN to form, to shape
FOMÜL a formula
FOMÜLAM an (official) request
FON a spring (of water)
FONÄD a fountain, a well
FONÄT a source, a spring
FONED a fountain (in garden)
FOPAN a fool
FOPIK foolish
FOPLADÖN to put in front
FOR (the) gallows
FORTIF a fortification
FOT a forest, a grove, a wood
FOTAZUGOT a stretch (of forest)
FOTIKONÖM forestry
FOTIKONöMAN a ranger
FOTOGRAFAN a photographer
FOTOGRAFOT a photograph
FOTÜL a thicket
FOUK focus
FOVO furthermore, henceforth
FOVÖN to follow on
FÖDÖN to elevate, to further, to promote
FÖFAFLAN front (not back)
FÖFASTEV (FÖFANAF) prow (of ship)
FÖFIK ahead
FÖFIO forwards
FÖFIÖ! forward(s)! (exclamation)
FÖFÖN to be ahead, to be in front
FÖFÜ in front of
FÖFÜKÖN to advance
FÖG a hammer
FÖLÖN to carry out (promise/verdict)
FOLÜM a quartet
FOMÄT a format
FOMÖN to fashion
FÖDATANOD a conveyor belt
FÖN a heater, a stove
FÖNIG Phoenix
FÖRO at any time, ever
FÖVOT a continuation
FÖVÖN to continue
FRAG a strawberry
FRAKETÖN to crack, to snap
FRAKTUR Gothic (type)
FRAMBOD a raspberry
FRAMBODARUBUD a raspberry bush
FRAN a franc (currency)
FRASEOD an expression (phrasing); turn of phrase
FRÄD(S) an expense, expenses
FRÄDÖN to cost (=have a price of...)
FRÄN a bit (on bridle)
FRED gladness, happiness, joy
FREDIK glad, happy
FREDIM optimism
FREDIMAN optimist
FREDIMIK optimistic
FREDÖN (DEMÜ/TEFÜ) to rejoice (over), to be glad/happy (about)
FREMÄD a frame
FREMÜL a panel
FRENOLOG phrenology
FRENÖM a brake
FRENÖN to brake
FRESKOD a fresco
FRIN a finch
FROG a frog
FROMAD a cheese
FRON a wrinkle
FRONT a (military) front
FRONTANEF the front line (of soldiers)
FRONÜKÖN to wrinkle
FRUT an advantage
FRUTIDÖN to benefit from, to make use of, to takeadvantage of
FRUTIK useful
FRUTÖN to benefit
FTISID tuberculosis
FUK a seal
FULIK full
FULIOPÖMÖN to pump up (tyres, etc)
FULÜKAPEN a fountain-pen
FULÜKÖN to fill
FUN a cadaver, a corpse
FUNIG a fungus
FUNISEPÜLAN an undertaker
FURMID an ant
FURNOD an oven, a stove* koldülükafurnod = a cooling oven
FUROT a lining
FUT a foot
FUTAFRENÖM a foot brake
FUTAGLÖPÄD football (= game)
FUTAKÄLAN a chiropodist
FUTARETOD a footprint
FUTAPLANT sole (= of foot)
FUTAYOIN an ankle
FUTOGOLAN a pedestrian
FUTOGOLANAZON a pedestrian precinct
FÜLIK felt
FÜMÄDIK obstinate
FÜMÄDÄLIK bloody-minded
FÜMÄLIK decisive
FÜMETIM determinism
FÜMETIMAN a determinist
FÜMETÖN to determine
FÜMIK certain, sure
FÜMIKO certainly, for sure
FÜMODÖN (to) verify
FÜMÖ! sure! without doubt!
FÜMÜKAM confirmation
FÜMÜKÖN (to) ensure
FÜNOD Foundation
FÜNÖN to establish, to found
FÜSIOLEKÄLAN physiotherapist
FÜSÜDAV physics
FÜTÜRIK future

GAD a garden
GADABUID a garden hedge
GADAN a gardener
GADÖN to garden
GADÖM a garden tool
GADUT cod (=fish)
GAENOD a profit, a win
GAENÄTÖN (DE) to profit (from)
GAENÖN to attract, to earn, to gain, to win
GAGOT filth, rubbish
GAL a vigil
GALANT a snowdrop
GALAXID a galaxy
GALÄDAN a watchman
GALÄDÖP a look-out (building)
GALÄDÖN to keep an eye on, to watch
GALÄL awareness, watchfulness
GALEDAN a watchman
GALEDÖN to beware, to protect(to watch over someone = galedön eki)
GALIK awake
GALIKÖN to awake, to wake up
GALOTÖN to gallop
GALÖN to be awake, to watch
GALÜKIAN an alarm clock
GALÜKÖN (EKI) to wake (someone)
GAN a goose
GANALOET roast goose
GANET an agency
GAOD gauze
GARAD a garage
GARANÖN to ensure, to guarantee
GARDAN a guard (military)
GARED an instep (of shoe)
GARID a mushroom
GARNISUN a garrison (military)
GAS BRUIDIK effervescence
GASAL a gazelle
GASED a magazine
GASEDEM the press
GASEDIMAN a journalist
GASINALAMPAD a gaslight, gaslamp
GASINARÜD a gaspipe
GÄMÖN (ME RULÄT) to gamble, to play (at roulette)
GÄYSÄR a geyser
GE back (return, response, retaliation)
GEBÄD a usage
GEBIDÖN (DÖ) to have at hand, to have at one's disposal
GEBIDÜKÖN (EKE BOSI) to make something available (to someone)
GEBÖF a custom
GEBÖN to use
GEDIK grey
GEF a vessel (= container)
GEGAENÖN to regain
GEGIVÖN (EKE) to give back, to return (to someone)
GEGOLÄDÜKÖN to pull back, to retreat
GEIDAN a guide
GEIDAVÖD a clue (for puzzles)
GEIDÖN (EKI) to guide (someone)
GEIK reciprocal, reflexive (grammar)
GEIKAM a return
GEIL height
GEILOTABUNAM (the) high jump (= athletics)
GEILÜKUMÖN to enhance
GEIN brandy, cognac, gin(geinapöb = a "dive")
GEJOIKÖN to drive back, to repulse
GEKÖMÖN (LÜ) to come back (to), to return (to)
GELAN an organist
GELOGAM regression
GELÖN to play the organ
GEMAG an antetype, a counterpart
GEMAGÖF symmetry
GEMOTAM renaissance
GEN sex
GENÄMS (the) genitals
GEOMET geometry
GEÖN to react, to reciprocate
GERALESON a crown prince
GERED a gene
GEREDEM a genome
GEREDIK genetic
GERÖN to inherit
GESAG an answer
GESAGÖN to answer
GESEDÖN to return, to send back
GESPIKÖF (mental) preparedness, quickwitedness
GESPIKÖM an answering machine
GESPIKÖN to acknowledge, to anser, to reply to
GESPIKÜ in reply to...
GETAZÖT a receipt
GETÄVABILIET a return ticket
GETÄVASUÄM a return fare
GETEDAN a receptionist
GETEDÖN to accept. to receive (people)
GETIKÖN (DÖ) to reminisce, to think back (about)
GETÖN to get, to obtain, to receive (things)
GEÜKAM a reaction
GEVEGÖN to return
GEVÖN to give, to grant, to present
GIAN (the) gigantic
GIANAN a giant
GID justice
GIDID a responsibility
GIDIDÖN (DEMÜ) to be responsible (for)
GIDIK, GIDÖFIK fair, just, right, seemly
GIDÜKÖN to justify, to vindicate
GIFAFER cast iron
GIG gout
GIJÄT a (ticket) office
GILDÄT a corporation
GIM a gimlet
GIMÖN to bore, to drill
GIMÜL a drill
GINGIF a gum (= in mouth)
GINÄDÖN to wind up (a watch)
GINÖM a windlass
GIRAF a giraffe
GIT justice
GITAR a guitar
GITÄDASÄKÄD a (judicial) case, a lawsuit
GITÄT a just claim, a right
GITOD a justification
GIVIÄLIK generous
GIVIDÖN to delegate, to transfer
GIVÖN to give
GIVÜLÖN to attribute, to donate
GLAD ice
GLADABEL an iceberg
GLADAHOKIY ice hockey
GLADARAMAR a refrigerator
GLADET an ice cream
GLADETÜL an ice cube
GLADIOLS gladioli
GLADÜL an ice cream
GLAN a gland
GLATO free of charge, gratis
GLÄTÄDAN a glazier
GLÄT glass
GLÄTIBLADAN a glass-blower
GLÄTIBLADÖP glass-blowing works
GLÄTIK (of) glass
GLÄTÖP glassworks
GLÄTOT glass (substance)
GLEINÖN to glean
GLEIPED a door handle
GLEIPÖN to grasp, to seize
GLEPÖN to encroach
GLEPÄDÖN to grip
GLEIPÜLÖN to handle
GLIBAN a vagabond
GLID greeting
GLIDÖN to greet
GLIMÖN to glitter, to shimmer, to shine
GLOF growth, increase
GLOFÖN to grow
GLOK a clock
GLOKEL a watchmaker
GLORIKO gloriously
GLORÜKÖN to glorify
GLÖB a bullet
GLÖBAKUL a trajectory
GLÖBIJEDAM (the) shot-put (= Olympics)
GLÖFÖN to grow (= cultivate)
GLÖMÄD forgetfulness
GLÖMÖN to forget
GLÖP a ball, a sphere
GLÖPAPEN a ballpoint pen
GLÖPÄD a ball game
GLÖPILÖN to play marbles (= game)
GLÖPOT a dome
GLÖTIK envious, jealous
GLUF a glove
GLUMALADÄL melancholy
GLUMIDIK dull, glum, overcast
GLUMIKÖN to become overcast
GLUN a floor, ground (glunots = grounds)
GLUTAPIR an electric light bulb
GLUTAVIN mulled wine
GLUTIK ardent, hot
GLÜG a church
GLÜKOSIN glucose
GNOB a bud, a knob (control)
GO quite, very
GOBADÖN to arch (cat's back)
GOBLET a goblet
GOKÜL a chicken
GOKAHAUK a goshawk
GOL bearing, deportment, walk
GOLABOED a gangway
GOLÄD a parade, a procession
GOLDIN gold (precious metal)
GOLDIK (of) gold, golden
GOLED course (of events)
GOLF golf (game)
GOLÖN (LÜ) to go (to), to walk (to)
GOUN a gong
GÖ! come on!
GÖB a tail
GÖBAPIANOD a grand piano
GÖD morning
GÖDED an acre (of land)
GÖLIK early
GÖN a favour
GÖNÄD an award
GÖNIK favourite
GÖNÖN to favour
GRAD a degree
GRAHAN an eclipse
GRAHANÖN to conceal, to eclipse
GRAIFÖN to cauterize
GRAINÖN to grind
GRAMAFON a gramophone
GRÄL hail (weather)
GRÄMÖN to climb
GRANAT a pomegranate
GRATÖN to caw, to croak
GREDAKED a scale (calibration)
GREN corn
GRENAFLOGAPÄKED a cereal packet
GRETAMAFÄDIK on a grand scale
GRETED magnitude (maths)
GRETIK big, great, large, tall
GRETÜKOT an enlargement
GRIFIUN a griffin (mythology)
GRIFÖN to graft
GRINEDÖN to grin
GRINÖN to grin
GRIP 'flu, influenza
GROBIK unrefined
GROBÖFIK coarse, brusque, rough
GRODIK pregnant
GRON gravel
GROSÜLIK wholesale
GROT oatmeal
GROTÄTIK grotesque
GRUFET a line (on hand/face)
GRULÖN (DUB) to be swarming, teeming (with)
GRULÖN to crawl, to swarm
GRUP a group
GRÜD grit
GRÜNIK green
GUAYAD a pear
GUB an oar
GUBÖN to row
GUDÄLIK benevolent, kind-hearted
GUDIK good
GUDIKUM (KA) better (than)
GUDIKÜN (DE/SE) (the) best (of/in)
GUDÜKUMAM an improvement
GUDÜKUMÖN to improve
GUFUR an abyss
GUG a throat
GUGEDÖN to gargle
GUIRÖN to languish, to waste away
GUL an angle, a corner
GULAV geometry
GUM India-rubber
GUMALUIBARIF an elastic band
GUN a coat
GUT a taste
GUTÖN to taste
GUVÖN to administer, to govern
GÜFLEKIK backwards, over, reversed
GULAD goulash (food)
GULF (the) Gulf Stream
GUR an abyss
GUVER an administration
GUVÖN to administer
GÜ contrary
GÜÄ contrary to
GÜMNAD a grammar-school
GÜN a gun
GÜNÜL a rifle
GÜTIKO tastefully
GÜÜKÖN to turn over
HAD an ace
HAGÖN to groan
HAJET hash (food)
HARAT a quarter (in a town/city)
HARÄM a harem
HARNAD a harness
HARENG a herring
HARMONÖM a harmonica, a mouth organ
HARPUN a harpoon
HÄM a ham
HÄRBAT a vegetable
HÄRBATIM vegetarianism
HÄRBATIMAN a vegetarian
HÄRBATISELAN a greengrocer
HÄREM harem
HÄRET heresy
HÄRMETIK air-tight, hermetic
HÄROD a heron
HÄT a hat
HEKÖN to gasp, to pant
HER a hair
HERAN a hairdresser
HERASEFAL hair loss
HEREM a (head of) hair
HEREMITEIL a parting (hair)
HEROED (HI-/JI-) a hero, a heroine
HESTAN a conjuror, a juggler
HET hatred
HETÄD spite
HETÖN to hate
HICIL a son
HIEL (masculine sing. form of def. article)
HIGEM a brother
HIKEL who, which (masculine)
HIKOMPENAN a fellow-traveller, a kindred spirit
HIKULTAN a clergyman
HIL a heel
HILÖFÜLAN a toy boy
HIMATAN a husband
HIMEN a man
HINDUTAN a hindu
HINILÄDAN a (male) neighbour
HIOPOT a hippopotamus
HIP a hip
HIPAL a father
HIPUL a boy, a youth
HIREG a king
HISIÖR a gentleman
HIT heat
HITER an uncle
HITÜKÖN to heat
HITÜP Summer
HOBUB an ox
HOD barley
HOG a hole
HOGÄD a perforation
HOGÖN to perforate, to pierce
HOL an hour's journey
HOLBUT halibut
HOMEN a eunuch
HON a horn (of animal)
HONED a beak, a (bird's) bill
HORIT the horizon
HORITÄTIK horizontal
HORMON a hormone
HÖL hell
HUK a hook
HUL a (sea) swell
HUMAR a lobster
HUMUL a hop
HÜASEN a hyacinth
HÜEN a hyena
HÜGIENIK hygienic
HÜIT an oyster
HÜM a hymn
HÜPNOD hypnosis
HÜRÖN to hire
I also, too
IBÄ for (conjunction)
IBO in fact, really
ID also, too (before vowel)
IDELO two days ago
IF if (if plüdol = if you please)
IFI even if
IFÜ subject to...
IGO even (igo no = not even)
IN (place) at, in
INI into
IS here
ISAO hence (=from here)
ISIO hither (=to here)
ISIÖ! come here!
ISKIAT sciatica
IT self/selves
(obs it = we ourselves)
ITFRÄD cost price
ITO by myself, yourself, etc.
JABEN a mushroom
JAD a shade, a shadow
JADAMAGOD a silhouette
JADOT a silhouette
JAFÄB a creature
JAFÄD creation
JAFÄDÖN to bring about
JAFÄL creativity
JÄFID a function
JÄFIDOT an organ (eg of newspaper)
JAFOVIK creative
JAFÖN to create
JÄFÜD a field (of knowledge), a product
* Bolit no binon jäfüd oba = Politics isn't my
strong point.
JÄFÜDISEVAN an expert, a specialist
JAIN a clothes line, a cord, a rope
JAK a shark
JAKAL a jackal
JAKÄT a jacket
JAL bark, peel
JALOT a shallot
JALUD jealousy
JALUP a longboat, a sloop
JAMOD a camel
JAMPÄN champagne (drink)
JAN hemp
JANAFRIN a finch (song bird)
JANÄLIK fascinating
JANED breakfast
JAPÄLIK mischievous
JAPIK sharp
JAPÜKÖN to sharpen
JARGON gibberish, jargon
JASID a chassis
JATÖN to itch
JÄFÄB a creature
JÄFÄLÖN (KO) to be (mentally) absorbed (with)
JÄFÄLÜKÖN to absorb
JÄFID a function
JÄFIDÄM an organ (of body)
JÄFIDÖN to function, to work
JÄFIKÖN (ME) to be engaged (in), to worry (about)
JÄFOT an activity
JÄFÖN (ME) to be busy (with), to be occupied (in)
JÄFÜD a field of knowledge, a product, a speciality
JÄFÜDIK specialized
JÄFÜDISEVAN a specialist
* Bolit no binon jäfüd oba = politics isn’t
my strong point..
JÄFÜKÖN (OKI ME) to bother (oneself about)
JÄL a shell fish
JÄMPOD a shampoo
JÄNÄLÖL absorbing
JÄPAN a swindler
JÄNÄLIK fascinating
JÄNÄLÖN to captivate
JÄPÜLAN a mischief-maker, a trickster
JÄRID sherry
JÄRP a sash
JÄST a gesture
JÄSTÄD a pose
JÄTÜLÖN to tickle
JEDOT a dart
* pledön jedotis = to play darts
JEDÖN to throw
JEDÜLOTAKEK sponge cake with crumble topping
JEDÜLÖN to scatter
JEIFALAM a razor-blade
JEIFAN a barber
JEIFÖM a razor
JEIFÖN to shave
JEIKIK awful, horrible, terrible
JEIKÖN to scare, to terrify
JEIKÜLÖN to shock
JEK a fright
JEKÄLIM terrorism
JEKIDUN an act of terrorism
JEKIKODAN a terrorist
JEKÖN to be frightened, to be scared
JEL protection
JELED an apron
JELETIN gelatine
JELOD a defence
JELODÖN to defend
JELÖM an umbrella
JELÖN to protect
JEM shame
JEMOD a disgrace
JEMÖN (DEMÜ) to be ashamed (about/of)
JEMÜKÖN to disgrace
JEMÜKÖL abashed
JENÄD a development
JENAV history
JENAVAN a historian
JENAVIK historical
JENET a case, an instance pö jenet alik = in any case
JENOT an event
JENOTEM a history
JENÖFIK actual, real
JENÖFO actually, in reality, really
JENÖFOT a fact
JENÖFÜKAM fulfilment
JENÖN to happen, to take place
JENÖFÖ! indeed!
JENÜKÖN to cause, to make happen
JEP a herd (of animals)
JERAGIK precious
JERIK expensive
JEROTS valuables
JEVOD a horse
JEVODANÄM horsepower
JIB game (animals)
JIBALUMAN a lady soloist
JIBIRAVAN a poacher
JIBUB a cow
JICIL a daughter, a girl
JIDAIFIDAN a hostess
JIEDAMEDIN a laxative
JIEDOT excrement, faeces
JIEL (feminine sing. form of def. article)
JIF a sheaf
JIGAM a bride
JIGEM a sister
JIGOK a hen
JIGRODAN a pregnant woman
JIJELÄB a protégeé
JIKAT a cat, a queen (=she-cat)
JIKÄLAN a nurse
JIKÄLÄB a baby
JIKEL which, who (feminine)
JIKLINÜKAN a chambermaid, a cleaner
JIKONÖMAN a housekeeper
JILEPÄDAN an abbess
JILÄT a waistcoat
JIM a (pair of) scissors/shears
jimagivanakonot = a witch's tale
jimagivanayag = a withhunt
JIMARKETAN a marchioness
JIMATAN a wife
JIMEN a woman
JIMULAT a hinny, a she-mule
JINEPUEDAN a prostitute
JINIKO apparently
JINÖN to seem
JIP a sheep
JIPAL a mother
JIPLIN a princess
JIPUL a girl, a maiden
JIPÜL a lamb
JIPÜLAVULTUR a bearded vulture
JIREG a queen
JIT a shirt
JITER an aunt
JIYUFAN PATIK an (air) stewardess
JIZÖTISUMIDAN a (bus) conductress
JODEM rubbish
JOFIK bald
JOFÖR a chauffeur, a driver
JOG a bullrush
JOIKÖN to push, to shove
JOK a jerk, a jolt, a push, a shove
JOKAM jolting
JOKATUT canine tooth
JOKOLADATVILÜL a chocolate bar
JOKÖN (TA) to bump (into)
JOKÜL a jerk
JOL coast-line, shore
JOLALESÜT a (seaside) promenade
JOLÖN to approach the shore, to land
JON an indication
JONED a demonstration
JONET a (cinema/tv screen
JONETOT a display
JONETÜKAM a demonstration
JONIAN a (clock) hand
JONIDÖN to be of use
JONIDÜKÖN to employ, to provide, to use
JONIL a hint
JONODÖN to introduce (to someone)
JONÖN to indicate, to point, to show
JONÜLÖN to demonstrate
JOT a shoulder
JOV a racket, a row, an uproar
JOVAN a hooligan, a troublemaker
JÖENIK austere, sober
JÖL eight
JÖLÄT a (computer) byte
JÖLPLIFÄTIK octavo (= paper size)
JÖN beauty
JÖNAMEDS cosmetics
JÖNAPENAN a calligrapher
JÖNIK beautiful, fine, lovely
JÖNUL a caterpillar
JÖTASUÄM balance (= bookkeeping)
JÖTÖN to balance (an account)
JUB dandruff
JUEG sugar
JUG a rush (plant)
JUITÖN to enjoy
JUK a shoe
JUKATANODIL a shoe-lace
JUKEL a shoemaker
JUL a school
JULAN a pupil, a scholar
JURNAL a newspaper
JUTED a rush
JUTEDÖN to rush
JUTÖN to shoot
JUÜP a skirt
JÜ to, up to, until
JÜD a film (= a thin layer)
JÜFAV cryptography
JÜNU hitherto, until now
JÜNUIK up-to-date
JÜP a spade
JÜPÖN to dig
JÜPÜL a shovel
JÜS until
JÜTÖN to shoot at
JÜTÜKÖN to fire
KA than
KAAZIAD acacia (plant)
KAB a cable (wires)
KABAAL (the) Cabala (teaching)
KABEM (LEKTINIK) wiring (electrical)
KAD a card
KADAPLEDÖN to play cards
KADÄM an academy, a college
KAEDAV cartography
KAENAL an engineer
KAENAN a technician
KAENAV technology
KAF coffee
KAFASKAL a coffee-pot
KAFEIN caffeine
KAFETAR a cafeteria
KAGÖN to gossip, to prattle
KAGULAN a gossip
KAIL alkaline
KAIT a kite
KAJMIR cashmere (wool)
KAK cocoa
KAKAD a cockatoo
KAKTUD a cactus
KALADAPATÄD a characteristic
KALAD character
KALADÖN to characterize
KALED an almanac, a calendar
KALIB calibre, bore (of gun, etc)
KALIG a calyx (of flower)
KALKULAV arithmetic
KALKULÖN to calculate
KALOT an account, a bill
KAMALÄN a plain
KAMPANUL a campanula (flower)
KAMUFÖN to camouflage
KAN an ability, a skill
KANAD a fir tree
KANAIR a canary
KANAYAN a crook, a scoundrel
KANÄD a channel
KANDEL a candle
KANDELIKIPIAN a candle-stick
KANGUR a kangaroo
KANIBAN a cannibal
KANIT a song
KANITAN a singer
KANITÖN to sing
KANÖN ( + INFIN) to be able to, can
KANSER cancer (disease)
KANUD a canoe
KAP a head
KAPAKOSÄDÖM earphone(s)
KAPAKUSEN a cushion, a pillow
KAPAKUSENER a pillowcase
KAPÄLIFÖDÖL promoting intelligence
KAPAR a goat
KAPENAN a carpenter
KAPIT a chapter
KAPITEN a captain
KAPSIG pepper
KAPSUL a capsule (medication)
KAPSÜL a (bottle) top/cap
KAPÜT a bonnet, a hood
KAR a square
KARBINAHIDRIN carbohydrate
KARBUN carbon
KARIOF a carnation
KARIP a carp
KAROD (vehicle) bodywork
KAROV a caravan ( = travelling group)
KAROVÖP a staging post
KARTILAG a cartilage
KARTON cardboard
KARUSÄL a carrousel, a merry-go-round
KASAMAT a pill-box (military)
KASÄT a box, a case, a cassette
KASED a castle, a mansion
KASER (army) barracks
KASKOD a (ship's) funnel
KASTAENITAFLAPÖN to play "conkers" (= game)
KAT a cat
KATALIT a catalyst
KATAPULT a catapult
KATAR catarrh
KATASTROF a catastrophe, a disaster
KATÄD capital, cash
KATULIK catholic
KAUL a stalk, a stem
KAV a cellar
KAVEAD a guinea pig
KAVIDAN a knight
KAYAK a kayak (boat)
KAYÜT a cabin (on ship)
KAZETAMAL a (written) accent
KAZETÖN to accentuate, to emphasize
KÄBEN a cabin (of ship)
KÄD cash
KÄDÖFO cash down
KÄDÖP a cash desk
KÄFED a ruse, a trick
KÄFIK cunning, sly
KÄFOD a ruse, a trick
KÄLAN a foster-parent
KÄLÄB a foster-child
KÄLÄDAN a ranger
KÄLÄLÖN to care for, to mind
KALINAPÄRMANGANAT potassium permanganate
KÄLÖF a caring attitude
KÄLÖFIK careful, caring
KÄLÖN to attend to, to look after, to nurse
KÄLTIK celtic
KÄM a camera
KÄN a cannon
KÄNAMANAF a gunboat
KÄNEDÖN to precipitate
KÄPTEN a (ship's) captain
KÄSEM eczema
KÄV a dock, a quay
KEB a herb (=plant with soft, not woody stalk)
KEBLÜNÖN to contribute
KEBLÜNOT a contribution
KEDÄD a rank (=line of people)
KEDÄDIO! get in line!
KEDOTEM a scale
KEDÖBAN an accomplice (in crime)
KEDÜLÖN to link, to string
KEF a brush
KEFÖN to brush
KEINIK charming
KEINOT charm
KEK a cake
KEKUNAFLAMAT appendicitis
KEL who, which (relative); (in kel(s)= where)
KELEODÜKÖN (to) co-ordinate
KELOMÄNAN a fellow-countryman
KELÖDÖN (KO) to cohabit (with)
KELIED compassion
KELIEDÖN (KO) to sympathize (with)
KELOS what, which (relative pronoun)
KENINÜKAMÜ inclusive of
KEOLAN a mate, a pal
KEP a cape (=geographical)
KER a nucleus
KERMETATRUP a travelling fair
KESENÄL compassion, sympathy
KESEV knowledge
KESTERIN cholesterol
KESUMÖN to take away (with)
KEV a cave, a cavern
KEVOBÖF co-operation
KEVOBÖN to co-operate
KEVÖFIK cavernous, hollow
KIBER a cyborg
KIBERAV cybernetics (discipline)
KIBERIK cybernetic
KID a kiss
KIDÖN to kiss
KIEMAN an (analytical) chemist
KIEMASANAV chemotherapy
KIEMAV chemistry
KIEMIK chemical
KIEN a knee
KIENÖN to kneel
KIF? who? (feminine)
KIFIK? which (one)? (feminine)
KIK a key
KIKODO? why?
KIL three
KILLIEN a triangle
KILTONOD a third (music)
KIM ? who? (masculine)
KIMIK ? which (one)? (masculine)
KIN ? what? which? (neuter)
KINIK ? what (one)? which (one)? (neuter)
KIO ? what?
KIOSK a kiosk, a newspaper stand/stall
KIOSOTIK whatever
KIÖPO? where?
KIPEDALEF Board of Trustees
KIPÄDÖN to contain, to hold
KIPEDÖN to maintain, to preserve
KIPIAN a rack (=for towels, etc)
KIPIDÖN to deposit
KIPLADO? where?
KIPÖN to keep, to hold, to retain
KIRAT a (gold) carat
KIRFAT cinnamon
KIS? what? (abstract)
KISIK? what (one)? (abstract)
KISOTIK? what sort of . . .
KITAZÖT a receipt
KITIMO? when?
KITOPO? where?
KITÖN to receipt, to settle (payment)
KIUD a partition
KLAD a category, a class
KLADÄT a caste
KLAF a corn (on foot)
KLAT éclat, flamboyance, glamour
KLATÄDIK classical
KLAUNÖFIK clownish, silly
KLAV a key (on keyboard)
KLAVIKUL collar bone
KLAVAN a typist
KLAVÖN to key in, to type
KLÄDÖM a cradle

KLÄN a secret
KLÄNIK private, secret
KLÄNEDAPLED (a game of) 'hide and seek'
KLÄNEDÖN (OKI) to conceal, to hide (oneself)
KLÄPED a hatch, a shutter
KLEBAZÖT a label
KLEDÖM a seesaw
KLEDÖN to sway
KLEIBÖN to glue, to paste, to stick
KLEILIK clear, plain, unambiguous
KLEILILOGAM clairvoyance
KLEILIKO obviously
KLEILÜKÖN to elucidate, to explain
KLEMEDÖN to capitulate, to surrender
KLEMÖN to abandon, to decline, to refuse, to relinquish, to renounce
KLERALEOD hierarchy (religious)
KLERÄT chapter (ecclesiastical)
KLEUDAN (HI-/JI-) a monk, a nun
KLIEN inclination, tendency
KLIENÄL an instinct, intuition
KLIENÄLO instinctively
KLIENIK inclined (to)
KLIENÖN (AD) to incline, to tend (to)
KLIENÖN (LOVE) to bend (over)
KLIET refreshment
KLIETIK refreshing
KLIETÖN to refresh
KLIETOT a refreshment (klietots = refreshments)
KLIF a rock
KLIFABLÖG a boulder
KLIFIK rocky
KLILIK light (=not dark)
KLIMAT a climate
KLINIK clean
KLINÖF cleanliness
KLINÜKAMAMED a detergent
KLINÜKÖN to clean
KLIPAJOL a rocky coastline
KLIRIKÖN to call quits
KLIV a precipice
KLOK a bell
KLOKIL a handbell
KLOKÜL a doorbell
KLORIN chloride
KLOPÖN to harvest, to reap
KLOPÜP harvest time
KLOTED a dress
KLOTEDAZÄL a fancy dress ball
KLOTEM a suit
KLOTILÄGÖM a clothes hanger
KLOTÖN to dress
KLOTS clothes
KLOTUGIK elegant, smart
KLOTUGÖN to suit (of clothes)
KLÖBÜL a (bell) clapper
KLÖPIK circular, round
KLÖPÖFIK portly (of gait)
KLU consequently
KLUBAM an association
KLUBÄD a body (of people)
KLUDÖN to deduce, to infer
KLUDOD a conclusion (mental)
KLUÖ ! well now !
KLUF a nail (woodwork)
KLUINÖN to clean, to wipe
KLUR an emblem
KLUT a lock, a sluice (nautical)
KLUV a claw (of animal)
KLUVÖN to claw
KLÜLABIKO evidently
KLÜLÄDÖN to be evident, to be obvious
KLÜLIKÖ! of course!
KLÜNACEM a cloakroom
KLÜNATAB a dressing-table
KNÄTÄRÖN to crackle
KNIBOD a gag, a muzzle
KNIBÖN to nip, to pinch
KNIRÖN to creak, to grate
KNOP a button
KO with
KOAGÜL a clot (of blood)
KOAN a shell
KOANAF a shellfish
KOANANIM a mussel (= seafood)
KOAP a (person's) body
KOAPANATÄL (physical) constitution
KOAPISKILÜKAM (physical) exercise
KOÄF a coefficient (maths)
KOBANEF a gathering (of people)
KOBÄDIK common, general(kobädo (ko) = in common (with)
KOBÄLÄN a commonwealh (of like-minded nations)
KOBÄT solidarity
KOBIKÖN (KO) to come together, to converge
KOBIOKLEBIK agglutinative
KOBO together
KOBODRÄNÖN to compress
KOBOJEN coincidence, concurrence
KOBOJENÖN (KO) to coincide (with)
KOBOJOIKÖN to collide
KOBOJOKÖN (TA) to collide (with)
KOBOKÖMÖN to converge
KOBONUMÖN to add up, to add together
KOBOPEDÖN to compress
KOBOYÜMÜKARÄT a jigsaw puzzle
KOBÖF a collectivity
KOBÜKAM an assembly, a meeting
KOD a cause, reason
* se kod nepesevöl = for some reason
KODÄ why (conjunction)
KODÄDÖN to complicate
KODED a reason
KODEDÖN to give occasion to, to give rise to
KODIDÖN (EKE BOSI) to ascribe, to attribute
KODÖN to cause
KODÜL a pretext
KOEDÖN (+ INFIN) to allow, to permit (koedön falön = to letfall)
KOEFIDÖN (OKI) to hear someone’s confession
KOEFIKÖN to go to confession
KOEFÖN to confess
KOEG a cork
KOEGITIRET a corkscrew
KOF derision, mockery, ridicule
KOFÖN to deride, to mock, to ridicule
KOFUDÜKÖN to confuse
KOITÖM a penis
KOITÖN (KO) to have intercourse, mate (with)
KOJMAR a nightmare
KOKAIN cocain
KOKOT a coconut
KOKRETOT concrete (substance)
KOKUN a cocoon
KOL in regard to, in respect of
KOLAT coal
KOLATAN a coalman
KOLATAJUP a coal shovel
KOLED a lunch
KOLET a collar (clothing)
KOLD coldness (physical)
KOLDÄLIK coldness (emotional)
KOLDÄT a chill, a cold
KOLDÄTIKÖN to catch a chill/cold
KOLDÜKÖN to become chilly
KOLDIK cold (temperature)
KOLDÜLIK cool, fresh
KOLDÜLÜKAFURNOD a cooling oven
KOLDÜLÜKÖM a cooler, a (car) radiator
KOLED a lunch
KOLEDÖN to lunch, to have lunch
KOLET a collar
KOLKÖM an encounter, a meeting
KOLKÖMANEF an assembly
KOLKÖMÖN to encounter, to meet
KOLPORTAN a hawker, a peddler
KOLTENÜKÖN to stretch out
KOLUM a column (architecture)
KOLUN a colony (settlement/encampment/base)
KOLUNAN a colonist
KOLUNÄN a colony (country)
KOLUNÄNACANS colonial produce, groceries
KOLUNÖN to colonize
KOMAD a coma
KOMANDÖN to recommend
KOMÄDÖN to exist
KOMBINATOR many parts
KOMIK present (in attendance)
KOMIP a fight, a struggle
KOMIPIÄLIK aggressive
KOMIPÖN (TA) to fight, to struggle (against)
KOMIPÖP an arena
KOMITETANEF a committee
KOMITO on commission
KOMÖN to be present
KOMOREIDÖN to lecture, recite, to read (in public)
KOMOTANEF a community
KOMPAD a compass
KOMPAIN a company (of soldiers)
KOMPENAN a fellow-spirit, a colleague
KOMPENÄT a (commercial) company
KOMPENÄTAN a partner (in firm)
KOMPENÖN (PÖ) to share (with), to take part (in)
KOMPLEM completion
KOMPLITIK complex, complicated
KOMPLITIKÖN to become entangled
KOMPLITüKÖN to entangle
KOMUIN (SALUDIK) communion (holy)
KOMULAN a representative
KOMULÖN to represent
KOMUNAN an average person, man in the street
KOMUNIK common, general, ordinary
KOMUNÖFIK familiar
KOMÜ in the presence of
KONAN narrator
KONDÖT behaviour, conduct
KONDÖTÖN (ÄS) to behave (as)
KONÄD a legend
KONED a novel
KONFÄKOT ready to wear (clothes)
KONFIDIK close (friend)
KONFERÖN to confer (consult together)
KONFID confidence, faith, trust
KONFIDIK confident, faithful, trustful
KONFIDÖN to have faith in, to trust
KONGRUEN a congruent (maths)
KONKER a conquest, a victory
KONKERÖN to conquer, to overrun
KONLET a collection
KONLETÖN to collect
KONOT a story, a tale
KONOTÜL an anecdote
KONÖM (the) economy, (the) household
KONÖMAV economics
KONÖMAVAN an economist
KONÖN to narrate, to tell (= a story)
KONSÄL a (piece of) advice
KONSÄLACÄM a Council Chamber
KONSÄLIDADÜP an appointment
KONSÄLIDÖN to consult
KONSÄLÖN to advise, to counsel
KONSÄLÖP a town hall
KONSÄRT a concert
KONSIENIVESTIG an examination of conscience
KONSIENÖFIK conscientious
KONSTATÖN to take note of, to notice
KONSULÖP a consulate
KONTAG (sense of) touch
KONTAGALENTÜL contact lense
KONTAGAPÜN interface (physics)
KONTAGÖN to contact, to touch
KONTROLÖN to control, to check
KONÜD a (fir) cone
KONYAK brandy
KONYUGÖN to conjugate (verbs)
KONYUN a conjunction (grammar)
KOOTIK fully cooked
KOP a body (= substance)
KOPIK physical
KOPIED a copy
KOPIEDÖN to copy
KORÄKÖN to correct, to mark (work)
KORDÜL a sinew, a tendon
KOR a choir
KORIAL coral
KORIALAREF a coral reef
KORIAND coriander
KORNED a cornea (eye)
KORSÄT a bodice, a corset
KORUL coral (= pink)
KOS opposite (=facing)
KOSAM a contact
KOSÄD company, communication, social intercourse
* kosäd genik = sexual intercourse
KOSÄDAPÜK colloquial speech
KOSÄDÖN (KO) to associate (with), to communicate (with); to get
on/to go around (with)
KOSGOLÖN to approach, to go to meet
KOSID a livelihood
KOSIDÖN to earn one’s living
KOSIKÖN (KO) to communicate (with)
KOSLOGÖN to anticipate, to look forward to
KOSÜKÖN to put in touch with
KOT a code
KOTAVÖD a code word
KOTENIK contented, satisfied
KOTENÜKAM satisfaction
KOTENÜKÖN to satisfy
KOTIN cotton
KOTUR a quail
KOULT (the) occult
KOUP an occupation (military)
KOUPÖN to occupy (military)
KOVEN comfort
KOVENASTUL an easy chair
KOVENIK comfortable
KOVENIÄLIK convenient, opportune
KÖ where (correlative)
KÖB a comb
KÖBAMAYÄN worsted (cloth)
KÖBÖN (OKI) to comb (one's hair)
KÖDET an incision
KÖDÖN to carve
KÖG a cough
KÖGÖN to cough
KÖK a micrococcus (medical)
KÖL colour, paint
KÖLAN a (house) painter
KÖLÖN to paint
KÖLÜL a tint
KÖMÖN (LÜ) to come (to)
KÖNÄD a coin
KÖNÄDAV numismatics
KÖP a cup
KÖPET a (beer) glass
KÖRAMAN the knave of hearts (card games)
KÖRAREG the king of hearts (card games)
KÖRAVOM the queen of hearts (card games)
KÖRTEN a curtain
KÖSÖMIK common, habitual, usual
KÖSÖMOT a custom, a habit
KÖSÖMÖN (AD) to be accustomed (to), to be wont (to)
KÖSÖMÜKÖN to accustom
KÖST a cousin
KÖT a cut
KÖTAPÜN (point of) intersection
KÖTÄD a slice
KÖTÄDIL an incision
KÖTED a cutting edge
KÖTET a (surgical) operation
KÖTETAVAN a surgeon
KÖTOT a piece, a portion
KÖTÖN to cut
KÖTÜLÖN to prune (kötülön bimis = to prune trees)
KÖV an envelope
KRAB a crab
KRAL a claw
KRAN a cranium, a skull
KRASUM a colon
KRATED an abrasion, a scratch
KRATÖN to scrape, to scratch
KRAVAT a necktie
KRAXÖN to crow
KRÄKÖN to burst
KRÄN a crane
KRÄTÄD a crate
KREDÖN (MÖ) to believe (in)
KREDIDÖN to make believe, to pretend
KREF a crayfish
KREM a cream
KRET chalk
KRETÄD a crayon
KREVÄT a prawn, shrimp
KRIG a war
KRIGAGOLÄD a crusade, a (military) expedition
begön krigistöpi = to call for a truce
KRIGÖN (TA) to wage war (against)
KRIK a cricket
KRIKÜL a grasshopper
KRIM a crime
KRIMAN a criminal
KRIMÖF criminality
KRINUL a crinoline
KRIPÖN to creep
KRISET a hamster
KRISID a crisis
KRISTAD crystal
KRIT Christianity
KRITID Christmas
* Fatül Kritid = Father Christmas
KRITIDAZÄL (festival of) Christmas
KROD a cross
KRODAM crucifixion
KROK a crocus
KROKOD a crocodile
KROLIG a rabbit
KROMOSOM a chromosome
KRONAM a coronation
KRONIG a chronicle
(jen kronigik = chronicling)
KRONÜL a wreath
KROPIKÖN to crouch down
KROT a rattle
KROTASNEK a rattlesnake
KROTÖM a castanet
KROV a crow
KRUGIK curving, winding
KRUGIKÖN to coil, to wind
KRUÄLIK cruel, ferocious
KRUGÜL a curl
KRÜDIK raw, uncooked
KRÜSALID a chrysallis
KRÜSEN a chrysanthemum
KRÜT a criticism, a critique
KRÜTÖN to review (books)
KUBIT an elbow
KUD anxiety, worry
KUDIK anxious, worried
KUDÜKÖLO earnestly
KUELEL a ukulele
KUIN a quintal (= 100 kg)
KUKÖN to be boiling (vat kukon = the water's
KUKUK a cuckoo
KUL a course (= movement); a track
KULAN a pioneer, a trailblazer
KULIK epoch-making
KULIT a scene (theatrical)
KULIVIK cultured, educated
KULÖN to clear
KULTASALUDÜKAM ordination (to priesthood)
KULTÖN to worship
KUM a heap, a pile
KUMAM an accumulation
KUMULATOR an accumulator (electric)
KÜM a swarm
KUN a cow
KUPRIN copper
KUPRINAGAVOT a copper engraving
KUR a (royal) court
KURAAN (the) Koran
KURAD bravery, courage
KURADIK brave, courageous
KURADÜKÖN to encourage
KURAN a courtier
KURATÄL punctuality
KURATIK exact, precise
KURBIDÖM an (electric) switch
KURSÜD a course (of lessons)
KURUGIK courtly
KUSADÖN to accuse
KUSEN a cushion, a pillow
KÜ when (correlative)
KÜBÄD a cube
KÜG a cucumber
KÜID a thigh
KÜIR leather
KÜIRED a (shoe) strap
KÜKANÖG a boiled egg
KÜKÖN to boil (kükobs vati = we boil the water)
KÜL an anus
KÜMAM a swarm (of bees)
KÜMÖN to swarm
KÜNIDAN a cynic
KÜNIDIK cynical
KÜNIDIM cynicism
KÜNIK bold, cheeky
KÜNÖN to be cheeky, to dare
KÜPÄDIK remarkable
KÜPÄDIKÜN most remarkable
KÜPÄL attention
KÜPÄLIK attentive
KÜPÄLÖN to check, to make sure
KÜPÄLÜKÖN to draw attention to
KÜPEDOT an observation
KÜPEDÖN to observe, to notice, to watch
KÜPET a remark
KÜPETÖN to comment
KÜPODÖN to be caught (in the act)
KVAADUK an aqueduct
KVAD a (geometric) square
KVADIK square (shape)
KVAGÖN to croak, to quack
KVASAR a quasar
KVATÄD braid
KVÄNÖN to extinguish, to turn off
KVÄNEDÖN to efface, to obliterate, to wipe out
KVÄR an acorn
KVÄREP an oak (tree)
KVÄREPABOAD oak (wood)
KVEATOR equator
KVIL an eagle
KVIP a team
KVISINAV culinary art
KVISINÖN to cook
KVISINÖP a kitchen
KVISIT (the) Inquisition
suk oomojito okmoji o kubetz suruy ro dea
LABEDÖN to take possession of
LABIÄLIK ambitious, avaritious, covetous
LABOT a possession
LABÖN to have
LABUN an album
LABÜKÖN to make available
LABÜLÖN to assume, to occupy
LABÜREN labyrinth
LAD a heart
LADÄL disposition, feeling(s), temperament
LADÄLALIED heartbreak
LADÄLATAKED calmness, composure
LADÄLOD a frame of mind
LADÄLÖF sensitivity
LADET an address
LADETÄB an addressee
LADÖFIK cordial
LAED lattice
LAEL an alley-way, a grove
LAF a half
LAFAB an alphabet
LAFADÜP half-an-hour
LAFAPLEDEDÜP half-time (in football)
LAFIK half
LAGÖN to be hanging (pänot lagon len völ = the
picture is hanging on the wall)
LAIBINÜKÖN to keep (something) going
LAIDAREMAN a regular customer
LAIDÄL insistence, perseverence
LAIDÄLÖN (PÖ) to insist (on)
LAIDÖN to be stable
LAIDULIK constant
LAIDULIKO continually
LAIDULÖN to persist
LAIDULÜKAM perpetuation
LAIJÄFÖN to carry on, to continue
LAILIFÖN to live on, to survive
LAIN wool
LAJIMÖN to cut up
LAK a lake
LALÄF a slug
LALEG seaweed
LALEGORIK allegorical
LALGORIT an algorithm
LALIAD an alloy
LALKIMAN an alchemist
LALKOHOL alcohol
LALKOV an alcove, a recess
LALPIK alpine
LALT alto (music)
LAM a (sharp) blade
LAMERIKÄN America, the United States
LAMIRAL an admiral
LAMPAD a lamp
LAMPIUN a (Chinese) lantern
LAMPÖR an emperor
LAMPÖRÄN an empire
LAN a soul, a spirit
LANAL (the) Supreme Spirit
LANAV psychology
LANÄLIK enthusiastic
LANÄLÖN to enthuse
LANÄLÜKÖN to enthuse
LÄNEDAL a landowner
LANILEKÄL psychiatric treatment
LANIVESTIG psychiatry
LANIVESTIGAN a psychiatrist
LÄNOD landscape
LANÖFIK spiritual
LANTÄR a (decorative) lamp, a light
LANTEN an aerial, an antenna
LANUD an alder (tree)
LAOÄD an aloe (plant)
LAODIK aloud, loud
LAODIKO loudly
LAPELACÖDAL an appeal judge
LARABAN an arab
LARAM an alarm
LARAMÖN to raise the alarm
LARDAMEL (the) open sea
LARDIK extensive
LARGENTASTÖMEM (table) silver
LARGENTIN silver (substance)
LARIN a larynx
LARTÜG a (newspaper) article
LASÄR a lizard
LASBED asbestos
LASER a laser
LASIL an asylum (from an enemy), a shelter
LASIV lust
LASUMÖN to pick up
LASÜRABLÖV an azure blue
LATAR an altar
LATIK late, tardy
LATIKÖN to be late
LATLETIK athletic
LAUD a lark
LAUTAN an author, a writer
LAUTOT a (written) work
LAUTÖN to write (as an author)
LAVABASIN (kitchen) sink
LAVABÖVÄD a washbasin
LAVACIN a washing machine
LAVALAUK washing liquid
LAVARAN a miser
LAVARIK avaricious, mean
LAVASTITOD a laundry
LAVAT lava
LAVÄDAFLAB a face cloth
LAVOD laundry
LAVOGAN a lawyer
LAVÖN to wash
LAVÖP a laundry
LAVÜLÖN to rinse
LAY garlic
LAYET a drawer
LÄ by, with
LÄB happiness, fortune, luck
LÄBIK happy, fortunate, lucky
LÄBLIN a contribution
LÄCERIK frivolous, superficial
LÄD lady, Mrs (läd 'X' = Mrs. 'X')
LÄDÜL young lady, Miss (lädül 'X' = Miss 'X')
LÄFULÜKIK extra, supplementary
LÄGIAN a belt (supporting gun, etc)
LÄGÖN to hang (lägob pänoti len völ = I hang
the painting on the wall)
LÄKÖN to lick
LÄL garlic
LÄMBUSK an ambush
LÄMBUSKÖN to ambush
LÄMPIK clear (weather)
LÄN country, land
LÄNÄD country (as opposed to town)
LÄNED ground, terrain
LÄNEM a nickname
LÄNOD scenery
LÄO in addition
LÄOD an addition, an epithet
LÄRNAHIPUL an apprentice boy
LÄRNAN a learner, a pupil
LÄRNOD a lesson
LÄRNÖN to learn
LÄS less
LÄSDIGIDÖN to underestimate
LÄSETÖN to disappoint
LÄSIKAM a decline
LÄSIKÖN to become weaker
LÄSÖFIK demeaning
LÄTEN brass
LÄTIK last (lätiküno = last of all)
LÄTIKNA the last time
LÄTIKO lastly
LÄÜKÖN to enclose
LÄYÜMIK additional
LÄZIB a side dish
LEADÖN (+ INFIN) to allow, to permit, to let (leadönfalön = to drop (to let fall)
LEADÖN DEFLUMÖN to deflate (air from tyre)
LEÄKTRONAV electronics
LEAR an olive tree
LEARAFLUK an olive
LEARALEÜL olive oil
LEBASOV double bass (music)
LEBAT a scourge
LEBAVET a shawl
LEBIT a campaign
LEBLADÖN to blow (of wind)
LEBLAM a reprimand
LEBLAMÖN to reprimand
LEBLIMÖN to make up (a bed)
LEBLUDAM a haemorrhage
LEBONED a subscription (to a magazine, etc)
LEBONEDÖN to subscribe (to a magazine, etc)
LEBÖB (the) Stock Exchange
LEBÖTAN a head waiter
LEBÖTID a drinking spree
LEBUG a gulf (= coastal)
LEBÜDAN a commander
LEBÜR a head office
LEBÜRAL a chancellor
LECÄD highness, eminence
LECED a point of view
LECEIN a conversion
LECEK a stable
LECÜD an axe
LECÜT a fraud, a swindle
LED lace
LEDAUT a princess
LEDINIK principal
LEDINO chiefly, mainly, principally
LEDITÖN (DE) to say goodbye, to take leave (of)
LEDOM a mansion, a palace
LEDROLIK ridiculous
LEDUNÖFIK elaborate
LEDUNÖN to accomplish, to attain, to carry out
LEDUTOD a property (= quality)
LEDUTÖN (LÜ) to belong (to)
LEDÜFIK rock hard
LEEFAD an elephant
LEF balm, yeast
LEFAD a line, a string
LEFANOT booty; a quarry (hunting); spoils (of war)
LEFAT a grandfather
LEFÄK an obsession, a passion
LEFÄKÄLIK extreme, passionate
LEFÄNÖN to wave
LEFENIKÖN to exhaust
LEFIDED a banquet
LEFIL a conflagration
LEFILAPOLDAN a fire-fighter, a fireman
LEFILÖ! fire!
LEFILÖN to be burning, to be on fire
LEFLITÖM an airliner
LEFOG a cloud
LEFÖN a furnace
LEFRED (good) cheer
LEFREDIK cheerful
LEGAD a (public) park, public gardens
LEGÄT a legation (= building)
LEGIK genuine, real
LEGIVOT a gift, a present
LEGLÜG a cathedral
LEGUAN an iguana
LEHÄRETAL a heresiarch
LEHITIK boiling hot
LEIG equality
LEIGAMAGOD an example (= parable)
LEIGAMOD a counterpart
LEIGAPENAM a homograph
LEIGATON an equivalent sound
LEIGÄT equivalent
LEIGAVET equilibrium
LEIGED a uniform
LEIGETÖN to be quits, to be straight
LEIGIK equal
LEIGO likewise
LEIGOD a comparison
LEIGODIK comparable
LEIGODO by (in) comparison
LEIGODÖN (KO/TÄ) to compare (with)
LEIGODÜ in comparison with
LEIGÖN to equal, to be equal to
LEIGOSO equally, just as
LEITIK light (= not heavy)
LEJÄFIDÖN (ME) to be obsessed (with)
LEJEDÖN to fling, to hurl
LEJEKÖN to appal, to terrify
LEJENÖF reality
LEJONOD an instruction
LEJUIT a delight
LEJUITIK delightful
LEKÄL treatment (medical)
LEKANAN an artist
LEKANÄL artistry
LEKANOT a fine art
LEKÄF a trick, a deception
LEKÄL (medical) treatment
LEKLÄR lightening (in a storm)
LEKEV a cave
LEKEVAV speleology
LEKLIN cleanliness
LEKLUINÖN to clean, to polish
LEKLUINÖM a polisher, a scraper
LEKOEF a creed
LEKOEFÖN to admit, to confess
LEKOMIP a battle
LEKONED a novel (literature)
LEKONFIDÖN to rely on
LEKOSÄDADÜP the rush hour
LEKRED a belief, a faith
LEKREDAKOBÄD a (religious) sect
LEKTIN electricity
LEKTINAFLUMIKURB an electric switch
LEKTINANÄM electric power
LEKTINANIBUD a trolley bus
LEKTINIDÖN to electrify
LEKTINIK electric(al)
LEKUSEN a cushion, a pillow
LEKÜPÄLÖN (ME) to concentrate (on) (mental activity)
LEL a lily
LELILÖN to hear, to learn, to understand
LELIVAKONÖMAV a free economy (theory)
LELOBÖN to praise, to worship
LELOGÄDIK outstanding, prominent
LELOGÖN to consider
LELÖF passionate love
LELÖFÄDIK fond (of)
LELÖFÄDIKÖN (DÖ) to fall in love (with)
LELÖFIK dear, lovable
LELÖFÖN to love (passionately)
LELÖLO as a whole
LELÜGIK tragic
LEM paralysis
LEMAKET a supermarket
LEMEIL flour
LEMEKÖN to complete, to finish
LEMESED an income, a salary, a wage
LEMOT a grandmother
LEMOTEDIK (of) gentle (birth)
LEMÖD a lot of
LEMÖDOT a crowd, a great deal
LEMUDIÄR a muzzle
LEMUFÜKÖN to agitate, to shake, to shrug
* lemufükön nami = to shake hands
LEMUAM an extreme
LEMUIK extreme
LEMÜF a locomotive
LEMÜLÖN to limp
LEMÜR a splash
LEN at, on
LENAUD a horror
LENKÖTÖN to slice
LENLABÖN (KLOTIS) to wear (clothes)
LENO certainly not, not at all
LENOS absolutely nothing
LENOID a din, a noise
LENOF an insult
LENSEIDOT an appendix (book)
LENSUMÖN to accept
LENTÜL a lens (eye)* kontagalentül(s) = contact lense(s)
LENUIK up-to-date
LENÜKÖN (KLOTIS) to put on (clothes)
LENÜNAN a reference (person)
LEOD an arrangement, an order
LEODÖN to arrange (in order)
LEODÜKÖN to arrange (items)
LEOG an echo
LEON a lion (leonasep = a lion's den)
LEONATOAR a sea lion
LEP an ape, a monkey
LEPÄDAN an abbott
LEPÄDANÖP an abbey
LEPEDÖN to crush
LEPID repentance
LEPLÄG a (dress) rehearsal
LEPLEDS LÜMPIK The Olympic Games
LEPLEKÖN to adore, to supplicate, to worship
LEPLÜT(S) manner(s); politeness
LEPÖK a failure
LEPRAD leprosy
LERÄT a puzzle
LEROR a shout, a shriek
LERORÖN to bellow, to shout, to yell
LERÖBAPAPÜR sand paper
LESAG an assertion
LESAGÖN to assert, to claim
LESEATÖP an (army) position
LESET a theorem
LESI! sure!
LESIG a drought
LESIL outer space
LESINIK wicked
LESIÖN to assure, to ensure, to make sure of
LESIÖRADOM a manor (house)
LESKAN an outrage
LESOGÄD high society
LESON a prince
LESPAD (the) cosmos
LESPADABLUF a space probe
LESPADANAF an spaceship
LESPADANAFAN an astronaut
LESPADATIMÄD (the) space age
LESPAT an excursion
LESKRUB a (ship's) screw
LESTAB (MELA) the bottom (of the sea)
LESTEKATEGED an eiderdown
LESTIGÄDÖN to irritate
LESTIMAN an admirer, a fan
LESTRALÖN (LOVE) to outshine
LESTÜM esteem, regard, reverence
LESTÜMÖN to esteem
LESUIDIKÖN to faint away
LESÜT a highway
LETÄLEN genius
LETEP a hurricane
LETIDAN a headmaster
LETIK (mental) consideration
LETIKÖN to consider
LETIRÖM a wrench
LETIRÖN to drag, to haul
LETODÖN to defy, to torment
LETÖBID trouble, inconvenience
LETÖN to let in
LETÜV the discovery (of continent/country)
LEÜL oil, lubrication
LEÜLÖN to oil, to lubricate
LEVALANAF a space ship
LEVALIDACED a general opinion
LEVEG a highway, a road
LEVEMIK enormous, supreme
LEVERIK absolute
LEVIENIK wind-swept
LEVIP passion
LEVOTIKAM an anti-climax
LEYANAN a gate-keeper, a janitor
LEZIL fervour, zeal
LEZILIM extremism, fanaticism
LEZIÖB a (prison) cell
LIÄG holly
LIB freedom, liberty
LIBELUL a dragonfly
LIBIK free
LIBIO free (stadükön libio = to set free)
LIBÜKAM liberation
LIBÜKAN a rescuer
LICID a lychee (= fruit)
LICIN origin
LID a song
LIÄNÜLAM a foot (in verse)
LIEDAN a sufferer
LIEDIK unfortunate
LIEDÖ! unfortunately!
LIEDÖN (DEMÜ) to suffer (for/from/on account of)
LIEDÜKÖN to upset (emotionally)
LIEG fortune, riches, wealth
LIEGIK rich, wealthy
LIEGÖF richness
LIEN a line
LIENÄD a (physical) feature
LIENET madness, mania
LIENETIK insane, mad
LIEV a hare
LIF life
LIFAJENÄD a life history
LIFAMOTAMIK viviparous
LIFICINIK bio-mechanical
LIFIK alive, living
LIFOT an experience
LIFÄDÖN to spend (time)
LIFÖFÜKÖN to invigorate
LIFÖN to be alive, to live
LIFT an elevator, a lift
LIKÖR a liqueur
LIKVIR liquorice
LIL an ear
LILAMASIEN (sense of) hearing
LILAMASTUMIL a hearing aid
LILAMAZÄN the inner ear
LILÖN to hear
LIM a limb, a member
LIMAN a (human) member
LIMEDÜKAM membership
LIMONAD lemonade
LIN a ring (= a circle)
LINDIF apathy
LINDIFÖN to be indifferent* lindifos = it doesn't matter
LINEG a tongue
LINGLAPÜK English (= the language in general)
LINGLÄNAPÜK English (= the language of England)
LINUL linoleum
LINUMASTOF linen (cloth)
LIO? how?
LIOMÖDOTIKNA? how many times?
LIOMÖDOTO? how much?
LIÖL a mile
LIÖTAN a lieutenant
LIP a lip
LIRID iris (both eye and flower)
LISED a list
LISITAN a candidate
LIT light (= not dark)
LITAREKLAM an illuminated advertisement
LITERAT literature
LITIK bright, light
LITODÖN to print (photographs)
LITÜKAM illumination
LITÜKÖN to illuminate
LIUD a link (connection)
LIUNÖN to draw, to trace (a line)
LIUNÜL a comma
LIVÄL self-sufficiency
LIVÄTIK independent
LIVIK free, loose, slack, unfastened
LIVOD leave (in army)
LIVÖN to be loose
LIVÜKAM release (from prison, duty, etc)
LIVÜKÖN to loosen, to slacken, to unfasten
LIVÜP leisure (time); a pastime
LO in view of
LOASID an oasis
LOATAMON rent (payment)
LOATAN a lodger
LOATÄB a hired servant
LOB praise
LOBEDIK obedient
LOBEDÖN to obey
LOBLINÖN to bring up (a subject)
LOBÜL approval
LOBÜLÖN to applaud
LÖDADOM an apartment
LODASPAD the hold of a ship (for cargo)
LODOT a cargo, a load
LOENÖN (DE) to borrow (from); to loan
LOETAMAPAÄL a frying-pan
LOETAMIT roast (meat)
LOETANÖG a fried egg
LOETÖN to fry, to roast
LOFOT a (specific) offer
LOFÖN to offer
LOFÜD east
LOG an eye
LOGABOB an eyebrow
LOGAGLÖP an eyeball
LOGAKEV an eye socket
LOGALIP an eyelid
LOGALIPÖN to blink
LOGALIPAHER an eyelash
LOGAM (sense of) sight, a view
LOGASAUNÜKÖP an eye clinic
LOGATOF an eye drop
LOGÄDIK visible
LOGÄDIKÖN to become visible, to be seen
LOGÄDÖN to be seen, to be visible
LOGED a glance, a look
LOGEDAHOG a peep-hole
LOGEDÖN (LÜ) to glance (at), to look (at)
LOGET a gaze
LOGETÖN to contemplate
LOGOD a face
(logodakölül = complexion)
LOGODÖN (ÄS) to appear, to look (like)
LOGOT a sight
* pö logot balid = at first sight
LOGOTÖN (ÄS) to appear outwardly (like)
LOGÖFOT a (tourist) attraction
LOGÖN to look, to see
LOJAD a (theatre) box
LOK a mirror
LOKTOP an octopus
LOKÖN to be mirrored/reflected
LOM home
LOMÄDÜKÖN (OKI) to settle down
LOMANEF (the) family
LOMÄN homeland
LOMÄNAN a (fellow) countryman
LOMÄNÄL patriotism
LOMIO homewards
LOMO at home
LOMÖFACEM a sitting room
LON a/the law
LONÄD a decision
LONÄDÖN to determine, to settle
LONEM the (body of) the law, legislation
LONÖF a particular quality
LONÖFÖN to be valid
LONÖN to arrange, to ratify
LONÜLÖN to put, to submit (for con sideration)
LOP an opera
LOPÜL an operetta
LORD a lord
LOREIDÖN to read out
LORKID an orchid
LORM an elm
LOSEITÖN to present
LOTERAZÖT a lottery ticket, a raffle ticket
LOTID accommodation
LOTIDÄB a guest
LOTIDÖP an hotel, a hostelry
LOVATIK oval (shape)
LOVE over
LOVEBOID(IO) overboard
LOVEBOTAM a (water) crossing
LOVEGOLÖN (LOVE) to cross (over)
LOVELIFÄDÖN to outlive
LOVEIKÖM interface (computer)
LOVEIVOTÖN (INI) to turn / convert (into)
LOVELOGAM a bird's-eye view
LOVENAF a ferry(boat)
LOVENAFAMÖP a ferry crossing
LOVEPENAM transcription
LOVEPENÄT a transcription
LOVESEDÖN to transmit
LOVESUMÖN to succeed (= to follow on); to undertake (to do
LOVIOTIRAKLOT a pullover, a sweater
LOXIN oxygen
LOZON ozone
LÖÄDÖN to rise, to stand up
löädön se bed = to get up
LÖBIDAKÖTÖN to lobotomize (= to cut frontal lobe of brain inan operation)
LÖBRUID effervescence
LÖDADOM a flat
LÖDAN an inhabitant
LÖDATEAD an appartment, a flat
LÖDAVAB a caravan
LÖDÖN to live, to reside
LÖDÖP place of residence
LÖDÜKÖN to inhabit, to live in
LÖF love
LÖFÄB a loved one
LÖFÄL a hobby
LÖFIDIK appealing, charming
LÖFIK lovable, dear
LÖFILÖN to like
LÖFLAM a blaze
LÖFÖN to love
LÖFÜLÖN to caress, to fondle
LÖG a leg
LÖIK upright
LÖK a lock
LÖLIK entire, whole
LÖLIKO completely, wholly, quite
LÖLÖFIK complete
LÖLIMIK extremist
LÖMIN a chemical element
LÖNAFRUTÄL self - interest
LÖNÄL one's very self, the essential self
LÖNEDIK fitting, suitable
LÖNEDIKÖN (AD) to become adapted (to)
LÖNEDÖN (PÖ) to be fitting, to be suitable (for)
LÖNEDÜKÖN to adapt, to adjust
LÖNIK (one's) own
LÖNÜLÖN to conform to
LÖODÖN to erect, to raise up
LÖÖN to stand up straight
LÖPATEGED a counterpane (on bed)
LÖPATIDÖP a college
LÖPIKÖN to take off (= aeroplane)
LÖPIKÖL ascending
LÖPIO upward(s)
LÖPIOTOVÖN to uplift
LÖPO up(stairs) (go löpo = topmost)
LÖPÜ above, on top of
LÖSTANÖN to stand up
LÖSTROGENIN oestrogen (drug)
LÖTIRÖN to pull up
LÖÜKÖN to raise up
LOVEMELIK overseas
LOVESTÜRÖN to pass on
LÖVIK low (= height)
LUÄG a harebell
LUBEGAN a beggar
LUBEL a hill
LUCÄD snobbery
LUDIVODIK addictive
LUDRINÖN to booze
LUEG a lung
LUF windward side (nautical)
LUFAT a stepfather
LUFLAD a jug

LUFUT a paw
LUG a lie
LUGAN a liar
LUGÖN to lie
LUKAGAM malicious gossip
LUKRÜT (bad) criticism
LUHARAT a slum
LUHÄT a cap (= headgear)
LUIB a wheel
LUIBAMEKAN a wheelwright
LUIMIKÖN to get wet
LUIMÖF humidity, moisture
LUIMÖN to be moist/wet
LUKÄFIK cunning, sly
LUKÖNÄDAMON loose change
LUMAN a scoundrel
LUMESED a gratuity, a tip
LUKOFIKO mockingly, sneeringly
LUKRED superstition
LUKÜNIK foolhardy
LUL five
LULAK a pond
LULIT poor light, twilight
LUM an elm (tree)
LUMAN a wretch
LUMARAT (the) rat race
LUMOT a stepmother
LUNÄDIK oblong
LUNET (geographic) length
LUNID a glimmer (= weak light)
LUNIK long
LUNOFÖN to abuse, to revile
LUNOTIK long (= measure) (lunotik mö mets
kil = three metres long)
LUNÜKÖN to lengthen
LUP a wolf
LUPANAR a brothel
LUPLEIDIK conceited, vain
LUPÖP a mob, a rabble
LUPREDIK unctuous
LUSLUGÖN to swallow up
LUSMEL a stench
LUSMELÖN (ÄS) to stink (of)
LUSOG a gang
LUSPET an illusion
LUSPIKÖN (DÖ) to chatter, to gossip (about)
LUSTÄN a pennant
LUSTEBEDÖN to miss (= neglect)
LUSTIGÄDAN a ringleader, a trouble-maker
LUSTOG a ankle-sock
LUSÜT an alley, a lane (= in town)
LUT air
* in lut lardik = in the open air
LUTAM ventilation
LUTAMAFONÄD a ventilation shaft
LUTAPED air pressure
LUTAPOF an airport
LUTAPOT airmail
LUTEM (the) atmosphere
LUTEDAN a hawker
LUTOFAD gossamer
LUUK an ulcer
LUVAB a cart
LUVEG a lane, a path (= in the country)
LUVERATIK probable
LUVOKÄD a cry, a shout
LUVOKÄDÖN to cry out, to shout
LUXAMÖN to glance through
LUYAL a corridor
LUYÖN to moo (like a cow)
LÜ to, toward(s)
LÜ- -in-law
(lüfat, lümot = father-in-law, mother-in-law)
LÜÄL a (mental) attitude
LÜÄT uvula
LÜBÄTIK tempting
LÜD wrestling
LÜFAT a father-in-law
LÜG sadness
LÜGADRAMAT a tragedy
LÜGIK sad, sorry
LÜGOLOVIK accessible
LÜJONIL an allusion
LÜKAN a spy
LÜKONFIDÖN to entrust
LÜKÖLO furtively
LÜKÖM an arrival
LÜKÖMAN a new arrival (person)
LÜKÖMÖN (LÜ) to arrive (at)
LÜKÖMÖP a destination
LÜKÖN to spy on, to watch
LÜL an owl
LÜLENÜKÖN to stretch out
LÜLOGAN an onlooker, a spectator
LÜLOGANEF an audience (of members of the public)
LÜLOGED a sight, a spectacle
LÜLOGEDÄL an aspect
LÜLOGÖN to watch
LÜMÄT a match (for lighting)
LÜMF lymph (gland)
LÜMPIAD Olympiad
LÜNAVAN an optician
LÜNÄT (a pair of) spectacles
LÜOD direction
LÜODÄL counselling, guidance
LÜODÜ towards, in the direction of
LÜODÜKÖN to direct, to guide
LÜSMILILÖN (LÜ) to smile at
LÜSPIKAVÖD a form of address
LÜTIRÖN (to) attract
LÜSTRID a hedgehog
LÜSUMÖN to accept, to acknowledge
LÜT a lute
LÜÜKÖN to add (to), to attach
LÜVÖN to desert, to leave
LÜXÜÖD a luxury
LÜYÜMOD a determinative
ke lifadoras
sumin dea
MA according to
MAALGAM an amalgamation
MAAT a mast
MAÄ as (= in proportion)
MABAR amber
MABOIN marble (substance)
MADIK mature, ripe
MAETÜT amethyst
MAF a measure
MAFÄDÜ for, in relation to...
MAFIB an amphibion
MAFIDÖN to try on (clothes)
MAFOT a size (shoe, glove); a dimension (general)
MAFÖN to measure
MAG a likeness, a representation
MAGAD a shop, a store
MAGAPENÄT hieroglyphics, pictography
MAGÄD an impression
MAGÄDABIK impressive
MAGÄL a fantasy (imagery)
MAGÄLIK fantastic
MAGÄLOD a mirage
MAGÄLÖN to imagine
MAGED an appearance, build (of person); a form; a phenomenon
MAGET a style (clothing)
MAGIFIK splendid, wonderful
MAGITAN a magistrate
MAGIVAL a wizard
MAGIVAN a magician
MAGIVÖN to practise magic
MAGNET a magnet
MAGNOL a magnolia (tree)
MAGOD a picture
MAGODAKAD a picture card
MAGODAKASÄT a video cassette
MAGODATANIL a video tape
MAGODEMÖP gallery (of computer images)
MAGODISUMODÖN a video recorder
MAGOT a statue
MAGOVIK imaginable
MAGUL a representation, a reproduction
* magulön oki su . . . = to model oneself on . . .
MAHUN mahogany (wood)
MAIFOD a gap, an opening
MAIFÜKÖN to open
MAIKÖTÖN to cut open
MAIPADÖN to open a book
MAIT maize (= cereal)
MAJÖ! quick march!
MAKET a market
MAKRON macaroni
MAKRORIN an elephant seal
MAL a mark, a sign
MALAMANÄTÄPRET sign language (for the deaf)
MALAR malaria
MALÄD a disease, an illness
MALÄDAN a patient
MALÄDANIVABED an ambulance
MALÄDANÖP a hospital, an infirmary
MALÄDIKÖN to become ill, to fall ill
MALEDITILÖ! blow it! damn it!
MALEKÖN to march
MALEOL a knuckle
MALET a signal
MALETALIT a traffic light
MALETAMATÜM a lighthouse
MALOD an adjunct (grammar)
MALT malt
MALUV a mallow
MAN a man
MANDOLIN a mandolin
MANID mania
MANIK male
MANÖV a manoeuvre
MAP a file, a folder, a portfolio
MARAT a marathon (= race)
MARÄD a marsh
MARÄDÜKAM swamping
MARÄDÜKÖN to swamp
MARGARIN margarine
MART a weasel
MARTÜRAN a martyr
MASADACEM an attic, a garret
MASAPEN marzipan
MASAT a mass (= great quantity)
MASET a massage
MASETAN a masseur
MASKAGUMOD chewing-gum
MASKAR a mask
MASKÖN to chew, to masticate
MASTAN a master
MASTÖN to rule
MASTURBAT masturbation
MASTÜKÖN (OKI DÖ) to master, to make oneself the master of
MAT marriage
MATABLIM (wedding) trousseau
MATAN a husband or a wife
MATEDADEL a (wedding) anniversary
MATEDATÄV a honeymoon
MATEMATAN a mathematician
MATER (basic) material
MATIKÖN (KO) to get married (to), to marry. to wed
MATIOL a stock-gilliflower, a wallflower
MATIRAJAN a betrothal, an engagement
MATITEIL a divorce
MATITEILÖN to divorce
MATRAD a mattress
MATROD a sailor
MATÜKÖN to marry, to wed
MAULÄT an amulet, a charm
MAXÜL a jaw
MÄYONÄD mayonnaise (garnish)
MAXÜL a jaw
MÄDÖN to upholster
MÄGIK lean (= not fat(ty); slim, thin
MÄK a sign
MÄKÖN to (make a) mark
MÄKUN opium
MÄL six
MÄNED a mantle, an overcoat
MÄNIOTÖN to mention
MÄNIOTÜL an allusion, a remark
MÄNSIDIK thin (of hair)
MÄNT mint
MÄPET violence
MÄPLAT a plaster (medical)
MÄPÜDIK cheeky, impudent, insolent
MÄR a fairy tale
MÄRALÄN fairyland
MÄRKURIN mercury (substance)
MÄSÄD Mass (R.C. Church)
MÄSPIL a medlar (tree)
MÄT competitiveness
MÄTED competition
MÄTEDÖN (KO) to compete (with)
MÄTÖP an arena
MÄYONÄD Mayonnaise (garnish)
MÄYORAM marjoram
MÄYÖN to bleat (sheep)
ME by means of, with
MEB a recollection
MEBAMAL a monument
MEBÖN to recall
MED a means (to an end)
MEDIN a medecine, a remedy
MEDITÖN to ponder
MEDUL spinal cord
MEDÜ by means of...
MEGÖN to splash about
MEIB a reminder
MEIKÖN to lay (railway line), to lay out (a garden)
MEIN mining
MEINÄD a mine
MEKAVAMEN a robot, an android
MEKAVIK artificial
MEKÖN to do, to make
MEL a sea
MELADOG a seal
MELAKÄV a wharf
MELAMALÄD seasickness
MELAN a sailor
MELAPON a pier
MELARAVAN a pirate
MELARAKET a torpedo
MELAROVÖP (sea) straits
MELASPATAVEG a promenade
MELASÜT a strait (geographical)
MELAT molasses, treacle
MELATÄV (sea) voyage
MELOD a melody
MELUN a melon
MEM memory
MEMOT a memory
MEMOSEVÖN to recognize
MEMÖN to remember
MEN man (= a human being)
MENABIDÄD man (= human species)
MENÄD an age (= generation)
MENAMÖDOT a crowd, a multitude
MENEN meninges
MENIK human
MENOD a (general) improvement
MENS people (= in general)
MERITÖN to earn, to merit
MERUL a blackbird
MESED a (financial) reward, a salary, a wage
MESEDIK rewarding
METAL a metal
METOD a method
METÖF (the) metric system
METÖFAV metrology
MEUG an opinion, an outlook, a point of view
MEUGIJON a demonstration
MIBÖNÖN to envy
MID (human) flesh
MIDUN a fault, a misdeed
MIED a boundary, a limit
MIEDALIEN a side (maths)
MIEDETÖN to define (= bounds/limits)
MIEDÖFÜKAM restriction
MIEDÜKÖN to hem in, to restrict
MIEL honey
MIFOMIK disfigured
MIFÄT a catastrophe
MIFÄTAN a malefactor
MIGACIN a mixer
MIGEB abuse, misuse
MIGOT a mixture
MIGÖM a blender, a mixer
MIGÖN to mix
MIJENOT an accident
MIKEB a weed
MIKONDÖTAN a good-for-nothing, a scoundrel
MIKÖMIK unwelcome
MIKRODAGRUFILASIRKOT a long-playing record (an LP)
MIKROFON a microphone
MIKROVEF a microwave
MIKROVEFAFURNOD a microwave oven
MIL a thousand
MILAG a miracle
MILIG milk
MILIGATUT milk tooth
MILIGÖP a dairy
MILIT an army
MILITIK military
MILMET a kilometre
MIMALIKO ominously
MIMEUG hostility
MIN a mineral
MINAVAT mineral water
MINILUDIK suspicious
MINIMILEM vermin (= as a category)
MINISTER a ministry ( =government department)
MINISTERÖP a (government) ministry (= building)
MINT mint (herb)
MINUM a minimum
MINUT a minute
MIOPIK short-sighted
MIOTIK dirty, foul, polluted
MIOTÖN to soil
MIOTÜKAM (general) pollution
MIOTÜKÖN to pollute
MISEK a fiasco
MISEKIM defeatism
MISERABIK wretched
MISMELÖN to stink
MISTAD a drawback
MISTOM a thunderstorm
MISTOMÜL a squall
MISUL measles
MISUR a beat, a measure
MIT meat
MITEODAV mythology
MITICÖPAN a butcher
MITICÖPÖP a butcher's shop
MIVEG a trespass
MIVIM a bad mood (mivimiko = in a bad mood)
MO away, away from
MOÄDÖN to omit
MOB a suggestion
MOBÖN to propose, to suggest
MOBÜ at the suggestion of
MOD a manner, a means, a way
* in mod seimik = somehow
MODUGÖN to abduct
MODUN destruction
MOELÄT an omelette
MOFIAN gear box
MOFÖM gear lever
MOFÖN to drive (= animals)
MOFUGÖN (DE) to escape, to run away (from)
MOGOLÖN to go away
MOIKÖN to be rid of
MOJÜTÖN to go through (to dispose of one after another)
MOLÄDIK gentle, tender
MOLIK soft
MOMOFÖN to expel, drive away, repel
MON money
MONALAYET a (shop) till
MONAPOKÜL a wallet
MONAPÖNOD a (monetary) fine/penalty
MONEM a fortune
MONIGETOT a (monetary) tribute
MONIT a ride (= on an animal)
MONITANAMAGOT a statue mounted on horseback
MONITÖN to ride (an animal)
MOSAIG a mosaic
MOST a monster
MOSTÖFIK atrocious, monstrous
MOSUMÖN to take away
MOT a mother
MOTÄVÖN (DE) to depart (from), to leave
MOTED a birth
MOTEDADEL a birthday, date of birth
MOTEDALÄN land of one's birth, native land
MOTEDÖP place of birth
MOTÖN to give birth to
MOTOR an engine, a motor
MOTORANIBUD a bus, a coach
MOTORASAIKUL a motor-cycle
MOTORAVAB an automobile, a car
MOÜKÖN to get rid of, to take away
MÖ by (=indicating quantity)
MÖBEM (a suite of) furniture
MÖDAGOD polytheism
MÖDAVÖG polyphony (music)
MÖDIK many, much
MÖDIKUM more, several
* mödo mödikumo = much more
MÖDO a great deal
MÖDOT a number/quantity/amount
MÖDÜKUMAM proliferation
MÖGABID subjunctive mood (grammar)
MÖGÄDO eventually
MÖGIK possible
* as much as possible = mögiküno
MÖGOD a chance, a possibility, potential
MÖGOV a coverage area (as in radio/TV)
MÖGÖN to be possible (mögos, das..= it may be that)
MÖKOT a (medical) preparation
MÖKÖN to prepare
MÖN an (outside) wall
MÖV a seagull
MU extremely, most
MUAD amusement, entertainment
MUADIK amusing, entertaining
MUADÖN to amuse, to entertain
MUD a mouth
MUDEL Monday
MUDOT a mouthpiece
MUF a movement
MUFAVAN a mechanic
MUFÄTÖN to flit
MUFOVÜKÖN to loosen
MUFÖN (ÄS) to move (like)
MUFÜKIAN a motor (device/machine)
MUFÜKÖN to instigate, to start off, to turn over (car engine);* mufükön mäpetiko flitämis = to flap wings
MUFÜLIK unsteady
MUFÜLÖN to wobble, to waddle
MUG a mouse* mugaparat = a (computer) mouse
MUIF worry
MUIFÖN to worry
MUIFÜKIK ill at ease
MUIFÜKÖN to (cause to) worry
MUIK maximal, maximum* muiko = to the maximum
MUL a month
MULUD a mule
MUN (a/the) moon (fulamun = a full moon)
MUNÄD a satellite (= the moon(s)
MU NILÜ... next to
MU PATO above all
MURB a blackberry
MURIK sullen
MURÖN to grumble
MURÜLÖN to mumble
MUSAK a (domestic) fly
MUSED a museum
MUSIG music
MUSIGABOG a music box
MUSIGALEF an orchestra
MUSIGAN a musician
MUSIGÖM a (musical) instrument
MUSK moss
MUSKAT a nutmeg
MUSKÄN (the) tundra
MUSKÄTAN a musketeer
MUSKIT a mosquito
MUSKUL a muscle
MUSTAG a moustache
MUTAR mustard
MUTÖN (+ INFIN) to have to (= must)
MUÜKÖN to maximize
MÜÄTIK dumb, silent
MÜDAPALAT soft palate
MÜDIK soft, tender (= not hard/tough)
MÜEDÖN (DUB) to divide (by) (maths)
MÜFÖN to move, to shift
MÜGÄT a lily of the valley
MÜGDAL an almond
MÜKIK humble
MÜKÜKÖN (OKI) to humble (oneself)
MÜP a vaccination
MÜPÖN to vaccinate
MÜRÖN to murmur, to ripple, to trickle
MÜSTER a mystery
MÜSTERAV mysticism
MÜTÖN to compel, to force
MÜUL a mussel (seafood)
NAARGID anarchy
NAATOM anatomy
NAÄTÜ to the power of ... (maths)
NABALENIK close-fitting, tight
NABIK narrow, tight
NABÖFIK concise
NABÖFODÖNUAM a résumé, a summary
NAD a needle
NADIV an endive
NAED a time (= once, twice, etc)
NAEDAM multiplication (maths)
NAEDILO just, simply
NAEDOT a product (= an end result) (maths)
NAEDÖN to multiply (maths)
NAEMUN an anemone
NAF a ship, a vessel
NAFANEF a crew (of ship)
NAFASKRUB a propeller
NAFÄDOT flotsam, wreckage
NAFEM fleet, navy
NAG a barge
NAIDALEÜL aniseed oil
NAIDALIKÖR anisette (liqueur)
NAILON nylon (fabric)
NAJOV an anchovy
NAK an anchor
NAKAR mother-of-pearl
NAKLÜM an anvil
NAM a hand
NAMABÜOSAG palmistry
NAMAFRENÖM a handbrake
NAMAGLÖPÄD handball (game)
NAMAKEV palm (of the hand)
NAMAPENÄD a manuscript
NAMAPLAG chiropractic
NAMAPLAGAN a chiropractor
NAMETO (by the) handful
NANAD a pineapple
NARD valerian (flower)
NARKOT an anaesthetic
NARZID a daffodil, narcissus
NAT nature
NATÄDÖP a waste, a wilderness
NATÄL nature (= temperament)
NATED open country
NATEM breath
NATEMAM breathing
NATEMASITOT respiratory system
NATEMIBERAVÖL breathtaking
NATEMÖN to breathe
NATIK natural (= relating to nature)
NATIVESTIGAN a naturalist
NATÖFIK natural (= relating to skill/temperament)
NAUD disgust
NAUDODIK sickening
NAUDÖN to sicken
NAÜTIK boring, tedious, tiring
NAÜTÖN to bore, to tire out
NAVÄT a turnip
NÄEDAM subtraction (maths)
NÄEDÖN to subtract (maths)
NÄFÄTÖN to infect
NÄG a stitch
NÄGACIN a sewing machine
NÄGÄR a negro
NÄGÖN to sew
NÄIÄDIK adjoining
NÄIBUMOT a (building) extension
NÄIJENOT an episode (in book, film, radio, TV)
NÄILUSÜT a side alley
NÄIO incidentally
NÄISINIF a connotation, a secondary meaning
NÄISÜT a sidestreet, a turning
NÄM force
NÄMÄD power
NÄMÄDAN a potentate
NÄMÄDIÄLIM imperialism
NÄMÄT authority
NÄMETÜKÖN to charge (electrically)
NÄMIK strong
NÄMÖFIKO energetically
NÄN a dwarf
NÄRVODIK nervy, jittery, jumpy
NÄTÄPRETAN an interpreter
NÄSÄK an insect
NÄSTÜLÖN (LEN) to nestle (up to)
NÄTÄPRETAN an interpreter
NÄTIK intact, unimpaired
NÄTIMIK intimate
NÄTÜKAM a repair
NÄTÜKÖN to mend, to repair
NÄZÜM an enzyme
NEAI never, always not
NEBEN decadence
NEBENÄL ill-will
NEBEPENOVIK indescribable
NEBÖNÖN to covet, to envy
NECALIKÖN (DE/SE) to retire (from)
NEDANÖFIK ungrateful
NEDÄLÄL intransigence
NEDEMÖN to neglect
NEDETIK left-hand
NEDIBÄD shallows
NEDIGÖFIK unworthy
NEDISTIDIK indistinguishable
NEDÖB innocence
NEDÖBIK innocent
NEDÖN (+ INFIN) to need
NEDUMIK bright, light (sound)
NEDUNÖN to neglect, to omit, to miss
NEF (HI-/JI-) a nephew/a niece
NEFÄDO on purpose
NEFÄGÖFAN an invalid
NEFÄKÖF apathy
NEFIEDIK unfaithful
NEFIENÖFIK unprofitable
NEFLAGIÄLIK modest, undemanding
NEFLEN an enemy
NEFLIFEDIK old, second-hand
second-hand bookshop = selidöp neflifedabukas
NEFLUKÜKÖN to sterilise
NEFOMÄLOVIK unimaginable
NEFÖLOT an offence
NEFÖLÖN to neglect
NEFÖRO never, at no time
NEFRUTIK useless
NEFÜMÄLÖN to procrastinate
NEFÜMIK indefinite, uncertain
NEFÜMÜKIKÜN indefinable
NEGAT negativity
NEGIDETÜKÖN to prove wrong
NEGIDIK unfair, unjust
NEGÖNO unfavourably
NEIF a knife
NEIT a night
NEITARAMARIL a (bedside) cabinet
NEITASKAL a chamber-pot
NEJAFOVIK inexhaustible
NEKALKULOVIK incalculable, uncountable
NEKÄLÖN to neglect
NEKLINOT an impurity
NEKOM absence* senobs nekomi ofa = we miss her.
NEKOVENIÄLIK inconvenient
NEKÖSÖMIK extraordinary
NEKÖSÖMIKO extraordinarily
NEKREDOVIK incredible, unbelievable
NEKVÄNOVIK unquenchable
NELAB a want
NELABÖN (BOSI) not to have, to be missing, to be without
NELABÜKÖN (EKE BOSI) to deprive (someone of something)
NELAIDIK changeable (of weather, etc), gradual
NELÄBIK unfortunate, unhappy
NELEGIK fictitious
NELEIGIK unequal
NELEIGODOVIK incomparable
NELETIAN an obstacle
NELETÖN to deny, to hinder, to prevent
NELOGÄDIKÖN to disappear
NELOGÄDÜKÖN to make disappear
NELUF lee-side (nautical)
NELUVERATIK improbable
NEMEDIKO directly, immediately
NEM a name
NEMAPENÄT a signature
NEMEDIK direct, immediate
NEMISEVABIK unmistakeable
NEMÖDIK few, not a lot, not much, not many
NEMÖDO few, little, not a lot
NEMÖDÜKÖN to abate, to reduce
NEMÖGIK impossible
NEMU minimally, in the least
NEMUIK minimal, minimum
NEMUÜKÖN to minimize
NEMÜ on behalf of
NEMÜTOVIK without constraint
NEN without
NENÄMIK powerless
NENÄMÜKAM exhaustion
NENÄTÖF immunity (medical)
NENBUKO by heart
NENDANIK ungrateful
NENDÄMIK innocent
NENDEMÜ regardless of
NENDÖFIK perfect
NENFINAM infinity
NENLEIGODOVIK incomparable
NENLEKREDAN an atheist
NENIFLAT deflation
NENEFÖLOTIK guiltless, innocent
NENITEDÄLIKO uninterestedly
NENKUDIKO unconcerned
NENKURAD depression
NENMUFIK immobile
NENMÜTIG free and easy; unconstrained
NENPLÄOTO invariably, without exception
NENROPIK continuous, unbroken, uninterrupted
NENSAMIK unheard of, without precedent
NENSEKIKO in vain, unsuccessfully
NENSIN innocence, sinlessness
NENSLIP insomnia
NENSLIPAN an insomniac
NENSTABÖFIK unfathamomable
NENSÜENIK piffling, trifling
NENTRUF no trumps (card games)
NENUMOVIK countless
NENVILIKO instinctively
NENVOB unemployment
NENVOBIK out of work, unemployed
NENVÖLADAN a good-for-nothing
NENZEDIKO incessantly
NEOD a need, a requirement, a want
NEODÖN to need, to require, to want
NEODÜL frustration
NEPLIDÖN to displease
NEPLITIK disagreeable, unpleasing
NEPLU less (not more)
NEPLUIK less (not more)
NEPLUIKAM a decrease, a fall, a reduction
NEPLUIKÖN to diminish
NEPLUNUM a minority
NEPLUÜKÖN to diminish
NEPLÜTIK impolite, rude
NEPÖTÖFIK unsuitable
NEPUBÖN to disappear
NEPUED indecency, immodesty
NES without (+ infinitive)
NESEIMO nowhere
NESEV ignorance
NESEVÄDAN a stranger
NESEVÄDIK anonymous, unknown
NESEVÄLÖFIK unconscious
NESIÄDIK abstract
NESIÄM nonsense
NESKIL awkwardness
NESNATIK dishonest
NESPALIK overwhelming, unsparing
NESPÄLÖN to spend, to waste (= cash/food)
NESTIPÖFIKO absolutely
NESTÖNIK immoderate
NESTÜM contempt
NESTÜMÖN to despise
NESUDEL a weekday
NESUFOVIK unbearable
NET a nation
NETASOGÄDIM National Socialism (= Naziism)
NETÄT a nationality
NETIK national
NETRÄITÖFIK incorrigible
NEÜF a nymph
NEV a nerve
NEVERATÖN to be wrong (= incorrect)
NEVASITOT the nervous system
NEVASIÜL a motor neuron
NEVED unmaking
NEVERÄTIK incorrect, wrong
NEVIKODOVIK insuperable, unconquerable
NEVIODIK unspoilt
NEVIPABIK undesirable
NEVITOVIKO inevitably
NEVOROVIK hard-wearing
NEXÄNÖN (DE) to descend, to get down (from)
NI...NI neither...nor
NIBLIT underpants
NIBOTEL a confectioner, a pastry-cook
NIBUD a bus
NICÄST incest
NIDAIN a brilliant (cut diamond)
NIDETATATAKAN an inside right (= football)
NID a lustre
NIDIK brilliant
NIDÖN to shine
NIDUTIAN an inductor
NIDÜLON to shimmer, to sparkle
NIEDIK bright, shining
NIF snow
NIFAKUM a snowdrift
NIFILÜKAM internal combustion
NIFLAT inflation
NIFÖN to snow
NIFÜP winter
NIG ink
NIGASKUTIÄR ink-jet (computer)
NIGIÄR an ink-pot
NIGROM necromancy
NIJIT a vest
NIJUÜP a petticoat
NIK a niche, a recess
NIKOTIN nicotine
NILÄD a neighbourhood
NILÄDAN a neighbour
NILÄDIK neighbouring
NILÄN interior (of country)
NILIKÖN (LÜ) to approach, to draw near (to)
NILO close-by
NILUD a notion
NILUDAM a supposition
NILUDO presumably, probably
NILUDÖN to suppose
NILÜ near
NIM an animal, a creature
NIMED livestock
NIMIKONLET a menagerie
NIMISANAN a veterinary surgeon
NIMÜL a pet
NINÄD contents
NINÄDIAN a container
NINÄDIANIL an insert
NINÄDÖN to contain, to include
NINÄLÖN to ponder
NINÄM(S) intestine(s)
NINEDIK in-built, intrinsic
NINIÄR a cartridge (for computer, camera)* niganiniär = an ink cartridge (for computer)
NINIK internal
NINIKÖN (INI) to enter (into)
NINOTIAN implant (medical)
NINÜKÖN to insert
NISUL an island
NITED an interest
NITEDÄLÖN (DÖ/TEFÜ) to be interested (in/about)
NITEDIK interesting
NITEDÖN to interest
NIT a staple
NITÖM a stapler
NIVÄT a level
NIVER a university
NIYÄK a singlet (clothing)
NIYÖN to neigh (horse)
NO no, not (no plu/no fovo = no longer)
NOAM negation
NOAT a note (music)
NOATAPENÄT (musical) notation
NOATÄDÖN to compose (music)
NOATED (sheet) music
NOBALADÄLIK magnanimous
NOBAN a noble (= person)
NOBIK noble
NOBOIN a precious stone
NOE ... ABI not only ... but
NOET a (textual) note/remark
NOFÖN to insult, to offend
NOG still, yet (no nog = not yet)
NOGANÜKÖN to organize
NOGNA once again, once more
NOID a noise
NOIDÜLASNEK a rattlesnake
NOIDÖN to make a noise
NOIK negative
NOKÖM a (door)-knocker
NOKÖN to knock
NOL knowledge, learning
NOLAV science
NOLAVAN a scientist
NOLIÄLIK inquisitive
NOLIK erudite, learnéd
NOLÖN to know (= facts)
NOLÜD (the) north
NOLÜDIK northern
NOM a rule (= regulation); (the) norm (=standard)
NOMAD a nomad
NOMIK regular
NOMÄDIK regular
NOMÖFIK regular
NOMÜKAM adjustment
NOMÜKÖN to regulate
NONIK none, not any
NONIKNA never, no kind of
NOÖN to deny
NOPLU no longer
NORMIK vertical
NOS nothing* nothing else = nos plu
NOSÜKÖN to cancel, to destroy
NOTARAN a conveyancer, a notary
NOTED an advertisement, an announcement
NOTEDÖN to advertise
NOTET a detail, an item
NOTIK generally known, public
NOTOD an expression (= facial, in writing)
NOTODÖN to express (thoughts)
NOTÜKÖN to express, to make known
NOVUL November
NOYÖN to drown
NÖ! no!
NÖG an egg* nögs pemufilöl = scrambled eggs
NÖGAMEAT fallopian tube
NÖT an (edible) nut
NÖTRON a neutron (physics)
NÖYÖN (EKI) to drown (someone)
NU now
NUD a nose
NUDAHOG a nostril
NUEL a fingernail, a toenail
NUF a roof
NUFAR a water lily
NUFATÄRAT a roof terrace
NUFED a ceiling
NUGAT a nougat
NUGVET an ointment
NULÄD novelty
NULÄDIK modern, up-to-date
NULÄLIK curious, inquisitive
NULÄLIKÖN (DÖ) to be curious (about)
NULÄLÖN (VA) to wonder (if/whether)
NULOD(S) (the) news (radio/TV)
NULULÖN to renew
NULÜDOT food, nourishment
NULÜDÖN to feed, to nourish* to breast-feed = blöto nulüdön
NUM number (= an amount)
NUMAT a digit, a figure, a number
NUMATAPLAT a dial (on clock)
NUMATAPLATIL a dial (on wristwatch)
NUMATASIRKOT a dial (on telephone)
NUMÄDÖN to count
NUMÄT an exponent (maths)
NUMBRIL a navel
NUMIAN a calculator
NUN a message
NUNAN a messenger, a summoner
NUNAPENÖN to advise, to inform (= in writing)
NUNÄDÖN OKI (to) log in (computers)
NUNED notice, a warning
NUNEDAPENÄD a warning (sign)
NUNEDÖN to give notice, to warn
NUNIAN a computer
NUNOD an account, a report
NUNODÖN (TEFÜ) to report (about)
NUNÖN to inform
NUNS news
NUT a nod (of the head)
NUTIMIK present (time)
NUTIMO nowadays
NUTÖN to nod agreement
NÜ now that, seeing that, since
NÜBREIK a burglary
NÜBREIKAN a 'professional' burglar
NÜBREIKÖLAN an 'opportunist' burglar
NÜBREIKÖN to burgle
NÜCIDÖN to carve, to chisel
NÜDÄDAN a nude model
NÜDÄDÖN to pose in the nude
NÜDIK bare, naked, nude
NÜDRANÖN (IN) to encroach
NÜDUG an introduction
NÜDRANÖN (INI) to infiltrate
NÜFÄRMÜKÖN to shut in
NÜGIFÖN to pour out (drinks)
NÜGIV inspiration
NÜGOLÖN to enter, to go in
NÜGOLÖP an entrance
NÜK (nape of) neck
NÜKOTÖN (to) encode
NÜKÖMÖN (INI) to enter
NÜM (serial) number, No.
NÜMÄDÖN to count (= recite numerals in order)
NÜMÄDIK numerate
NÜMIGÖN to blend
NÜNAMABÜR an information/inquiry office
NÜNED a (computer) file
NÜMFEAD a water lily
NÜNIÄLIK informative
NÜNÖM a computer
NÜNÖMAPROGRAM a (computer) programme
NÜNS terms (of business)
NÜPLADÒN (INI) to insert (into)
NÜSEIDOT an insert
NÜSKUTÖN to inject (medical)
NÜSLEIFÖM a chisel
NÜSUGAPAPÜR blotting-paper
NÜSUGÖN to absorb
NÜSUMÖN to consume
NÜTATAK an invasion
NÜTATAKÖN to invade
NÜTEVAN an immigrant
NÜVEIGÖN to import (goods)
NÜXÄNÖN (NÜ) to mount, to get on

O oh! (vocative)
O... shall, will; next...
OBIK my, mine (bai sev obik = as far as I know)
OBIKAN mine; my (person)
OBO as for me, for my part
OBS we
OBSIK our, ours
OD each other (lä od = by/near each other)
ODELO tomorrow (odelo ün timül at = tomorrowat this time)
OF she
OFIK her, hers
OFS they (feminine plural)
OK oneself
OKAO of one's own accord
OKDUGÄL self-discipline
OKIÄL egotism, selfishness
OKJÄFIDIK automatic
OKJELODIÄL self-preservation
OKIK one's own
OKKONFID self-confidence
OKKUSAD self-incrimination
OKLIFAJENÄD an autobiography
OKNÄMÄTIK arbitrary, high-handed
OKNOÄD self-denial
OKNOSIKAM self-destruction
OKPLAD commitment
OKREIG self-control, self-government
OKSASEN suicide
OKSEV self-knowledge
OKSEVED self-consciousness
OKSKILÜKAM (mental) exercise, practice
OKTIDÄB self-taught person
OL you
OLIK your, yours
OLS you (plural)
OLSIK your, yours (plural)
OM he
OMIK his
OMO as for him (= what concerns him)
OMS they (masculine plural)
OMSIK their, theirs (masculine plural)
OMSO as for them (= what concerns them)
OMULO next month
ON it
ONEITO tomorrow night
ONIK its
ONS they (neuter plural)
ONSIK their, theirs (neuter plural)
ONU at once, in a minute
OR thou
ORS you, ye (poetic)
OS it (abstract; no plural)
OSOARO tomorrow evening
OT like, same (ebo ot = just the same)
OTCEDIK of the same opinion
OTDÜPO at the same time/hour
OTGENIÄLAN a gay (person), homosexual
OTMAFÄDO equally
OTÜPO at the same time
OY one, people, they
OYIK one's

Ö! hm! (interjection)
ÖM several, some
ÖMAN someone, such a one, such a person
ÖMIK many a...; several, such people
ÖMNA sometimes
ÖMNAIK occasional
ÖMSOTIK some kind(s) of...
ÖN under (preposition)(ön nem foginik = under a foreign name)(ön kodül = under the pretext)

PAAN briefs, shorts (clothing)
PAÄL a stove
PAB a butterfly
PAD a page (of book)
PADÖN (IN) to browse (through)
PADÜL a column
PAEÄN a heath
PAELIK pale, wan
PAIK a pike (= fish)
PAKÖN to expand, to spread
PAL(S) a parent, parents
PALAT palate
PALET a party (= faction)
PAM a palm (tree)
PAMOTÖN to be born
PAMPELUT a grapefruit
PANÖN to pawn
PANEMÖN to be called/named
PANKREAT pancreas (gland)
PANTÄR a panther
PANTUF a (carpet) slipper (leisure footwear)
PAOPLÄG a stroke
PAOSTOLAN an apostle
PAPAG a parrot
PAPÜR paper
PAPÜRACANS stationery
PAPÜROD papyrus
PARAD heaven, paradise
PARAFIN kerosene, paraffin
PARALÜD paralysis
PARARG Butterfly of species: Pararge megaera.
PARASIT a parasite
PARAT apparatus
PARDÖN (EKE BOSI) to forgive (someone something)
PARKET (theatre) circle
PARKÖN to part (vehicles)
PARKÖP a park (for vehicles)
PARTÄR (cinema/theatre) stalls
PAS not until now; only just
PASTAN an (evangelical) minister
PAT a detail
PATÄD a characteristic
PATÄDAN a specialist
PATÄDIK specific
PATÄDODILÖN (OKI) to specialize in
PATED a model, a type
PATEL patella
PATIK particular, special
PATO especially
PATÖF a quality
PATRITAN an aristocrat
PATRONAN a patron (of arts, etc)
PATRUL a patrol
PAUD an interval, a pause
PAUN a pound
PÄDAN a (parish) priest
PÄDÄN a parish (area)
PÄDRIT a partridge
PÄK a pack
PÄKED a parcel
PÄKEM baggage, luggage
PÄKEMIKIPEDÖP Left Luggage Office
PÄKIL a packet
PÄKÖN to pack
PÄKÖP a luggage compartment
PÄM a notebook
PÄMOD a brochure
PÄNAN a (portrait) painter
PÄNOT a painting, a picture
PÄNÖN to paint (as an artist)
PÄNSIONÄB a pensioner
PÄR a couple, a pair
PÄRÄD a parade
PÄRIDIKAM destruction, ruin
PÄRIDIKAN a ruined (person)
PÄRIDIKÖN to perish
PÄRIDÜKÖN to ruin, to destroy
PÄRJID parsley
PÄRSIG a peach
PÄRUN a (railway) platform
PÅRUNAVEG a pavement, a sidewalk
PÄSKARAN an angler, a fisherman
PÄSKARÖN to fish
PEÄDIK fat, stout, weighty
PEÄN a pin
PEB pulse (wrist)
PED pressure
PEDETEILÖL fenced off, partitioned
PEDÖN to press
PEFEIMÖL ostracized
PEFLEDÜLÖL charged (physics)
PEILÄP epilepsy
PEIN a pine (tree)
PEL payment
PELAL a paymaster, a purser
PELÄSÜKÖL reduced (in price)
PELEK a pelican
PELÖN to pay
PEMIKO higgledy-piggledy (in no kind of order)
PEMITULÖL mutilated
PEN a pen
PENÄD a writing, a documentpenädafenätil - browser (computer)
PENÄT grapheme, handwriting
PENÄTAV graphology
PENDÜL a pendulum
PENED a letter
PENEDABOG a letter box
PENDÜLÖM a (children's) swing
PENDÜLÖN to swing
PENEDABOG a postbox
PENEDAMÄK a (postage) stamp
PENEDIL a notelet (= a short letter)
PENET a note, a notice
PENETABUKIL a note-book
PENETÖN to commit to paper, to note
PENIKIPIAN a pen holder
PENOT a dissertation
PENÖMASELIDÖP a stationer's shop
PENÖN to write
PENSIT a paintbrush
PENUL transcription, transliteration
PEOLÄT an epaulette
PEP pepper
PEPIÄR a pepper pot
PEPUN a gourd, a marrow
PER loss
PERÄD a defeat, a rout
PEROT a lost (item)
PERÖN to loseperön süeni oka = to lose one’s head
PESTED a noodle
PETEGÖL covered
PETIOL a petal
PETROL petroleum
PEVIETÜKÖL whitewashed
PIAD a piazza, a town/city square
PIANIKO gradually
PIANODAHARMONÖM a piano-accordeon
PIANODÖN to play the piano
PIÄF a core, (the) essence
PID pity, regret, sorrow
PIDEÄDÖL sprawled, straddled
PIDÖ! Beg your pardon! Sorry!
PIDÖN to be sorry, to regret (pidob vemo = I am very sorry)
PIED a foot (= measure)
PIET piety
PIF bone marrow
PIGMIN parchment
PIGÖN to pick (= of birds)
PIJUN a pigeon
PIK a spade (card games)
PIKIT a woodpecker
PIL an eel
PILGRIMAN a pilgrim
PIN fat, grease
PINÄDIK fat, stout
PINED bacon
PINGUEN a penguin
PINT Pentecost
PIONIR a pioneer
PIP a (tobacco) pipe
PIR a (radio) valve
PIRAMID a pyramid
PIRATAN a pirate, a privateer
PIROG a (ship's) prow
PISÄL a pea
PISUSTÜRÜLÖL scattered, sprinkled
PITAETÖL repressed, stifled
PIT spice
PITÖN to season
PIYAM pyjamas
PLA besides (preposition)
PLAÄDÖN to replace, to substitute
PLAD a place, a seat (on bus/train), a spot
PLADÖN to place, to put, to set (in position)
PLADULAN a representative (= person)
PLADULÖN to represent
PLAGIK practical
PLAF timidity
PLAFIK nervous, timid
PLAK an experience
PLAKIKO practically
PLAKILABIK experienced, mature
PLAKMINEP persimmon (tree)
PLAKMINEPAFLUK persimmon (fruit)
PLAKÖN to experience
PLAN a (garden/wild) plant
PLANAGLÄTADOM(IL) a greenhouse
PLANAV botany
PLANET a planet
PLANÖN to plant
PLANT sole (= of the foot)
PLAS instead (of)
PLATÄD a plate, a sign (for information)
PLATED a platform (in general)
PLATOD a board, a (flat) surface
PLATOT LEÄKTRONIK an electronic circuit board
PLAUD a plough
PLAUDÖN to plough
PLAÜKÖN to replace
PLÄ besides
PLÄAM an exception
PLÄAMÜ except, with the exception of...
PLÄD an (animal) skin, a pelt
PLÄDOT a fur coat
PLÄG (physical) exercise, practice
PLÄGÖN to practise, to exercise (physically)
PLÄIDÖN to plead
PLÄN a definition, an explanation
PLÄNÄDÖN to explain (in detail); to interpret (dreams, etc)
PLÄNÖN to explain
PLÄO otherwise
PLÄOT an exception
PLÄÖN to except, to make an exception
PLÄYÖN to play (musical instrument)
PLED a game
PLEDADIN a plaything, a toy
PLEDAKADEM a pack (deck) of cards
PLEDÖN to play
PLEID pride
PLEIDÜLÖN (DEMÜ) to boast (about)
PLEIFÖN to push back
PLEKÖN to pray
PLEN a plain, flat terrain
PLENÖFIK flat, level
PLIDÖN to like (plidö! = if you like!)
PLIDÜKÖN to please
PLIF a crease, a fold
PLIFÄDIK pleated (clothes)
PLIFÖN to crease, to fold
PLIMÖN to compliment
PLIN a prince
PLITIÄLIK nice (disposition)
PLITIK agreeable, pleasant
PLITÖN to please
PLITÜ for the pleasure of (plitü of = to please her)
PLITÜLIK attractive, nice, pretty
PLOBIK experienced, proven
PLOBÖN (TA) to be a match (for)
PLODÖN to applaud
PLON a complaint
PLONÖN (EKE BOSI) to complain (to someone about something)
PLOP a poplar (tree)
PLOTÖN (TA) to conspire/plot (against)
PLÖDO outside (adverb)
PLÖDAKIPÖN to exclude, to keep out, to shut out
PLÖDIK external, outer, outside, outward
PLÖDIKÖN to go out
PLÖDÜ outside (of)
PLÖDÜKÖN to put out (of one place into another)
PLÖGUN an overcoat
PLÖJAL bark (of tree), crust (of bread), rind (of meat)
PLÖKÖN to gather, to pluck
PLÖM a plum
PLÖMÄNED an overcoat
PLÖPÖN (AD) to succeed (in) (plöpön ad dunön
bosi = to manage to do something)
PLÖRAFLAMAT pleurisy (medical)
PLÖSEN a (stage) performance
PLÖSENÖN to perform, to present
PLU more, further
PLUIK further
PLUIKAM an increase
PLUIKÖN to increase
PLUMAFIK excessive
PLUMBAFULÜKOT a filling (dentistry)
* Labom bäldoti lifayelas plunätöfo foldegas = He’s well on in his forties.
PLUNUM a majority
PLUT a ball (of wool, etc)
PLUTUN Pluto (dwarf planet)
PLUÖN (LÄ) to excel (at/in); to exceed expectations
PLUÜKÖN to (make) increase
PLUNEPLU more or less
PLUVÄT overweight
PLÜ . . . . PLÜ the more ..... the more
PLÜD goodwill (if plüdol = if you please)
PLÜM a feather, a plume
PLÜMÄD a (decorative) plume
PLÜMILABIK feathered
PLÜT politeness
PLÜTIK polite
PO after, behind (spatial)
POALÖN (to) opalise
POD an apple
PODOR a tomato
POEDAV poetry
POEDOT a poem poedot degfolliänik = sonnet
POF a (sea)port
POGOLÖN to follow
POK a pocket
POKALAMPAD a flashlight
POKASÄRVÄTÜL a (pocket) handkerchief
POLAN a porter
POLDABÜR a police station
POLDANEF police (force)
POLIOMÜL polio (medical)
POLIP a polyp (medical)
POLKAT a polka (dance)
POLÖN to bear, to carry
POLÜGLOT a linguist, a polyglot
POLÜP an octopus
POMAD a (body) cream
PON a bridge
POODKED a queue
POP a poppy
POR a ration
PORNISELIDÖP a porn shop
PORTAT a range (= reach)
PORUD a leek
POS after, behind (time)
POSBINÜKÄB a descendant
POSBINÜKOT belongings, inheritance
POSBLIBÖN to stay behind
POSBLIBÜKÖN to leave behind
POS... grand-
POSBINOT a (legal) estate; a bequest
POSBINÜKÖN to leave behind
POSCILS grandchildren
POSDAUT a grand-daughter
POSITIK positive
POSSON a grand-son
POSUN a trumpet
POSZEDEL afternoon
POSZIB a dessert
POT mail, post
POTAGIR a (post office) giro
POTAKAD postcard
POTAMON postage
POTASPÄLABANK a post office savings bank
POTATRET a postal order
POTAVAB a stage-coach
POTÖN to mail, to post
POTÖP a post-office
POV (geographical) pole
* povasirk nolüdik = north pole
** povasirk sulüdik = south pole
POVÖF polarity
POYÜMOT a suffix (grammar)
PÖ at
PÖB a public house, a tavern
PÖDABLIBÖN to fall short (of)
PÖDAGLUN a background
PÖDAKÖSÖMEDAN an esotericist
PÖDANAF (PÖDASTEV) (ship's) stern
PÖDIK back, rear
PÖDIKAM regression
PÖDIO backwards
PÖF poverty
PÖFÄDIK pitiable
PÖFIK poor
PÖJIN punch (alcohol)
PÖJUTAN pursuer
PÖJUTÖN to chase away, to pursue
PÖK a mistake
PÖKAGAD a maze
PÖKÖN to make a mistake
PÖL an aberration, an error
PÖLACEDÖN (ÄS) to mistake (for)
PÖLAKALKULÖN to miscalculate
PÖLATIMED an anachronism
PÖLAVEGÖN to lose the way, to get lost
PÖLÖN to err, to make an error
PÖMANEF firemen
PÖMÖM a pump
PÖMÖN to pump
PÖN a punishment
PÖNAREJIMEN a disciplinary corps (army)
PÖNIDÖN to repent
PÖNÖN to punish
PÖP a people (= a community); population
PÖPEDIK popular
PÖPÖN (ME) to be inhabited (by)
PÖSOD a person
PÖSODANEM a forename
PÖSODEF personnel, staff
PÖSODIK personal
PÖSODÖF personality
PÖT an occasion, an opportunity
PÖTATIMO in (due) time
PÖTEKAN a (pharmaceutical) chemist
PÖTET a potato
(PÖTETA)CIPS potato crisps
PÖTIK opportune, suitable
PÖTIT an appetite
PÖTÖF feasibility
PÖTÖFIK applicable, practical
PÖTÖFÖN to be applicable, to be practicable
PÖTÖN to be convenient, to be fitting
PÖTÜ on the occasion of
PÖTRÄT a portrait
PRAFAD a paraphrase
PRÄGENÖN to impregnate
PRÄSTIG prestige
PRED a homily, a sermon
PREDAN a preacher
PREDÖN to preach
PREM a prize
PREPARÖN to prepare
PRESENIK the present (time)
PRID booty
PRIEL an arbour
PRIFET W.C. (= a toilet on buses, trains)
PRIM a beginning, a start
PRIMÄTABLUF an initiative test
PRIMIKÖN (AD) to be about to; to be on the point of
PRIMÖFIK primitive
PRIMÖN (AD) to begin, to commence, to start (to)
PRIMUL a polyanthus
PRIMÜM a (musical) overture
PRINSIP a maxim, a principle
PRINSIPÜ on the lines of
PRIOMALIDIL a (short) satirical ditty
PRISMAT a prism
PRIVATIK confidential, private
PRIVILEG a privilege
PRO for
PROAN a supporter
PROÄDÖN to tune into (radio/TV station)
PROD outcome, produce
PRODÄD a product
PRODÄT (TEATIK) (putting on) an act
PRODÖN to produce
PROFÄSOR a professor
PROFET a prophet
PROFÜL a profile(computer) gebanaprofül = user profile
PROGED progress
PROGRAM a program
PROIBÖN to forbid, to prohibit
PROKONSULAN a proconsul
PROLIDIK (more) detailed
PROM a promise
PROMÖN to promise
PRONÖN to pronounce (pronön vödi = to pronounce a word)
PROPAGID propaganda
PROPOR proportion
PROSAD prose
PROSTAT prostate (gland)
PROTÄSTAN a protestant (religion)
PROTEIN a protein
PROTESTÖN (TA) to protest (against)
PROTOK minutes (of meeting), a report, a summary
PROVID provision
PROVIN a province
PROYEK a project
PROZED a procession
PRÜDIKO cautiously
PRULÖN to pout
PRÜDIK attentive, cautious, discreet
PRÜDÖ! Look out! Pay attention!
PRÜDÖN to take care
PRÜNÖN (EKE BOSI) to lend (something to someone)
PSAM a psalm
PSITAK an alternative to PAPAG (= parrot)
PU at the very least
PUBLÜG the (general) public
PUBÖN to appear
PUED chastity, purity
PUF a louse (= insect)
PUGÖN to slaughter* a slaughter house = pugöp
PUID an inch
PUIN a (cosmetic) powder
PULP pith (of fruit)
PUL(S) boy(s) and girl(s)
PUN a fist
PUNC punch (alcoholic drink)
PUP a doll
PUR gunpowder
PURIDIKÖN to become rotten, to decay (= teeth)
PURIDÜKÖN to make rotten
PURUL pus (medical)
PUT (HI/JI) a (small) child
PUTAJUL a kindergarten, a play-school
PUTÜL a baby
PÜBER adolescence, puberty
PÜBOT a publication
PÜD peace (= not war)
PÜFIK dusty
PÜFISUGIAN a vacuum-cleaner
PÜGMEN a pygmy
PÜK a language
PÜKASOTÜL an accent (oral)
PÜL (the) insignificant
PÜLATIMIL a moment, a split second
PÜLIK modest, unassuming
PÜLOT something unimportant
PÜLSIF an outburst, a surge (of emotion)
PÜN a dot, a point
PÜNÖN to punctuate
PÜPIL a pupil (of eye)
PÜPIT a desk
PÜT a (fruit) stone
RAAGID a groundnut, a peanut
RAÄNID a spider
RAB a raven
RABARB rhubarb
RABAT a discount, a rebate
RABIÄTIK furious
RABITAN an arbiter, an umpire
RABOT a plane (= tool)
RADAGUM an eraser
RADIONALANTEN a radio aerial
RADIONAPARAT a wireless set; a radio
RADIONASESEDÖM a radio transmitter
RADIONASTAJON a radio station
RADIUT radius
RADÖN to erase
RAF a radish
RAFINIK pure, refined
RAGIPELAG an archipelago
RAGIV an archive* nünömaragiv = a computer file
RAGUD a ragoût, a stew
RAID a radius
RAISTOKRAT (the) aristocracy
RAJANÖ! agreed! done!
RAJANÖN to arrange
RAK (DI NOE) an ark (=Noah's Ark)
RAKET a rocket* raketalejedöp = a (rocket) launching pad
RAMAR a cupboard
RAMENÖN to fetch, to get (ramenolöd
sanani! = get a doctor!)
RANÜL a tadpole
RAODIK coarse, rough
RAP a turnip
RAT a rat
RATÄR an artery (anatomy)
RATID Artillery
RAUDIK hoarse
RAVAN a burglar, a robber, a thief
RAVANIM a predator
RAVÜLÖN to abduct, to kidnap, to hijack
RÄFOR a horse-radish
RÄG a rag, a remnant
RÄKÄT a (tennis) racket
RÄKÖN to rake
RÄP a file (= tool)
RÄPLIG a replica
RÄPTUL a reptile
RÄT a puzzle, a riddle
RÄTÖF a mystery
RÄTÖFIK enigmatic
RÄYÖN to (do an) X-ray
RÄYUN a (distinctive) characteristic, a department, a domain
REAF a record (= achievement)
REAFÖN to arrive, to attain, to get to, to manage (to do something)
REDABETAD a beetroot
REDABRASID a red cabbage
REDAKAN an editor
REDAVAXEN a cranberry
REDIKÖN to blush, to become flushed
REF a reef
REFORMAT (the) Reformation
REFUD a refusal
REFUDÖN to decline, to refuse
REIG reign
REG a king, a queen
REGADOM a palace
REGAT a regatta
REGÄN a kingdom
REGÄN PEBALÖL the United Kingdom
REGIK regal, royal
REGISTARAM registration (of letter/parcel)
REGISTARÖN to record
REIDED a reading (= passage)
REIDÖN to read
REIFÖN to reach out
REIGAMOD a regime
REIGANEF a government (= persons)
REIGÄB a subject
REIGÄN an empire
REIGÄNADAIL parliament
REIN rain
REINABOB a rainbow
REINAJELÖM an umbrella
REINAMÄNED a raincoat
REINÖN to rain
REITAK a nightingale
REIVÖN to overtake (on road)
REKLAMÖN to advertise
REKORD a (competitive) record* Volarekord = a world record
REKOSILÖN to forgive, to reconcile
REKRUTÄB a recruit
RELEDIK denominational
REMAN a buyer, a customer
REMÄD ribery, corruption
REMOTI(S) shopping
REMÖN to buy, to purchase
RENAKÜIR reindeer skin
RENAR a fox
RENÄSAN (the) renaissance
REPÜBLIKÄN a republic
REPÜT a reputation
RESÄRFARIF a spare tyre
RESÄRFIK reserve, spare
RESÄRFÖN to reserve
RESITÖN to declaim, to recite
RESOD a network (Vüresod = the )
RESODATOPED a web site (computer)
RESOR a spring
RET remainder, rest
RETÄD an end, a left-over, a stub
RETIN retina
RETO by the way
RETOD trail, track
RETÖN to have left over, to remain
REUMAT rheumatism
REZÄP a recipe
REZIDIF re-offending (law)
REZIPIK mutual, reciprocal
RIAD an (operatic) aria, a tune
RIB a rib (= anatomy)
RIBAKARTILAG costal cartilage
RIBEDABÄL a black/red currant
RIBOTÜL a cutlet
RIET a wrist (rietalinaglokil = a wrist-watch)
RIF a tyre(rif döfik = a flat tyre)
RIGÄD an original
RIGET a draft, a rough copy
RIGIK original
RIKJOD a rickshaw
RIKÜL (the) little finger
RIMOD a rhyme
RINOSEROD a rhinoceros
RIPRODÖN (EKE BOSI) to reproach (someone with something)
RISAT rice
RISKÄD a danger
RISKÄDIK dangerous
RISKÄDIKÖN to be in danger, to risk
RISKÖN to dare, to hazard, to risk
RITIK honest, loyal
RITMUT a rhythm
RITOR a retort
RITÖF loyalty
RIV an attainment
RIVÖN to catch (bus, train, 'plane); to reach
RIZINALEÜL castor oil
ROB a seal
ROD an order (religious company)
RODODEN a rhododendron
ROGIK arrogant, impudent, insolent
ROGÖN to be arrogant, impudent, insolent
ROIN a kidney
ROINASTON a kidney stone
ROJANIK orange (colour)
ROJAT an orange
ROJATAFLOR an orange blossom
ROLATRIDEM an escalator
ROLÖN to roll
RÖLÖN to roll
ROM rum
ROMATIK romantic
RONÄT a faucet, a tap
ROOD a category
ROPÖN to interrupt
ROR a roar
RORUD arrowroot
ROSAD a rose
ROSIN a raisin
ROT a routine, a template (computer)
ROUL a part, a rôle (in play)
ROVIK narrow
RÖBÖN to rub
RÖBÜLÖN to caress, to stroke
RÖLETAN a relative, a relation
RÖLASTUL a wheelchair
RÖLÖN to (make) roll
RÖNAJEVOD a race-horse
RÖNÖN to race, to run
RÖVÜD a (musical) revue
RUBRIG a rubric
RUILIK rusty
RUL a (roller) blind
RULÄD a roll
RULÄT roulette (game of chance)
RUNÄD a rush (of animals/people)
RUNÜLAN a jogger
RUPÄD an outbreak
RUPÄDÖN to break out (e.g. war, storm)
RUR dysentery
RUTID a nettle
RÜBÄLIK perverse
RÜBIKÖN to decay, to spoil
RÜBÜKÖL pernicious
RÜD a pipe, a tube (for toothpaste)
RÜDAN a plumber
RÜDIL a (toothpaste) tube
RÜN a herring
RÜT lust (sexual desire)
RÜTÖN (DEMÜ) to lust (for), to be on heat (animals)
SA together with
SAB sand
SABOT sabotage
SABÖM a (sand) timer
SADIN silk
SADÖN to sink
SAEDÖN to add (maths)
SAF a hoof
SAFAFER a horseshoe
SAFIRAIN sapphire
SAFRAN saffron
SAGATIK intelligent
SAGÄD a rumour (= gossip)
SAGIT an arrow
SAGLIED a (wild) boar
SAGÖN (EKE BOSI) to say, to tell (something to someone)
SAGUD sago
SAIDÄL self-confidence
SAIDIK enough, sufficient
SAIDÖN to suffice
SAIKUL a bicycle
SAIKULÖN to cycle
SAIL a sail
SAILÖN to sail
SAITÖN to cite, to quote
SAK a sack
SAKALUSÜT a cul-de-sac
SAKÄD a bag, a pack, a satchel
SAKED a (lady's) handbag
SAKRAM a sacrament
SAL salt
SALAD lettuce, salad
SALB sage (herb)
SALIÄR a salt- cellar
SALIF saliva
SALIFAMEAT saliva duct
SALIG a willow (tree)
* a weeping willow = vatasalig
SALM a salmon
SALMUN a newt, a salamander
SALUDABUK holy scripture
SALUDAN a saint
SALUDÜKIK hallowed
SAM an example (as sam = for example)
SAMÄD a copy (of book); a specimen, a trial
SAMBUKABÄL elderberry
SAMED a sample (samed nen völad = samplwithout commercial value)
SAMIK patterned
SANAKÄL health care
SANAN a doctor, a medic
SANAVIK medical
SANDAL a sandal
SANÖN to cure, to heal
SAOV a saw
SAOVÖN to saw
SAPIK wise
SARDEN a sardine
SARK a coffin
SARKAD sarcasm
SASENÖN to assassinate, to murder
SATIK satisfied, satiated
SATIR a satire
SATÖN (DÖ) to have enough (of)
SATÜRIK satirical
SAUN health
SAUNAD a sauna
SAUNIK healthy, well
SAUNIKÄL hygiene
SAUNIKÖN to recover
SAVABOT a lifeboat
SAVÖN to save (from)
SAXOFON a saxophone
SÄBOIDÖN (OKI) to disembark
SÄBRIETIKÖN to sober up
SÄBRIETÜKÖN to sober (someone) up
SÄDÖN to (make) sink, to submerge
SÄDUNÖN to undo
SÄDÜNIKÖN to resign
SÄDÜNÜKÖN to abdicate, to discharge, to dismiss, to sack
SÄDÜTÖN (EKE BOSI) to deprive (someone of something)
SÄED saddle
SÄFÄRMÜKÖN to open, to unlock
SÄFLEDÖN to download, to unload
SÄG dryness
SÄGERÜKÖN to disinherit
SÄGLEIPÖN to let go
SÄGLUMÜKÖN to cheer up
SÄGÜKÖN to dry
SÄJADÖN to shade off
SÄJÄFÄLÜKAM entertainment, leisure activity
SÄJALÖN to peel
SÄK a query, a question
SÄKABLOG a questionnaire, a survey
SÄKALÜKÖN to deduct, to subtract
SÄKÄD a problem
SÄKIBÖN to abolish, to dispense with, to get rid of
SÄKIKÖN to decipher
SÄKLÄNEDÖN to bring to light
SÄKLOÄTÖN to unsneck
SÄKLOTAMACEM a changing room
SÄKLOTÖN (OKI) to undress (oneself)
SÄKNOPÖN to unbutton
SÄKÖLIKÖN to tarnish
SÄKÖLAN an inquirer
SÄKÖN to ask (a question)
SÄKURADÜKÖN to discourage
SÄKUSAD an excuse, an apology (begön säkusadi = tobeg pardon)
SÄKUSADIBEG an apology
SÄKUSADÖN to excuse, to pardon
SÄLÄRID celery
SÄLENÜKÖN to take off (clothes/shoes)
SÄLODÖN to unload
SÄLUIMÜKÖN (OKI) to dry (oneself)
SÄLUN a sitting-room
SÄMENIKÖN to become dehumanized
SÄMENÜKÖN to dehumanize
SÄNDVIG a sandwich
SÄNÄFÄTÖN to disinfect
SÄNED an evening meal, supper (säned saludik = the last supper)
SÄNEDÖN to have supper (= evening meal)
SÄNIFLAT deflation
SÄNSUR censorship
SÄNTRETÜKÄL concentration
SÄNTRETÜKÖN to concentrate
SÄNTRETIK concentrated
SÄPÄKÖN to unpack
SÄPLANÖN to dig up, to root up
SÄPÖPÖN to depopulate
SÄREN a mermaid, a siren
SÄRJAN a sergeant
SÄRVÄT a napkin, a serviette
SÄRVÄTÜL a cloth (bovülasärvätül = a dish-cloth)
SÄRVIG a neck
SÄSLOPAN an apostate
SÄSOAFÜKÖN to quench (thirst)
SÄSPETÜKÖN (EKI) to disappoint (someone)
SÄSTIMÖN to dishonour
SÄSTITÖN to disestablish
SÄSTOPÖN (to come to a) standstill
SÄSUN a season (= of year)
SÄTENIDÜKÖN (OKI) to relax, to unwind
SÄTRATÜKÖN to extract
SÄTÜLÖN to unwind
SÄVAFÖN to disarm
SÄVEADÖN to unsheath
SÄVEALÖN to reveal, to unveil
SÄVILUPÖN to develop (photos); to reveal
SÄYÖN to lisp
SE out (of)
SEABLIMÖN (to) disassemble, take apart
SEADÄM seating
SEADÖFÖN (OKE) (to) fit (of clothes, shoes, etc.)
SEADÖN to sit
SEADÖP a seat
SEAFALÖN to fall apart
SEAGIVÖN to allot, to distribute
SEAIKÖN to disperse, to scatter
SEAN an ocean
SEATÖN to lie (down), (lay, lain)
SEATÖP a storehouse
SEÄDÖN to jut out, to protrude
SEBÖN to dig
SEBRAD a zebra
SEDIT a departure, a resignation
SEDÖN to send
SEF safety
SEFANAD a safety-pin
SEFIK safe
SEFLUM mouth (of a river)
SEG a sect
SEGIVÖN to spend (money)
SEGOLÖN to go out
SEGOLÖP an exit
SEIDETÖP a display (of goods)
SEIDÖN (OKI) to sit down, to take a seat
(Seidolös oli lä ob! = Sit by me!)
SEIFÖN to sigh
SEILIK silent
SEIMAN anybody, anyone, whoever
SEIMIK any, whichever
(ün tim seimik = at any time);
(ön mod seimik = however)
SEIMIKNA some time (or other)
SEIMIO wherever
SEIMO anywhere
SEIMÜPO whenever
SEIMOS anything, whatever
SEITÖN to lay, to place
SEIV recognition
SEIVIDÖN to inquire (about), to obtain information
SEIVIDAN an enquirer
SEIVÖN to get to know (people and places)
SEJEDÖN to eject, to throw out
SEK an outcome, a result
SEKALIEGIKO successfully
SEKÄT a function (maths)
SEKIDAN a hanger-on
SEKIDÖN (DE) to depend (on)
SEKIK eventual
SEKÖMÖN (SE) to emerge (from)
SEKÖN to result
SEKRETAN a secretary
SESKRUBÖN to unscrew
SEKUN a second (= time)
SEKURBÖN to switch off
SEKÜ as a result of
SEL a sale
SELAN a salesperson
SELEDO seldom
SELIDÖPAZÄN a shopping precinct
SELETÖN to omit, to miss
SELIBAN a single person
SELIDÖP a shop
SELOGAM an aspect, a look-out, a view
SELLOTAPE el „Sellotape” (adhesive, transparent tape)
SELÖN to sell
SEMAN a (certain) person
SEMANAEDO sometimes
SEMIK (a) certain one (= specified)
SEMIKNA now and again, sometimes
SEMIKNAIK occasional
SEMO in a sense
SEN sensation, sense (general/physical)
SENÄL (inner) feeling
SENÄLÖN to be aware, to feel inwardly
* to feel compelled = senälön dranäli
SENÄLÖFIK sensitive
SENIDÖN to feel (one's way), to grope
SENÖN to feel (= ill/well/happy/uncomfortable)
SENUNÄDÖN OKI (to) log out (computers)
SEP a den
SEPÜL a grave, a tomb
SEPÜLÖN to bury, to inter
SEPÜLEMÖP a cemetery
SER nil, nought
gesedön lü ser = (to) reset (computer)
SESEDÖN to broadcast
SESMOKÄDÖN to fumigate
SESTÜRÖN to pour out (also: emotions)
SESUMÜ with the exception of
SET a sentence (= a group of words)
SETÄD a statement
SETEM a paragraph
SETEVÖN to migrate
SETIRÄDÖN to pull out
SETRATÖN (DE/SE) to extract (from)
SETUL September
SETÜL a verse
SEVABO that is to say...
SEVÄDAN (HI-/JI-) an acquaintance
SEVÄDIKÜN famous, very well-known
SEVÄDOVIK recognizable
SEVÄDÖN to be acquainted, to get to know (someone)
SEVÄDÜKÖN to make known
SEVÄLÖFIKÖN to come to one's senses
SEVÄLÖFÖN to be conscious
SEVÄRIK harsh, strict, severe
SEVED conciousness
SEVEDIKÖN to become aware
SEVEDÖN to be aware of
SEVEIGÖN to export
SEVÖN to know, to understand
SEXÄNÖN (DE) to alight (from), to dismount, to get off
SFIN (the) sphinx
SI! yes!
SIAM an affirmation
SIÄMO positively
SIÄMÖF meaning
SIB a colander, a sieve
SIBLÄGAHOG a black hole
SID a seed
SIDIN indignation
SIEM a border, an edge
SIEN (one of the five) sense(s)
SIENAM a perception
SIENOVIK noticeable
SIENÖN to be aware of, to notice
SIFAL (the) Mayor
SIFAN a citizen
SIFANAKRIG a civil war
SIFÄDAN a civilian
SIGAYEB hay (sigayebamasad = a hay loft)
SIIK positive
SIJIDÖN to hiss, to sizzle
SIKAPSÜL a space capsule
SIKLOPED an encyclopedia
SIKRON a corona (stellar)
SIL sky
SILANAN an angel
SILHUÄT a silhouette
SILVID a warbler
SIM an edge, a margin, a side
SIMÖN to border
SIMULAN a hypocrite
SIMULÖN to pretend
* = simulön oki = to kid oneself
SINIF meaning
SINIFÖN to mean, to signify
SINISTIAM absolution
SINOD a sin
SINUD a sinus (medical)
SIOLÖM an insulator
SIÖFIK positive
SIÖR gentleman, sir
SIPÖN to emancipate
SIRKAMUF a cycle (of nature)
SIRKÖFIK circular, round
SIRKOT a (gramophone) record
SIRKOTIL a floppy disk (computer)
SIRKUD a circus
SIRKÜL a circle, a ring
SIRKÜLAM a cycle (of events)
SIRKÜLAPENÄD a circular (letter)
SIRKÜLÖN to circulate (= be in circulation)
SIRKÜLÜKÖN to (cause to) circulate
SIRUP a syrup
SIS for, since (preposition)
(no elogob oli sis lunüp = I haven't seen
you for a long time)
SISKIAT sciatica
SISO ever since
SISOIKO from then on
SISTAJON a space station
SIT a system
SITIKO systematically
SITATÖN to summon
SIÜL a (body) cell
SIVOVIK available, obtainable
SIVÖN to obtain, to receive
SKAFÄD an easel
SKAFED a catafalque
SKAFOD a scaffold
SKALEL a potter
SKALP a scalp
SKANO gloomily, morosely
SKANÖN to be shocked
SKANÜKÖN to shock
SKAPIK steep
SKAPULAR a shoulder blade
SKAR a scar
SKARABED a beetle
SKARAF a cockroach
SKÄNIK offensive, scandalous
SKÄNÖN to anger, to annoy, to irritate, to offend
SKÄT a sketch
* skäto = in outline
SKÄULEP a horse chestnut (tree)
SKEAPÖN to escape
SKEL a (large) dish
SKEMAT a scheme
SKET a skate
SKETÖN to skate
SKIN skin
SKRETÖN to secrete
SKILÄDIK fluent (spikön skilädiko = to speak fluently)
SKILÄLIK efficient
SKILIK experienced, skilled
SKIN skin
SKIP a (ship's) crew
SKIPÖN to man
SKOMB a mackerel
SKIYÖN to ski
SKIY a ski
SKIYAM skiing (= sport)
SKOLIM scholasticism
SKORBUT scurvy (medical)
SKÖM foam, froth, lather
SKÖT a coat of arms
SKÖTAV heraldry
SKRÄDAN a tailor
SKRET a secretion
SKRIN a (TV/ cinema) screen
SKROT a scrotum (medical)
SKRUB a screw
SKRUBAKIK a spanner
SKRUBÄT a spiral
SKRUBITULÖM a screwdriver
SKRUTÖN to scan
SKULTURAV sculpture
SKUTILEMOFIK jetpropelled
SLAFAN a slave
SLÄM mud
SLÄNÖN to slander
SLAPIK slipshod, slovenly
SLEAFABLIT (a pair of) knickers
SLEAFÖN to glide
SLEIFAKÄT a sliding section
SLEITÖN to rend, to rip. to tear, to slash
SLENIK slim, thin
SLETOT a (school) slate
SLIFABEMS runners (of sledge)
SLIFAVABÖN to toboggan
SLIFÄDÖN to slip
SLIFÖN to glide, to slip, to slither
SLIM dirt, mucus, slime
SLIMAFLID mucous membrane
SLIP sleep
SLIPACEM a bedroom
SLIPATIM bedtime
SLIPIKÖN to fall asleep
SLIPIL a nap
SLIPÖN to sleep
SLIPÜLÖN to slumber
SLIPÜP bedtime
SLIT an opening
SLITOD a cleft, a crack, a fissure
SLITÖN to split
SLIV a sleeve
SLIVÜL a (shirt) cuff
SLOBIKO loosely
SLOKÖN to sob
SLOPAN an adherent, a supporter
SLOPÖN to adhere (to)
SLOPÜKÖN to recruit, to gain supporters
SLÖM a slum
SLUDAM a decision
SLUDÖN (AD) to decide (to)
SLUG a gullet, a throat
SLUGÖN to swallow
SLÜDÖN (EKI AD) to persuade (someone to)
SMALAMON (loose) change
SMALIK small
SMALOTÜLAM fragmentation
SMALÜKAM diminutive
SMALÜKÖN to decrease
SMARAGOIN an emerald
SMEILASIEN sense of smell
SMEILÖN to smell (something)
SMEITÖN to melt, to smelt
SMEKASIEN sense of taste
SMEKÖN (ÄS) to taste (of)
SMEL a smell
SMELÖN (ÄS) to smell (of)
SMETÖN to melt, to thaw
SMIL laughter
SMILARORÜL a burst of laughter
SMILIL a smile
SMILILÖN (DÖ) to smile (about)
SMILÖFIK ridiculous
SMILÖN (DÖ) to laugh (at)
SMITAN a (black)smith
SMITÖN to forge
SMIVÖN to lubricate, to smear
SMOK smoke
SMOKÖN to smoke
SMÖKÖN to smoke (tobacco)
SMOLÖN to smoulder
SMUDIK even, smooth
SMUFÜKAMAFER an iron (= smoothing-iron)
SMUFÜKÖN to iron (clothes)
SMUGAN a smuggler
SMUGIK contraband
SNAB a buckle
SNAL a noose, a sling
SNAPÖN to snatch
SNATIK fair, honest (= without fraud)
SNEK a serpent, a snake
SNEL a snail
SNIDÖN to sneeze
SNIL a seal
SNILALIN signet ring
SNILAMALAIG sealing wax
SNILÖN to seal
SNOB a knot
SNOKÖN to snore
SNÖF catarrh
SNÖTÖN (NUDI) to blow (one's nose)
SNUD a snout
SNURÖN to purr
SO so, thus
SOAF thirst
SOAFIK thirsty
SOALÄLIK introvert
SOALÖFÖP a waste, a wilderness (= a lonely place)
SOALÜKÖN (OKI) to retire
SOAR evening
SOARAVOAL evening mist
SOÄS just like (preposition)
SOELOT a single detail (or event)
SOB soap
SOCENIK obscene
SOD sauce
SODAD soda
SOELIK alone (ai binom soelik = he'salways by himeself)
SOELIKÖN to become isolated
SOELÖLIK isolated
SOFÄLIK mild, gentle (quality)
SOFÄLÜKÖN to appease
SOFIK soft, gentle
SOFÜKÖN to relieve, to soothe
SOG company, society
SOGALIF socializing
SOGÄDIM socialism
SOGOD a (social) circle
SOGÖN (OKI LÄ) to mix (socialize) with
SOGü accompanied by
SOL (the) sun(modonikam sola = the setting of the sun)
(solamoikam = sunset)
(sülöpikam sola = the rising of the sun)
SOLAGLOK a sundial
SOLDAT a soldier
SOLDÖN to weld
SOLIAD a threshold
SOLIDOT a clot
SOLÖN (OKI) to sunbathe
SOLUÖN to dissolve
SOMAN such a one (= person)
SOMIK such, that kind of
SON a son
SONEMIK so-called
SOP a (mine) shaft
SORBABIM a mountain-ash, a rowan (tree)
SORDITIK numb, unresponsive (figurative)
SOSIT a sausage
SOSITARULÄD a sausage roll
SOSUS as soon as
SOT a kind, a sort
SOTÜL a variation
SOTEFO whereas
SOÜLÖN to dissolve
SOVADIK wild (= not domesticated)
SOVÖN to sow
SOVÜO (JÜS) so long (as)
SOYABON a soya bean
SÖF a settee, sofa
SÖJAFÄDASITOT (the) reproductive system
SÖKALEOD a sequence
SÖKALEODIK consecutive
SÖKET order (of numbers)
SÖKÖN to follow (after)
SÖL gentleman, Mr. sir
SÖLIT a sole (= seafood)
SÖMÄL a sole (= of shoe)
SÖMIT a top, a summit
SÖOF oesophagus
SÖP a ditch
SÖR a sister
SÖRÖNÖN to pursue
SÖT a (moral) duty
SÖTO nice, well-behaved
SÖTÖN (+ INFIN) to be duty bound (= ought)
SPAD room, space
SPADÄD an (ample) space, an area
SPADÖFIK roomy, spacious
SPADÖN (PRO) to make room/space (for)
SPAG a spark
SPAL forbearance
SPALÖN (EKE BOSI) to spare (someone something)
SPARAG asparagus
SPAT a stroll, a walk
SPATAKLOTEM outdoor wear
SPATAM a walk
SPATASTAF a walking stick
SPATAVABAM a drive (up to a house)
SPATÖN to go for a walk
SPATÜKÖN to walk (dog)
SPÄK a ghost, a phantom, a spook
SPÄKÖN to haunt
* Späkos in dom at = This house is haunted
* Ospäkob lä ol = I will haunt you
SPÄKTRUM a spectrum
SPÄLIÄLIK frugal, sparse
SPÄLÖN to economize, to save (money)
SPÄR a sparrow
SPED a lance
SPEARÜKÖN to spread around, to circulate (gossip)
SPEDIJEDAM (the) javelin throw (= Olympics)
SPEL hope
SPELÖN to hope
SPETÄTIKO expectantly
SPETIDÖN to anticipate
SPETIKO expectantly
SPETÖF awareness, a (mental) realisation
SPETÖFÖN to be aware (of)
SPETÖN to anticipate, to expect
* no pespetöl - unexpected
SPETÜKÖN to anticipate
SPID haste, hurry, speed
SPIDIÄL haste, hastiness
SPIDO hastily, in haste
SPIDÖN to hurry, to make haste, to rush
SPIG a spike
SPIK (power of) speech
SPIKAMAHORN a megaphone
SPIKAMAMOD language (= style/manner of expression)
bashru [ba’u] verbally/says/phonates/speaks [ die vocally makhen
sondes] SPIKAN an orator, a speaker
SPIKÄD a discourse, an oration, a lecture, a speech, a talk
SPIKED a motto, a saying
SPIKET a proverb
SPIKOT a chat, a conversation, a dialogue
SPIKOTAN a conversationalist
SPIKOTÄLIK chatty, conversational, talkative
SPIKOTÖN (KO) to chat (with), to converse (with)
SPIKÖF eloquence
SPIKÖN to speak (spikön nelaodiko = to whisper)
SPIKÜLÖN to stammer
SPILÖN to spill
SPIN a thorn
SPINAD spinach
SPION a spy
SPIRIN an aspirin
SPIRUT spiritism, spiritualism
SPITIFABRIK a distillery
SPITIN an alcoholic drink
SPLEN spleen
SPLODÖN to explode
SPLODÜLÖN (ME) to burst (into)
SPOD correspondence, mail
SPODÖN (KO) to correspond (with)
SPOT a sport
SPÖNAN (HI/JI) a godfather, a godmother, a sponsor
SPÖRINASENÖFIK hormone-sensitive
SPRANÖN to blow up, to destroy
SPRANÜLÖN to spring
SPROTIANABRASID a Brussels-sprout
SPROTÖN to shoot up, to sprout
SPRÖTÖN to make sprout
SPUKÖN to spit
SPULED a cobweb, a spider's web
SPULÖM a spinning wheel
SPUN a spoon
SPUNET a spoonful
SPUTÖN to throw up, to vomit
SPÜL a coil
STAB a basis
STABALIENS basics, guide lines
STABALON (state) constitution
STABÄD a (basic) unit
STABIK fundamental
STABÖFO radically
STABÜL (the) bottom (stabül tuba = the
bottom of a barrel)
STAD a condition, a state, status
(computer) geükön ini stad kösömik = (to) revert to default settings
(computer) väls ad stad kösömik = default settings
(computer) paramets stada kösömik = default parameters
STADÄD a phase, a stage
STADÄT a situation
STADION a (sports) stadium
STADÖN to find itself, to stand (= to be)
(lio saun ola stadon-li? = how are you?)
STADÜKÖN LIBIO to set free
STAF a rod, a stick
STAFÄD a post, a stake
STAFÄDAKIUD a partition (of staves)
STAG a shaft, a stalk
STAFAFER rod iron
STAJON a station
STAJONACIF a station-master
STAL steel
STALADÜFIK hard as steel
STAM a stem
STAMEN a stamen (botany)
STAMOD a (tree) trunk
STANÄD a rack (for bottles, etc)
STANED a position
STANIN tin (= metal)
STANÖN to stand
STAR an eye disease (star gedik = a cataract;
(star grünik = glaucoma;
(star blägik = amaurosis)
STATIT a statistic
STATITAV statistics (discipline)
STAUDAVAB a restaurant (dining) car (= railway)
STAUDÖN to refresh oneself
STAUDÖP a restaurant
STÄATIK ecstatic
STÄÄNIK comprehensive
STÄÄNIKÖN to extend (= over an area)
STÄÄNÜKAM expansion, extension
STÄÄNÜKÖN to expand, to extend
STÄAT ecstacy
STÄD a stage (theatre)
STÄF personnel (staff)
STÄG a stag
STÄN a banner, a flag
STÄPEDÖM a stamping device/machine
STÄPODÖN to impress (on the mind)
STEB a sojourn, a stay
STEBEDALECEM a waiting room
STEBEDÖN to await, to sojourn, to wait for
STEBÖN to stay (= for a certain time); to linger (of perfume, etc)
STEDAGUL a right-angle
STEDÄLIK sincere, straight
STEDIK straight
STEDIKO exactly, precisely
STEDÖLO all of a sudden, directly
STEIF an effort, endeavour
STEIGÄDÖN to cram, to stuff
STEGÜLÖN to sting (= insect)
STEIFÄDAN a candidate
STEIFÖN to strive
STEIFÜL an attempt
STEIFÜLÖN to attempt, to try
STEIGÄDÖN to cram, to fill (a pipe)
STEIGÖN to insert, to stick (into)
STEILÖN to distill (steilavat = distilled water)
STEL a star
STELANAF a spaceship
STELANAFAN an astronaut, a cosmonaut
STELAV astronomy
STELÄD a constellation
STELÜL an asterisk
STEM steam
STEMANAF a steamer (= boat)
STEN a blot, a mark, a spot
STENOGRAF shorthand, stenography
STENÖN to stain
STEP a pace, a step
STEREOD stereo
STEREODATON stereophonic sound
STETÖN to declare, to elucidate
STIAM an amnesty
STIB a pencil
STIBIJAPÜKÖM a pencil sharpener
STIFIK rigid, stiff
STIGÄD an impulse, an incentive
STIGÄDÖN to induce, to stimulate
STIGEDIK exciting
STIGEDOV irritability
STIGEDÖN to charm, to entice
STIGIK stinging
STIGÜL a tingling (sensation)
STILIK calm, quiet, still
STIM esteem, honour
STIMIÄL ambition
STIMADIG dignity, respectability
STIMO respectfully
STIMÖN to esteem, to honour
STIP a condition, a stipulation (stipä = on condition that)
STIPÖFIK conditional
STIRAGÖB a fin (of fish)
STIRAGUB a rudder (of boat, ship)
STIRALUIB a steering wheel
STIRAN a helmsman, a steersman
STIRÄDAN a pilot
STIRÖN to lead, to steer
STITOD an institute
STITÖN to install
STOBÖN to come to a standstill
STOF cloth, material
STOFÄDEM (BEDA) bed-linen
STOFÄDEMILAV (the) wash/washing (= of clothes/linen)
STOFÄDIKNIBÒM a clothes-peg
STOFED a table cloth
STOFEDÖN to put the table cloth on
STOG a stocking
STOL a straw
STOLAJUGED a straw mat
STOM weather (stomanunod = a weather forecast)
STOMÄG a stomach
STOMÄGAVAET gastric juice
STON a stone
STONÖP a quarry
STONATVIL a flagstone, a paving stone
STOPÖN to cease, to stop
STOPÖP a (bus/rail) stop
STORDIT an anaesthetic
STORK a stork
STÖBÖN to bar, to block (stöbön vegi = to block the way)
STÖFIM materialism
STÖFIKÖN to materialize
STÖM an implement
STÖMÖN to fasten, to harness
STÖPÄDÖN to delay, to detain, to hinder, to hold up
STÖPÖN to cease, to stop
STÖRÖM a poker (for fire)
STÖRÜLÖN to shake
STÖTÖN to mumble, to stutter
STRABÖN to squint
STRAIKÖN to (go on) strike
STRAL a beam, a ray (of light)
STRALAMIKODAB radio activity
STRALÖN (LOVE) to shine (over)
STRIP a streak, a wisp
STRIPÖM a ruler, a straightedge
STROLOG astrology
STUDAN a student
STUDÖN to study
STUKÖN to construct
STUL a chair, a seat
STUM a (technical) instrument, a tool
STUN amazement, astonishment
STUNABIK wonderful
STUNIDABIK admirable, wonderful
STUNIDOT a wonder
(stunidots vel vola = the seven wonders of
the world)
STUNIDÖN to admire
STUNIK amazed, astonished
STUNÖN (TEFÜ) to be astonished (at), to wonder (at)
STUNÜKAM a commotion, a sensation, a stir
STUNÜKÖL sensational
STUNÜKÖN to cause a stir/uproar, to astonish
STUPAN an idiot
STUPOT a folly, stupidity
STUR a clatter, a crash
STURNOD a starling
STURÖN to capsize, to hurl
STUTÖMASTUL an armchair
STUTÖN (LEN) to lean (against/on)
STÜBIK stubborn
STÜL a (literary) style
STÜM esteem, respect
STÜMÖN to esteem, to respect
STÜRÖN to capsize, to throw (onto a pile); to shed (tears)
STÜT a support
STÜTODS crutches (golön stutü stütods = to go on crutches)
STÜTÖN to second, to side with, to support
SU on, upon
SÜADÖN (DÖ/TEFÜ) to be convinced (of/about); to come to a conclusion (about)
SÜADÜKÖN to persuade
SUÄM a price, an amount (of money)
SUÄMÖN to amount (to), to total
SUBLIMIK grandiose, sublime
SUBLIMÜKÖN to soar (spiritually)
SUDEL Sunday
SUDIK deaf
SUEMOD a concept, a notion
SUEMOVIK comprehensible
SUEMÖN to comprehend, to understand
SUETÖN to perspire, to sweat
SUFALEFOM passive (grammar)
SUFÄDIK patient
SUFÄLÖN to tolerate
SUFÄLIK tolerant
SUFEDÖN to resign (oneself)
SUFIDALAIDÜKÖN to tolerate (= over a long period)
SUFIDIK resistant
SUFIDÖN to bear, to tolerate
SUFOD resignation
SUFÖN to suffer (sufön malädi = to have an illness); to tolerate
SUG suction
SUGADAIFET a lollipop
SUI onto, upon
SUIDIKÖN to become giddy/dizzy
SUIMÖN to follow (mentally)
SUKADOG a tracker (dog)
SUKAM research
SUKÖN to look for, to seek
SUKUBÖN (SEKÜ) to collapse, to give way (under)
SULÜD south
SUMÄTÖFÜ under the command of
SUMÄTÜKÖN to oppress, to subject
SUMODÖN to accept, to take up
SUMÖN to take
SUNÄDANUNÜKIAN an instant messager
SUNÄDO at once, immediately, without delay
SUNIK soon
SUNOKÖMÖL imminent
SUP a soup
SUR insurance
SURAD calf (anatomy)
SURÖN to insure (finance)
SUS above, over
SUSBÄLDIK very ancient
SUSFULIK full to overflowing
SUSLANÄLIK overenthusiastic
SUSLOMÄNÄL chauvinism
SUSMAKET supermarket
SUSNUMIK innumerable
SUSTONÄD disintegration
SUTRIDÖN to tread on
SUVO often
SÜADÖN (DÖ/TEFÜ) to be convinced (about)
SÜADÜKÖN to convince
SÜDAV ethics, morals
SÜDÖF morality
SÜD(S) manner(s), more(s)
SÜEN presence of mind
* perön süeni oka = to lose one’s head
SÜENIK discreet, sensible, sober, prudent
SÜENIKÖN (DÖ) to consider, to stop and think, to think (about)
SUFIDIK tough (= resistant)
SÜFÜL a scene, an episode
SÜG sucking
SÜGAF a mammal
SÜGANIM a mammal
SÜGÄB a baby
SÜGÖN to suck
SÜIKÖN to emerge, to come to the fore
SÜL heaven
SÜLOGEDÖN to peep (at)
SÜMÄDOT an imitation, a simulation
SÜMÄDÖN to imitate
SÜMÄTÖN (LÜ) to appear, to resemble
SÜMBOLÖN to symbolize
SÜMIK like, similar
SÜMÖN (AD) to resemble
SÜMPTOM a symptom
SÜPALÖÜKAM an (impromptu) rising
SÜPÄD a surprise
SÜPÄDÖN to surprise
SÜPERIK excellent
SÜPIK sudden, unexpected
SÜRAMENÖN to fetch out
SÜREN a lilac
SÜRFAT a surface (= outer opposed to inner)
SÜSTEGÖN to be rooted
SÜT a street
(sütilovegolöp stripik = a zebra crossing)
(sütitraväröp = a crossroad)
SÜTASEFÄDÖP a (traffic) refuge
SÜÜKÖN to give rise to; to release (spring)
SÜVOKÖN to cause, to engender, to give rise to
SVAL a swallow
SVAN a swan
SVEAMÖN to drift
SVELÖN to be swollen
SVELIKÖN to swell up
SVENÖN to faint, swoon
SVIDAZIB a dessert, a pudding
SVIDIK sweet
SVIET (soft) light, a glow
SVIMABLITIL swimming trunks
SVIMÖN to swim
SVIN a pig
SVINIBECÖPAN a pork butcher
SVIP a broom
SVIST (universal) brotherhood, a colleague
SVÖNÖN to swing, to wave
nando meis saisee et tenkla tenlan rz veitix z or att je nahkot dea
TA against
TAAN an adversary, an opponent
TAÄD a contrast, (the) reverse
(in contrast with = in taäd tefü)
TAÄDAM a contrast
TAÄDIK contrary, counter
TAÄDO on the contrary
TAÄDÖN (KO) to compare (with), to contrast (with)
TAB a table
TABAK tobacco
TABALETANED a runner (= a long, narrow table cover)
TABASTOFED a table cloth
TABLÖFÄDÖN to disprove, to refute
TACED a paradox
TADILO on the contrary
TADUN resistance
TADUNÖN to oppose, to resist, to withstand
TAEDIK defensive
TAEDÖN to prevent
TAENAN a tanner
TAENÖN to tan
TAENöP a tannery
TAETÖN to hold back, to restrain
TAGLUMALADÄLAMEDIN an anti-depressant
TAGÖN to trample
TAID a (sea) tide
TAIL earth (= substance)
TAIM clay
TAJEDAPLED ball-bouncing (= game)
TAKÄD repose, rest (takädastul = a deckchair)
TAKÄDASTAD retirement
TAKÄDÖN to repose, to rest
TAKÄT a dead centre (maths)
TAKEDIK calm, quiet
TAKEDÖ! quiet! silence!
TAKEDÖN to be calm, to be quiet
TAKEDÜKAMEDIN a tranquilizer
TAKEDÜKÖLO soothingly
TAKEDÜKÖN to calm, to quieten
TAKIK static
TAKOMIP a defence
TAL (the) earth
TALAGLÖP (the) globe
TALAKRUT (the) earth's crust
TALAP a mole
TALAV geology
TALEAB an apprentice's indenture
TALEDAV geography
TALP a mole
TAMBUR a fanfare
TAMBUREN a tambourine
TAMED a remedy
TAN a bond
TANÄDÖN to bind (books)
TANÄT a contact, a link
TANED a strip
TANGÄNT a tangent (maths)
TANGERAROJAT a tangerine
TANOD a neckerchief, a scarf
* födatanod = a conveyor belt
TANÖN to bind, to tie
TAÖF a contradiction
TAÖN (TA) to object (to)
TAPÄD a carpet
TAPED a tapestry
TAPLADÜ in contrast to...
TAPÖN to (wall)paper
TAPOT wallpaper
TAR tar
TARIF a tariff
TARM a (clothes) moth
TARMARET turmeric (spice)
TASPIKÖN (EKE BOSI) to contradict (someone about something)
TAT (the) state (= government)
TATAK an attack
TATAKÖN to attack
TATAMONOPUL a (state) monopoly
TATAREIGÄBAM counter-resistance
TATÄT citizenship (= of a state)
TATIKÄLIK absurd, ridiculous
TATIMÄDIM an anachronism
TATS-PEBALÖL MEROPA the United States of America
TAUL a towel
TAUM an atom
TAVIENVITÜR a windscreen
TAVIENVITÜRAKLINIAN a windscreen wiper
TAXID a taxicab
TAXIDAJOFÖR a taxi-driver
TAXUD a yew (tree)
TÄ for (a price); in relation to (preposition) (tel proporos tä fol,
äs kil tä mäl = 2 is in proportion to 4,
as 3 is to 6)
TÄDÖN to menace, to threaten
TÄIN a complexion, a (facial) colour
TÄK credit (cash)
TÄKO on credit, on tick
TÄKOGETÖN to obtain on credit/on tick
TÄLÄKT intellect
TÄLÄKTIK intellectual, reasonable
TÄLEN a talent
TÄMEP temple (anatomy)
TÄM moderation, restraint
TÄMEP temple (anatomy); tem (for worship)
TÄMIK controlled, moderate, restrained, tempered
TÄNAD a tent
TÄNADÖP a campsite
TÄNIT tennis
TÄN then
TÄRAT a terrace
TÄRMIT a termite
TÄRMOMET a thermometer
TÄSTIG a testicle (medical)
TÄSTUM a testament, a will
TATIMÄDIM an anachronism
TÄSTUMÖN to bequeath, to make one's will
TÄTÖN to milk (animals)
TÄTUVÖN to tattoo
TÄVABÜR a travel agency
TÄVADISIN itinerary
TÄVAKAD a ticket
TÄVAN a traveller
TÄVAPAS a passport
TÄVAZEIL a destination
TÄVÖN (LÜ) to journey, to travel (to)
TÄXETÖN to estimate
TE mere, only
TEAD a floor, a storey
TEAFÖN to choke, to suffocate
TEAMIK domesticated, tame
TEAN a toe
TEANANUEL a toenail
TEATÖP (the) theatre
TED business, commerce, trade
TEDAFED a trade union
TEDAFEDAN a trade unionist
TEDAN a businessman, a tradesman
TEDIK commercial, mercantile
TEDOT a transaction
TEDÖN to do business, to trade
TEDRIL a tendril
TEDRILÖN to entangle
TEDÜLAN a retailer, a shopkeeper
TEF relation
TEFÄDIK respective
TEFÄDIKO relatively
TEFIK corresponding to; relating to
TEFÖN to affect, to be a question of, to concern
TEFÜ concerning, with regard to...
TEGÄD a cover (tabategäd = a table cover)
TEGED a blanket, a cover, a sheet
(bedateged = a coverlet, a quilt)
(tävateged = a travelling rug/blanket)
TEGOT a cover, a lid
TEGÖN to cover
TEGÜL a scale (= of fish)
TEIFÖN to choke, to suffocate (someone)
TEIFÜLIK heavy (weather); stifling
TEIL a separation
TEILÖN to part, to separate (teilön heremi = to
part one's hair)
TEIMÖN to tame (= animals/birds)
TEIN a (roof) tile
TEL two
TELAT a couple
TELÄD twins
TELÄL a dissension
TELEFONALEZIÖB a telephone booth
TELEFONALIEN a connection, a telephone line
TELEFONAPARAT a telephone (= complete unit)
a mobile ('phone) = telefon polovik
TELEFONOT a telephone call
TELEFONÖN to ring up, to telephone
* telefonön (numati) = to dial (on telephone)
TELEGRAFOT a telegram
TELEVID television
TELEVIDADAÄD a television channel
TELEVIDADANUNAM a television commercial (= advertisement)
TELEVIDALEKONED (ALDELIK) a television series; a soap opera
TELEVIDASKRIN a television screen
TELEVIDÖN to watch television
TELID second
TELIDAN a second (= person)
TELIDKLAD second class
TELIDNAEDO for the second time
TELIK double
TELÖN to double
TELPAD a double page
TELRÜDEDAGÜN a double - barrelled gun
TELSPIKOT a dialogue
TELTON a diphthong
TELÜM a duet
TEM a synagogue, a temple
TEMUNAN a witness
TEMUNÖN to bear witness
TEMÜL a chapel
TENID tension
TENIDÜKÖN to flex, to span, to stretch
TENOR a tenor (music)
TENÖN to range, to stretch
TENÜKÖN to make tense, to stretch out
TEORIK theoretic(al)
TEOROD a theory (teorod lita = the theory of light)
TEP a storm
TER an aunt/uncle
TEREBEN turpentine
TET a (cow's) udder
TEUP oakum
TEVAN an itinerant, a wanderer
TEVÖN to roam, to migrate, to wander
TI almost, nearly
(ti mens mil = almost a thousand people)
(binos ti düp zülid = it's nearly 9 o'clock)
TIÄD a title (= of a book/publication)
TIBIAD shin, tibia
TID instruction
TIDABUK a text-book
TIDADÜP a lesson (= in classroom)
TIDAGITOD a teaching qualification
TIDAN a teacher
TIDANAJUL a teacher training college
TIDANEF (the) teaching staff
TIDASTEIFÄDAN a candidate for the teaching profession
TIDÄB a pupil
TIDIÄL motivation (= of a teacher)
TIDOD a lesson (= in course/text-book)
TIDODEM a course (of lessons)
TIDÖN (EKE BOSI) to teach (someone something)
TIED tea
TIEDALEPLANÄN a tea plantation
TIEDASKAL a teapot
TIEDIÄR a tea caddy
TIF theft
TIFALÖL staggering, stumbling
TIFALÖN to stumble, to stagger, to trip up
TIFALÜKÖN to trip (someone else) up
TIFAN a thief
TIFÖN (EKE BOSI) to steal (something from someone)
TIGRID a tiger
TIJOD an artichoke
(tijod di „Yerusalem” = a Jerusalem artichoke)
TIK a thought
TIKAN a thinker
TIKASÖKÖD a line of thought
TIKAV logic (= science)
TIKAVIK logical
TIKÄD a concept
TIKÄDÖN to consider, to take into consideration
TIKÄL mind, reason
TIKÄLAMOD reasoning
TIKÄLIK mental
TIKET a (sudden) idea
TIKIT a ticking sound
TIKOD a mental image, a thought
TIKODÖN to imagine
TIKODÜKAM a suggestion
TIKOLOGÄDÖN to turn over (in the mind)
TIKÖN (DÖ) to opine, to think (about)
TIKTÖ! tick-tack!
TIL a thistle
TILIAD a lime (tree)
TILURÖBÖN to brush against (= almost touch)
TIM time
at the same time = ün tim ot
ün tim, das = so long as
TIMAKOMPENAN a contemporary (person)
TIMAPENÄD a periodical
TIMAV chronology
TIMÄD an era
TIMIL a short time, a while
TIMIMAFIAN a timer (= a timing device)
TIMPUN a kettledrum, timpani
TIMÜ at the time of...
TIMÜL a moment
TINISUL a peninsula
TIPIK pointed
TIPOT a point, a (sharp) end
TIPÜKÖN to make pointed, to sharpen (a pencil)
TIPÜL a (coat)tail
TIRAHARMONÖM an accordeon
TIRÄDANÄM (power of) attraction
TIRÄDIKÖN to become irritated
TIRÄDÖN to attract (magnetically)
TIREN tyranny
TIRENAN a tyrant
TIREDÖN to draw (a prize)
TIRIDÖN to draw (tiridön drati de largent = to
draw silver wire)
TIRÖN to draw, to pull
(jevods tirons vabi = the horses pull the carriage)
TIRÜLÖN to tug
TISOPRAN a mezzo-soprano (singer)
TITENOR a baritone (singer)
TIVÖN (TEFÜ) to negotiate (regarding)
TO despite, in spite of (preposition)
TOÄ despite, in spite of (conjunction)
TOBUL October
TODÄLIK rebellious, spiteful
TODIKO defiantly, obstinately
TOED a cake
TOENÖN to chink, to clink, to (make a) sound, to ring out
TOF a drip, a drop
TOFIL a droplet, a tricklet
TOFÖN to drip
TOLABOT something to declare (at customs)
TOLATÖN to manipulate
TOLÄDABÜR Customs Office
TOLÄDAN a customs officer
TOMAT a tomato
TOMÖN to annoy, to pester, to worry
TONAT a letter (= of the alphabet)
TONATAM spelling
TONATANIL a (cassette) tape
TONATÖN to spell
TONATÜKAM alliteration
TONAV phonetics
TONÄRÖN to thunder
TONIK phonetic
TONINÄMÜKIAN a volume control (= sound)
TONOD a sound, a resonance
TONODAKASÄT an audio cassette
TONODALÖPOT volume (of sound)
TONODASIRKOT a (gramophone) record, a disc
TONODAV (study of) harmony (= in music)
TONODIREGISTARÖM a tape-recorder
TONODISUMODÖM a record-player
TONODÖN to intone, to start (a tune)
TONÖM a loudspeaker (radio, TV)
TONÖN (ÄS) to ring, to sound (like)
TOO however, nevertheless, notwithstanding
TONULÖN to tunnel
TOOD automobile, car, motor-car
TOODALEVEG a motorway
TOODAMAZÖT a driving licence
TOODIPARKÖP a car park
TOP a place
TOPAGASED a local newspaper
TOPAM a location
TOPÄD a region
TOPÄT a locality
TOPÄTIKÖN to move on
TOPIK local
TOPÖN (LEN) to lie, to be situated (by/on)
(zif topon len flumed = the town is situated/lies on the river)
TOR a bull
TORADOEG a bulldog
TORF peat
TORTUG a tortoise
TOST a toast (drink)
TOUM a volume (book)
TOUN a ton
TOVÄDÖN to lift (= dig up)
TOVASKRUBIAN a helicopter
TOVEDÖN to haul up, to hoist
TOVIAN a lever (= lifting device)
TOVÖM a jack (= for car)
TOVÖMATIG a lever (= arm)
TOVÖN to lift, to raise
TOVÜLÖN to shrug
TOÜN tunny (= fish)
TÖ at, in (preposition)
(lödof tö top at = she lives at/in this place)
(de veg tö fagot stepas tel = a couple
of steps away from the road)
TÖB inconvenience, trouble
TÖBID effort, endeavour
TÖNUL a tunnel
TPM (TATS-PEBALÖL MEROPA) USA (United States of America)
TRAVÄRÖN to cross > to cross perpendicular to
TRAVÄRÜ across > crosswise through
TRÄTÖN to betray
TRENÖN to travel by train
TRET a bill of exchange
TRETÖN (EKI) to draw on someone (= financial)
TRIB plush
TRIBÜT a tribe
TRIBÜTABIM a family tree
TRID a step, a stair
TRIDEM a (flight of) stairs, a stairway
löpio golön ve tridem = to go upstairs
donio golön ve tridem = to go downstairs
tridem skrubätik = a spiral staircase
TRIDOD a kick
TRIDODÖN to kick
TRIDÖM a pedal
TRIDÖN to tread on
TRIFUL a clover
TRIG intrigue
TRIGONOMET trigonometry
TRIGÖN to be intrigued
TRIKANAD a knitting needle
TRIKOTS knitwear
TRIKÖN to knit
TRIP a tax
TRIPABIK taxable
TROD consolation
TRODÖN to comfort, to console
TROIVÖN to crash, to shatter, to smash
TROMPET a trumpet
TRON a throne
TRONÖN to enthrone
TROTÖN to trot
TROVÖN to crash, to smash
TRÖG laziness, sluggishness
TRÖK a suitcase, a trunk
TRUB dimness, dullness
TRUBADUR a (travelling) minstrel, a troubadour
TRUF a trump (card)
TRUL a drum roll
TRUM a drum
TRUPÖN (LÜ) to flock (to)
TRÜF a truffle
TRÜIT a trout
TU too (= excessively)
TUB a barrel, a keg, a tub
TUBAT a tuba (musical instrument)
TUDEL Tuesday
TUF a bundle
TUFAV disgust, nausea
TUFRUTIDÖN to exploit
TUG a virtue
TUGÖFIK virtuous
TUIG a branch
TUIGAHON antlers
TUIN a hosepipe
TUITIK jagged, serrated
TUL revolving, turning
TULIP a tulip
TULITIK dazzling
TULÖN to be revolving/turning
TUM a hundred
TUMÖDIK excessive
TUMÖDO excessively
TUMYEL a century
TUPIK bothersome, inconvenient
TUPIT a (whipping) top (= child's toy)
TUPITÖN to play at whip and top (= game)
TUP (radio/TV) interference
TUPÖN to disturb
TUR (physical) exercise
TURAV gymnastics, physical training
TURB peat
TURD a song-thrush
TURN a turn (binos turn oba = it's my turn)
TURNO in turn
TURÖP a gymnasium, a fitness suite
TUSUNIKO prematurely
TUT a tooth
TUTADOL a toothache
TUTAKREM toothpaste
TUTATAK an onslaught, a (surprise) attack
TUTATAKÖN to attack by surprise
TUTÄD teething
TUTEM a set of teeth
TUTIKEF a toothbrush
TUTILAFÄRMÜKAM a zip fastener
TUTISANÖP a dentist's surgery
TUTÖBIDÖN to overexert, to overstrain
TUÜKAM an exaggeration
TUÜKÖN to exaggerate
TUVATAM flooding
TUVATÖN to flood, to inundate
TUVÄBÖP an orphanage
TUVEDÖN to decipher, to solve (= puzzle/riddle)
TUVEMIK colossal, gigantic
TUVÖN to find
TUZIL overenthusiasm
TÜ at, on (= time) (preposition)
(tü del balid mayula = on the lst May)
TÜB a barrel, a tub
TÜBEL a cooper
TÜI about, approximately (preposition)
(tüi düp kilid = about 3 o'clock)
TÜIM thymus (gland)
TÜLAKURB a crank
TÜLÖN to turn, to twist
TÜM a tower
TÜMAGALAN a look-out, a watchman (on tower)
TÜMOLOG etymology (= word derivation)
TÜN tin
TÜNABOK a tin (box, container)
TÜREOID thyroid (gland)
TUTÄD teething
TÜPÜ within (= time)
(tüpü vig bal = in a week's time)
TÜRKIG a turkey
TÜRKOT turquoise
TÜTEDÖN to discipline
TÜVÖN to discover
TVALET a toilet
TVALETABASIN a lavatory pan
TVILAPLATOT a tiled hearth (fireplace)
TUVEDOT an answer, a solution (to a puzzle/riddle)
TUVEDÖN to solve (puzzle/riddle)
TYILPÖN to cheep, to chirp, to twitter
U or (dels tel u kil = 2 to 3 days)
U.......U either.......or
UD or (= before a vowel)
UD......UD either.......or (= before vowels)
U VA....U VA whether......or else
UDEL the day after to-morrow
UDELO on the day after to-morrow
US there (us dono = down there)
USAO from there
USIO to there, thither
(usio ed isio = hither and thither)
USIOVEG (the) outward journey
USIÖ! Get out!
USOARO to-morrow evening
UT the one
(hiut, jiut, utos, kel = the one who/that)
UTAN, (KEL) the person, (who)
UTO, (KÖ) there, (where)

Ü or (= corresponding to Latin sive/seu)
ÜD or (= before a vowel)
ÜF in case of, insofar as
(üf zesüdosöv = should it be necessary)
ÜFO in that case, then (= questioning) (Kikodo üfo eselol-li osi? = then why have you sold it?)
ÜFÜ in case of
ÜN at, in, on (time)
(ün neit = at night)
(ün del mu litik = in broad daylight)
(ün soar fovik = on the following evening)
(ün hitüp = in summer)
(ün mul alik = from month to month)
ÜNÜ within, in the course of (= time)
(ünü brefüp = within a short time)

VA whether
VAÄLANÖT a hazel-nut
VAÄLATUIGÜL a divining rod
VAB a car, a carriage, a coach, a vehicle
VABADILÄD a compartment (= of coach)
VABAM a drive (= in a vehicle)
VABAMAKUL a highway, a thoroughfare
VABAVEG a carriageway
VABISTIRAN a car driver
VABÖM a vehicle
VABÖN to drive
VAEN oats
VAENABÜL oatmeal porridge
VAET juice, sap
VAETIK juicy
VAETÖFIK succulent
VAF a weapon
VAFÄDÖN to drill (= soldiers on parade)
VAFÖN to arm
VAGIK empty
VAGIN a vagina
VAGÜKÖN to empty
VAIBÖN to drive (a vehicle)
VAKEN a holiday
VAKENÖN to be on holiday
VAKENÜLÖN to take a break (= short holiday)
VAL all, everything (abstract)
(dunob vali, keli kanob dunön =
I am doing everything that I can do)
VALÄDIK general, universal
VALÄDO in general
VALÄDÖN to generalize
VALODIK overall, total
VALODO in total
VALÖPO everywhere
VALROD a walrus
VALT a waltz (dance)
VALUT (currency) exchange
VALÜT a whale
VAMIK warm
VAMOT heat, temperature
VAMPIR vampire
VAMÜKIAN a heater
VAMÜKÖN to heat, to warm
VAMÜLIK lukewarm, tepid
VANELAGLADET a vanilla ice-cream
VANIK futile, vain
VANÜKÖN to frustrate, to thwart
VAOGAD an avocado (pear)
VAP gas
VAPATRIDÖM accelerator pedal
VAPIKÖN to evaporate
VAPÜKÖM a carburettor
VARÄK kelp
VART a nodule, a wart
VASOD a vase
VASOV an oasis
VAT water
VATAFAL a cascade, a waterfall
VATAM irrigation, watering
VATANIVOD water level
VATASALIG a weeping willow (tree)
VATATIDEF a water shortage
VATAVÄR a tumbler (= a glass for water)
VATONEDUGOLOVIK water-proof, water-tight
VATÖFIK watery
VATÖN to irrigate, to water
VAULÖN to bark
VAXEN a bilberry
VÄK wax
VÄKAMAGOT a wax figure/model
VÄKIK waxen
VÄKÖN to (coat with) wax
VÄL a choice
VÄLID a selection
VÄLÖN to choose, to elect
* välön (me mugaparat) = to click [computers]
VÄNTAR an inventory (= stocktaking)
VÄNTIL a valve
VÄNTRILOKAN a ventriloquist
VÄP an aroma, a perfume
VÄR a (drinking) glass, a tumbler
VÄRBATIM a verb tense
VÄRET (+ GENITIVE) a glass (of)
VÄRULÖN to bolt (a door)
VÄT weight
VÄTÖM a (weigh)scale
VÄTÄLÖN to consider (mentally)
VÄTÄLÜ in consideration of
VÄTÖN to weigh (objects)
VE along
VEAD a case, a container
VEADÖN to insert, to stick into
VEAL a veil
VEBÖN to hover
VEDEL Wednesday
VEDÖN to become
VEDÜKÖN to cause to be(come)
VEF a (sea) wave
VEFAPAPAGIL a budgerigar
VEFAFOMÖN to wave (hair)
VEFALUNOT a wavelength (radio/TV)
VEFAPAPAGIL a budgerigar
VEG a road, a way
VEGABLEGOD a bend (in the road)
VEGAMATAIB a timetable
(vegamataib trenas = a train timetable)
VEGÄD a distance
VEGIJONIAN a signpost
VEGIKÖN (LÜ) to set off (for)
VEGIL a lane
VEIG transport
VEIGAMEDÖM a means of transport
VEIGÖM a vehicle
VEIGÖN to transport
VEIN a vein (anatomy)
VEITAFIT haddock
VEITOT width (= a measure)
VEL seven
VELUVIK velvet
VEMO very
VEMÖF intensity
VEN when (conjunction)
VENEN poison
VENENÖFIK poisonous, toxic
VENENÖN to contaminate, to poison
VENTÜR an adventure
VENUD Venus (planet)
VEOT crêpe, gauze
VERAT (the) truth
VERÄTIK correct, right (= not wrong)
VERÄTO properly
VERÄTÜKÖN to correct, to rectify
VERIK absolute
VERIM absolutism
VESEP a wasp
VESID a bladder (anatomy)
VESTIB a hall, a lobby
VESTIBÜL an entrance-hall
VESTIG an investigation
VESTIGATÄV an expedition
VESTIGÖN to investigate
VESTIGÜLÖN (EKI) to quiz (someone)
VESÜD west
VESÜDIK western
VETER cattle
VETIK heavy
VETOT weight (= how heavy something is)
VETOTÖN (MÖ) to weigh (= a certain amount)
VETÖFIK heavy, ponderous
VEÜTIK important
VI! oh, dear!
VIADUK a viaduct
VIÄL a violin
VIDASIMIK wide-seamed
VIDIK broad, wide
VIDOT width (dom labon vidoti piedas teldeg = the house is twenty feet wide)
VIDÜKÖN to disseminate, to spread
VIELIK colourful, pretty
VIEN (the) wind
VIENIK windy
VIENÖN to be windy (vienos = it's windy)
VIETABON a kidney bean
VIETÄDÖN to bleach
VIETASTOFÄD household linen
VIETÄDÖN (BOSI) to bleach (something)
VIETIK white
VIF speed
VIFAGOL running, sprinting
VIFIK fast, quick, rapid
VIFIKUMÖN to get a move on, to hurry up
VIFO quickly
VIFOTAKURB a (vehicle) accelerator
VIFÖ! Get a move on! Hurry up!
VIFÜKUMÖN(EKI/BOSI) to hasten (someone/something)
VIG a week
VIKOD a victory
VIKODÖN to defeat, to conquer
VIKTUALACEM a larder, a pantry
VIKTUALS provisions (eatables)
VIL (the) will
VILAD a villa
VILAG a village
VILÄDIK arbitrary
VILÄL will-power
VILÄLIK strong-willed, stubborn
VILOD a willow (tree)
VILÖFIK willing
(vilöfik ad yufön = willing to help)
VILÖFO willingly
VILÖN (+ INFIN) to want
VILUPÖN to envelop, to wrap up
VIM a fancy, a humour, a mood, a whim
VIMIK moody
VIN wine
VINAKAV a wine cellar
VINDIT revenge, vindictiveness
VINDITÖN (EKE ME) to wreak revenge (on someone by means of)
VINEGÖN to wave
VINIG vinegar
VINIGEDÖN to marinate
VINYÄT a vignette
VIO how (correlative)
VIOD a hurt, an injury, a wound
VIODÖN to hurt, to injure, to wound
VIOL a violet
VIOLÄTIK violet (colour)
VIOMAFÄDO to what extent
VIOR ivory
VIÖN (DEMÜ) to lament, to wail (over)
VIP a wish
VIPÄR a viper
VIPÖN to wish
VIPRESIDAN a vice-president
VIRABAN a Jacuzzi
VIRATEP a tornado
VIRGAN a virgin
VIRIK turning, twisting
VIRILÖN to swirl
VIRÖN to twirl, to twist, to whirl
VIRUD a virus
VISEDÄLIK alert, clever, intelligent
VISEDIK canny, clever, wise
VISIPÖN to rustle (= of leaves), to whisper
VISIT a visit
VISITAN a visitor
VISITÖN to attend, to visit
VISKID whisky
VISO face to face, opposite, vis-à-vis
VISOIK facing
VISUL a weasel
VISUM a visa
VISÜ opposite
(lödom visü glüg = he lives opposite the church).
VITIDAGAD a vineyard
VITIDAKLOP (the) grape harvest
VITIDAVAET grape juice
VITÖN to avoid
VITÜR a pane (of glass)
VITÜRAGLÄT a window-pane
VITÜRÖN to glaze
VIUDAN a widow, a widower
VIUDIKÖN to be widowed
VIVAN a weaver
VIVASPÜL a shuttle
VIVOT cloth, a fabric, a textile
VIVÖN to weave
VO indeed (vo-li? = isn't it?)
VOADIK leaky
VOADÖN to leak
(to spring a leak = voadikön)
VOAL an aroma, a fragrance (quickly passing)
VOÄT a sensation, a thrill
VOÄTIK candid, to the point
VOB work
VOBADEL a working day
VOBAN a worker
VOBÄDÖN to make, to produce
VOBED an effect
VOBEDIK effective
VOBEDÖN to act upon, to effect
VOBIAN a worker machine, a robot
VOBIÄLIK diligent
VOBOD a job, a task
VOBÖN to work
VOBÖP a laboratory, a study (room), a workshop
VOBÜKAN an employer
VOBÜKÄB an employee
VOBÜKÖN (EKI) to employ (someone)
VOD cotton wool (wadding)
VODÖN to pad (with cotton wool)
VOGÄD (the) fashion
VOGÄDAN a (fashion) designer
VOGÄDIK fashionable
VOGIKÖN (AS) to become fashionable (as)
VOIKO really
VOK a call
VOKAT a vowel
VOKÄDÖN to cry out, to shout
VOKED a calling, a vocation
VOKÖN to call, to fetch
(egolof ad vokön sanani =
she's gone to fetch the doctor)
VOL (the) world
VOLÄD (the) world (in regard to human behaviour)
VOLÄDAN a worldling
VOLED kingdom (as in: planavoled = the plant kingdom)
VOLF evolution
* ma volf dinäda = as things have turned out
VOLFÖN to develop, to evolve
VOLKAN a volcano
VOLLEYBALL el volleyball
VOLUT a revolt
VOLUTAN a rebel
VOLUTIKÖN (TA) to revolt (against)
VOLUTÖN (TA) to revolt, to rise up (against)
VOM a woman
VOMITÖN to throw up, to vomit
VOMÖF femininity, womanhood
VOMÜL a young woman, Miss
VORÄDIK banal, boring, commonplace, derelict, run-down
VORÄDIKÖN to fall into disuse, to run down
VOREDIK worn out
VORIK derelict, ruined
VORÜKÖN to wear out
VOTABUMÖN to rebuild
VOTACEDIKÖN to change one’s mind
VOTAFLANO on the other hand
VOTAFLANÜ on the other side of...
VOTAFOMAM a transformation
VOTAFOMÖN to transform
VOTAKLOTÖN to disguise
VOTASEIMO elsewhere
VOTASTIDÖN to reform
VOTIK another, other
(bal pos votik = one after another)
VOTIKAM an alteration
VOTIKNA once more, one more time, other times
VOTIKÖN to alter, to change
VOTIKO otherwise
VOTO else
VOTÖFÖN to transform
VOTÜKAM change
VOTÜKAMIÄL a hankering after change
VOTÜKÖN to alter, to change
VÖD a word
VÖDABID a part of speech (grammar)
VÖDABUK a dictionary, a lexicon
VÖDAFEIT an argument
VÖDANUNIL a text message
VÖDASTOK a vocabulary
VÖDÄT lexeme
VÖDED a (specialized) expression
(vödeds jäfüda = jargon)
VÖDEM a text
VÖG a voice
VÖGÄD an outcry, a shout, a tone (of voice)
VÖGIK vocal
VÖGOD a vote
VÖGODAN a voter
VÖGODÖN (PRO) to vote (for)
VÖGODÖP a voting booth
VÖL an inside wall
VÖLAD value
VÖLADIK valuable, worth-while
VÖLADÜ to the value of...
VÖLÄD a currency (= monetary system)
VÖN antiquity
VÖNAOLOVEIK traditional
VÖNÄD the past (not antiquity)
VÖNÄDIK old (not ancient)
VÖNÄDAVOGÄDIK old-fashioned
VÖNÄDOT antiquity
VÖNIK ancient
VÖNOTAV archeology
VÖNOTS antiques
VUIT wheat
VUKÖN to practise usury, to profiteer
VUL a root
VULIKÖN to take root
VULTUR a vulture
VUM a worm
VUMODÄMIK worm-eaten
VÜM a womb
VUN an injury, a wound
VUNÄB an injured/wounded person
VUNÖN to injure, to wound
VUT anger, fury
VUTIK furious
VUTÖN to rage
VÜ between
VÜD an invitation
VÜDÄB a guest
VÜDÖN to invite
VÜGOLÖN to interfere
VÜK (VÜKI-) wiki (is this official?)
VÜKÖMÖN to intervene, to step in
VÜM a lap, a womb
VÜMADOG a lap-dog
VÜO meantime, meanwhile
VÜPLADOTAYEL a leap year
VÜPLADÖN to insert
VÜSPAD a space (between two objects)
VÜSÜF an entr'acte (= theatre)
VÜTIM an interval
VÜTIMO in the meantime, meanwhile
VÜTROPÄN (the) tropics
VÜYÜMÄD a connection, a link
XAB an axle
XABABREK an axle breakdown
XABAKLUF a linch-pin
XABATUL axle rotation
XAMEN an examination
XAMAN an examiner
XAMÄB a candidate (for an examination)
XAMÖN to examine, to test
XAMÜL an (oral) examination/test
XAMÜLAN an (oral) examiner
XAMÜLÖN to examine/test orally
XÄAN a skin rash
XÄINÖN to augment, to increase
XÄN an increase
XÄNABIM (extending) steps/ladder
XÄNABOIB a stirrup (= for horses)
XÄNAKÄV a (railway) platform
XÄNÖM a step-ladder
XÄNÖMATRID a rung (of a ladder)
XÄNÖN to ascend, to climb, to go up, to mount
(xänön tu geiliko sodas no kanoy golön
föfio ni pödio = to climb too high so
that one is unable to go either forwards
or backwards)
XIFIAD a sword-fish
XILED banishment, exile, expulsion
XILÄB an exile, an outlaw
XILÖN to banish, to exile, to expel
XILÖP a place of exile
XILÜP (the length of) time of banishment/exile
XIOM an axiom
XÜD oxidation
XÜDAJENÄD (the) process of oxidation
XÜDÖN to oxidize
YA already
YAD a (court)yard
YAG a hunt
YAGADOG a beagle, a hound
YAGADOM a hunting lodge
YAGAN a hunter, a huntsman
YAGÖN to hunt
YAKT a yacht
YAL a porch, a veranda
YAM calamity, woe
YAMEDÖN to snarl, growl
YAMÖN to moan, to wail, to whine
YAMÜLÖN to be monotonous/tedious
YAN a door
YANAN a commissionaire, a door-keeper
YANANOKÖM a door-knocker
YANUL January
YAT a squirrel
YÄK a jacket
YÄN yarn (= in textiles)
YE however
YEB grass
YEBAGIK grassy
YEBALÄN grassland, a meadow
YEBÄN a prairie, a steppe
YEBIDÖN to graze
YEBIFODIAN a grass-cutter, a mower
YEBIFODÖN to cut/mow grass
YEG an article, an object
YEGÄD a subject, a theme, a topic
YEL a year
YELACEN (the) turn of the year, New Year
(pö yelacen = at the start of a New Year)
YELAFOLDEGAN a middle-aged person
YELALUNÜPIK of many years' duration/standing
YELAM an anniversary
YELASÄSUN a season (of the year)
YELOVATÜFUD yellow fever
YELOVIK yellow
YELOVILIK yellowish
YILIDÖN (LO) to yield (to)
YILÖN to dodge, to evade, to give way to
YIONÜKÖN to ionize
YOF enjoyment, pleasure
YOFIÄL pleasure-seeking
YOFÖN (OKI) to enjoy (oneself)
YOGURT yogurt
YOIN a joint
YOK a yoke (= for animals)
YOKÄD a collar, a harness (= for animals)
YOKÖN to harness, to subject
YOYOD yo-yo (toy)
YÖ! Hurrah!
YÖBAVOKÄD a cry of jubilation
YÖBÖLO jubilantly, triumphantly
YÖBÖN to rejoice
YÖGAN a juggler
YUB jubilation, rejoicing
YUBID a jubilee
(yubid luldegyelik = a golden jubilee)
YUBIDAN a jubilarian
YUBIDÖN to celebrate an anniversary
YUBIK jubilant
YUBÖN to rejoice
YUF assistance, help, support
YUFAN an assistant, a helper
YUFATIDAN a student teacher, an assistant teacher
YUFAVÄRB an auxiliary verb
YUFIÄL a willingness to help/serve
YUFIDÖN to appeal to, to have recourse to
YUFOT a service rendered
YUFÖ! Help!
YUFÖN to assist, to help
YUFÜ with the help of...
YUGABOM a cheek-bone
YUL an oath
YULAKOMPENANEF a confederacy
YULAN a person under oath
YULID affirmation under oath
YULIDÄB a person who has taken the oath
YULIDÖN (EKI) to administer the oath (to someone)
YULIK sworn under oath
YULO under oath
(fümükön bosi yulo = to affirm under oath)
YULÖN to swear the oath
YUM connecting, joining
YUMÄDATREN a connecting train, a connection
YUMÄDÖN to connect, to join
YUMED a context
YUMEDÜ in relation to...
YÜMET a connection (personal)
YUMOD a connection, a joint, a junction
YUMÖF continuity
YUMÜ in connection with...
YUNIK young
YUNIPABÄL a juniper berry
YUNIPAGEIN juniper wine
YUNÖF youthfulness
YUNÜKÖN to make young again, to rejuvenate
YUNÜP adolescence, youth
YUPITÄR Jupiter (planet)
YURIN urine
YURINAVAN a urologist
YURINÖN to make water, to piss, to urinate
YUROP Europe
YUTOPIK ideal, utopian
YÜLÖN to bet, to wager
YÜM joining, linking
YÜMAMALÜL a dash, a hyphen
YÜMATONAT a connecting letter
YÜMÄTÖN (KO) to combine (with), to connect (with)
YÜMOT an affix
YÜMÖF continuity
YÜMÖN to assemble, to link, to put together

ZA about, approximately (preposition)
ZAÄR a maple (tree)
ZAD fondness, tenderness
ZADID molly-coddling, pampering
ZADIDÖN to pamper, to spoil
ZANÄDANEM an abusive name, a nickname
ZAN a quarrel
ZANÄDANEM a nickname (abusive)
ZANÄDÖN to chide, to scold, to curse
ZANIÄLIK quarrelsome
ZANIÄLÖN to quarrel
ZANÖN to bicker, to quarrel
ZAO at about, at approximately (adverb)
ZAR Tsar
ZÄDEL Saturday
ZÄDÖN to spoil (children)
ZÄL a feast, a fête, a festivity, a holiday
ZÄLADEL(S) a holiday, (holidays)
ZÄLALADÄLOD a festive atmosphere
ZÄLAPLAD an amusement park
ZÄLIZELÖN to celebrate/keep a feast, to make merry
ZÄLÜL a party (= social gathering)
ZÄLÜLAKLOTEM evening dress
ZÄM cement
ZÄMÖN to cement
ZÄN (the) centre, (the) middle
ZÄNABÜR Head Office
ZÄNAHITÜKAM central heating
ZÄNÄDAVAMÜKAM central heating
ZÄNÄDÖN to centralize, to concentrate
ZÄNED (the) average, (the) standard
ZÄNEDIK medium
ZÄNEDÖFIK average, standard
ZÄNEDASUÄM an average price
ZÄNEDIK average
ZÄNEDO on average
ZÄNEDÖF mediocrity
ZÄNEDÖFIK mediocre
ZÄNOD middle
ZÄNODAMEL Mediterranean
ZÄNODAPALET a centre (political) party
ZÄNODATIMÄD (the) Middle Ages
ZÄNODÄN (the) Midlands (= region of country)
ZÄNODÜ in the middle of...
ZÄNÖN to centre
ZÄP a (pair of) pincers, pliers, tongs, tweezers
ZE about, approximately (adverb), rather
ZEAD cedar
ZEDEL noon
ZEDÖ! Let it be! Leave well alone!
ZEDÖN to desist (from doing something)
ZEHITÜP midsummer
ZEIL an aim, a goal, an object (to be attained)
ZEILIGALEDAN a goalkeeper (= sports)
ZEILÖN to aim for
ZEKOAP (the) waist
ZEL a holiday
ZELÖN to celebrate
ZEM limestone
ZEN ash
ZENABLONIK ash blonde
ZENAGEDIK ash grey
ZENEIT midnight
ZENIÄR an ashtray
ZENOLEFILÜKÖN to burn to ashes
ZENÖN to (cover with) ash(es)
ZEKOAP (the) waist
ZEP confirmation, permission
ZEPABIK acceptable
ZEPÖN to accept, to confirm, to permit
ZEPÜ with the permission of...
ZERAT a carab (tree)
ZERÖNAN a midfield player (= football)
ZESÜD necessity
ZESÜDIK necessary
ZESÜDO necessarily, of necessity
ZESÜDÖN to be necessary
ZEVEG a middle course
ZI round about (adverb)
(zi in top et = all round the place)
(ai binof zi nilü ob = she never leaves me alone)
ZIAN an aunt
ZIB food
ZIBABLÖGÄD a bite (to eat), a snack
ZIBAM nourishment
ZIBÄD a course (= of a meal)
ZIBÄDAKAD a menu (à la carte)
ZIBIDESIRIK gluttonous, greedy
ZIBÖN to feed, to nourish
ZIF a city, a town
ZIFAN a citizen
ZIFASEKRETAN a town clerk
ZIFAZILÄK a (city/town) district/quarter
ZIFIK municipal
ZIFLOTÖN to drift about
ZIGAN a gipsy
ZIGAR a cigar
ZIGARÜL a cigarette
ZIGARÜLIÄR a cigarette-case
ZIGLIBÖN to wander around
ZIGOLÖN to walk around
ZIGZAGO zig-zag
ZIIKÖN to circulate
(nun at ya eziikon da zif lölik =
this news is already all around town)
ZINGIB ginger
ZIÖB(S) cell(s) (chemistry)
ZIPORÜT a goldfish
ZIJEDÖN to throw about
ZIKZAKIK forked (lightning) zigzag
ZIKÖMÖN to stroll about
ZIL diligence, earnestness, keenness
ZILÄK an area, a region
ZILÄKÖN to incorporate, to integrate
ZILÄL rivalry
ZILÄLÖN (TA/KO) to compete (against), to vie (with)
ZILID a cylinder, a roll
ZILIK diligent, eager, keen
ZILOGAM circumspection, review
ZILOGÖN to look around
ZILÖN to be enthusiastic, to be keen
ZIOBEDEM a battery (electric)
ZIOM an uncle
ZIPORÜT a goldfish
ZIÖBEDEM a battery (electric)
ZIÖN to circulate
ZISPATÖN to walk about
ZITER a zither
ZISPATÖN to walk around (for pleasure)
ZISÄK an opinion poll
ZITRON a lemon
ZIVABAM a walk-about
ZIVEGÖN to hike
ZON a zone
ZÖ! Just fancy that!
ZÖG a delay, a postponement
ZÖGAFIEN interest in arrears (= financial)
ZÖGED prolongation
ZÖGÖN to delay, to postpone, to put off
ZÖNÜL a belt, a girdle
ZÖT a coupon, a note (= small document)
ZÖTÖN to certificate
ZU further, in addition, moreover
ZUG a course
ZUGOT an excursion, a tour, a walk-about
ZUGÖN to extend, to lead, to stretch
(söp zugon zü zif = a trench goes all
round the town)
(veg zugon love bel = a path goes over
the mountain)
ZUIK extra
ZUN anger, wrath
ZUNIÄL ill-temper
ZUNIÄLÖN to have a bad temper
ZUNIK angry
ZUNIKÖN to become angry
ZUNÖN to be angry
ZUNÜLIK sarcastic
ZUO in addition
ZÜÄD a way of life
ZÜAMÖP (the) environment, a suburb, (the) surroundings
ZÜAN a bystander
ZÜDIK acid
ZÜDÖFIK acid(ic), sour
ZÜFLUMÖN to flow around
ZÜIK surrounding
ZÜJADÖN to shade
ZÜKLOPÄOD an encyclopedia
ZÜL nine
ZÜLIUN an outline
ZÜLOGOT a view
ZÜMUF an orbit
zvö z¨o around
(golobs züo ve sirkül = we're walking around in circles)
ZÜOT a circumference
ZÜÖN to embrace, to surround
ZÜPÄD an imitation
ZÜPAN a disciple, a follower
ZÜPÄDÖN to emulate, to imitate
ZÜPÖN (EKI) to succeed (someone)
ZÜTEVÖN to roam
ZÜXÄNÖN to change (buses. trains, 'planes)

forka kiibat kitbat dea

aback pödio(to be taken aback = süpädikon; töbikön)
abacus bakud
(to) abandon klemön
(to) abase bapükön; mükükön
abashed jemüköl
(to) abate nemödikön; nemödükön
ability kan
abattoir pugöp
abbess jilepädan
abbey lepädanöp
abbot lepädan
(to) abbreviate brefükön
abbreviation brefükam
(to) abdicate sädünükön
abdomen bälid
(to) abduct modugön; ravülön
aberration pöl
absolute leverik
(to) absorb jäfälükön
ability fäg
able; to be able to kanön + inf.
ably fägiko
abnormal nenomik
aboard (ship) in boid
about za, zao
* about ten times = za degna
** glad about s.th. = fredik dö bos
*** to be about to do something = primikön ad
above löpo, lopü, sus
* above all = mu pato
abroad foginäno, in foginän
foginänio, ini foginän
absent nekomik
absolute verik
absolutely nestipöfiko
absolution sinistiam
(to) absorb nüsugön
absorbing jänälöl
abstract nedabinotik, nesiädik
abundant bundanik
abuse migeb
(to) abuse lunofön, migebön
abyss gufur, gur
acacia kaaziad
ace truf
accelerator (pedal) vapatridöm
accent kazet, kazetamal
(to) accentuate kazetön
(to) accept dasumön, getedön, lensumön
accessible lügolovik
accident (chance event) = fäd
(mishap) = mijenot
(to) accompany dugädön; (music: dugedön)
* accompanied by (person) = sogü
accomplice (in crime) kedöban
accordeon tiraharmonöm
according to bai; ma
account (bill) = kalot
(report) = nunod; nunodön (tefü)
(justification) = gidükam; gidükön
(be responsible) = gididön; gididikön
I will account for it = ogididikob tefü atos
accountant bukädanolavan
accumulation kumam
accusation kusad
(to) accuse kusadön
accused kusadäb
accuser kusadan
(to) accustom kösömükön
accustomed kösömik
* to get accustomed to = kösömikön (ad)
ache duladol; dol dulik
achieve duinön
achievement duinod
acid(ic) züdöfik
(to) acknowledge dasevön
acknowledgement dasev
acorn kvär
(to) acquaint nunön; sevädükön
acquaintance seväd; sevädan
(to be) acquainted (with) sevädön
(to) acquire dagetön
acquirement dagetot
acquisition daget; dagetot, lefanot
acre (of land) göded
across travärü
act (theatrical) = süf
(putting on) an act = prodät teatik
(to) act bitön; dunön; magulön
* to play ‘Shylock’ = magulön eli ‘Shylock’
to act as houskeeper = dunodön as jikonöman
to act as an upright person = bitön as snatan
action dunot
active (grammar) dunalefom
activity dunöf
actor dramatan, hidramatan
actress jidramatan
actual jenöfik
actually zhenöfo
(to) adapt lönedükön
(to) become adapted (to) lönedikön (ad)
(to) add (maths) = kobonumön; saedön
(add to something else) = lüükön
(to be) addicted (to) divodön (+ dative)
addictive ludivodik
addition, in läo
additional läyümik
address ladet
addressee ladetäb
adept däpäb
(to) adhere (to) slopön
adjective ladyek
adjoining näiädik
adjunct (grammar) malod
(to) adjust lönedön
adjustment nomükam
(to) administer guvön
administration guver
admirable stunidabik
(to) admire stunidön
(to) admit letön
* to admit something = siön bosi
adolescence yunüp
(to) adopt daoptön
an adopted child = hi/jidaoptäb
an adoptive parent = hi/jidaoptan
adorable leplekabik
adoration leplekam
(to) adore leple
adorer leplekan
adult daülan
adulthood daülüp
advance (further) = föd; födön
(progress) = proged; progedön
(promote) = fopladam; fopladön
advantage buäd, frut
* to take advantage of (something) = frutidön (bosi)
adventure ventür
adventurer ventüran
adventurous künik; ventürik
adverb ladvärb
advert (fern commercial) televidanunam
(to) advertise notedön, reklamön
advertisement noted, nunam, reklam
advice (counsel) = konsäl
(to) advise konsälön
aerial (radio) = lantea
* an aerial view = selogam lutik
aeroplane flitöm
affair din
(to) affect flunön, tefön
(to) affirm siön
affliction dränäl
(to) afford fägön ad pelön/remön
I can’t afford it = no fägob ad remön ati / no labob moni ad pelön osi
afloat flotik
afraid dredik
(to be) afraid (of) dredön (demü, pro, tefü)
after po, pos
after each = aipo
afternoon poszedel
this afternoon = aposzedelo
** yesterday aft = äposzedelo
afterwards latikumo, poso
again dönu
against to, kol
age bäld (= old age); bäldot, menäd (= generation)
(to) age bäldikön
agglutinative kobioklebik
ageing bäldikam
agency ganet
aggressive komipiälik
ago bü ...
(to) agree baicedön (ko); baivögön; baiädön
agreeable plitik
agriculture feilav
ah! ag! o!
aha! yöbö!
ahead föfio; föfo; büiko
aid yuf; yufön
aidezs fijesiped (= fibot jelasita pedagetöl)
aim zeil; zeilön
disein; diseinön
aimless nendiseinik
air lutni
* air hostess = flitajidaifidan
** airport = lutapof
*** air post = lutapot
**** airtight = härmetik
***** airliner = leflitöm
asia sêpio
alarm laram; laramön
* alarm-clock = galükian
alchemist lalkiman
alcohol lalkohol
alcove bef
alder (tree) lanud
algorithm lalgorit
(to) alight (from) sexänön (de, se)
alive lifik
all valik
allegorical lalegorik
alley lael, lusüt
alliteration tonatükam
(to) allot
(to) allow dalön (+ infinitive)
alloy laliad
allround valaskilik
allusion lüjonil, mäniotül
almighty valanämädik
almost tio
aloe (plant) laoäd
alone soalik, soelik
along ve
aloud laodiko
already ya
also i, id
(to) alter votükön
alternately ceno
alto (music) lalt
although do
always ai
stvnkv¨en atvnkv¨en atvnkv¨en amaze stunükön
(in) amazement bluviko
ambiguous telplänovik
ambition dasteif, stimiäl
ambitious dasteifik, labiälik, stimiälik
ambulance malädanivabed
ambush lämbusk
(to) ambush lämbuskön
amethyst maetüt
amiss (to take) badocedön
amnesty stiam
among bevü
amount mödot; suäm (= price)
(to) amount to suämön
amply plunätöfo
(to) amuse muadön
amusement muad
* an amusement park = zälaplad
amusing muadik
anachronism tatimädim, pölatimed
anaesthetic stordit (= local); narkot (= general)
(to) analyze diletön
ancient vönik
anchor nak; nakön (len)
anchovy najov
and e, ed (before vowel)
anecdote konotül
anemone naemun
angel silanan
angelic silananik
anger zun, skan
(to) anger skänön
angle gul
angry zunik, skänik
animal nim
anisette (liqueur) naidalikör
ankle futayoin· to sprain one’s ankle = viodön futayoini oka
anniversary yelam
(to) announce nunön
announcement dalebüd, noted, nun, nunam
(to) annoy böladön, skänön, tupön
annoyance bölad, skän, tup
annual alyelik
answer gesag; gespik
(to) answer gesagön, gespikön
answer (to a riddle/puzzle) tuvedot
answering machine gespiköm
ant furmid
antarctic povasirk sulüdik, sulüdapovik
antenna lanten
anthracite blägakolat
antibiotic tanoganilamedin
(to) anticipate koslogön
anti-climax levotikam
anti-depressant taglumaladälamedin
antique(s) vönot(s)
antiquity vön, vönädot
antler tuigahon
anus kül
anvil naklüm
anxiety dremäl
anxious dredälik, kudik
any alseimik
anybody ek; seiman
anywhere seimo
aorta laortad
apart (from) flanü
apathy lindif
ape lep
(to) apologize gidükön oki; begön säkusadi
apology okgidükam; säkusad; säkusadibeg
apoplexy paopläg
apostate säslopan
apostolic paostolik
(to) appal lejek.ön
apparatus parat
apparently jiniko
appartment lödadom
appeal (appeal to) = lapel
attraction) = tirädanäm
(to) appeal (to) lapelön (lü); yufidön
appealing (charming) löfidik
(to) appear (person) = dajonön oki
(to seem) = jinön
(in general) = pubön
ananak rcu rcvv rcv rcuu dea (so someone) = sümätön (lü)
appearance jin, pub
(to) appease sofälükön
appendicitis kekunaflamat
appendix kekun (= body); lenseidot (= book)
appetite pötit
apple pod
(to) applaud lobülön, plodön
appliance läneodot
applicable pötöfik
application (for work) = lisit
(to) apply for lisitön
to apply for a job = lisitön cali
(to) appoint (s.o.) cälodön (eki)
appointment cäl, cälod (= to office); rajan (= with someone)
(to) appreciate digidön
appreciation digid
(to) approach nilikön (lü)
approval lobül
· on approval = logamio
approximately za
apricot brikod
april prilul
apron bavet, jeled
aquarium Fitavatiäröp
aquarium fitavatiär; fitemavatiäröp (public)
aqueduct kvaaduk
arab Laraban
arabesque (music) larabot
arable (land) feilaläned
arbitrary vilädik
arbour priel
arch (of building0 bobäd
(to form an arch) = bobotikön
(to) arch (cat's back) gobadön
archery caram
archive ragiv
arctic povasirk nolüdik, nolüdapovik
ardent fäküköl (emotional); glutik (hot)
arena komipöp, mätöp
(to) argue (about) blöfädön, blöfön
döbatön (dö)
* to win over = slüdön eki ad
argument blöfastab; döbat, vödafeit
(to) arise (metaphorically) = davedön
in fact) = löpikön
(in revolution) = foikön
arisen edavedöl; elöpiköl; efoiköl
aristocrat patritan
arithmetic kalkulav
arm (limb) =
(weapon) = vaf; vafön
armchair bradastul, stutömastul
* an armrest (on chair) = bradastutöm
army milit
around züo
aroused (emotions) fäkädiko
(to) arrange balädükön, leodükön, lonön
arrival lüköm
(to) arrive lükömön (lü)
a new arrival = lüköman
(to) arrest fanäbükön
arrow sagit
art lekan
artery ratär
artful skilöfik
artichoke tijod
(Jerusalem artichoke = tijod di „Yerusalem”)
article (object) = yeg, din
(newspaper) = lartüg, yeged
(part of speech) = lartig
artificial mekavik
artist lekanan
artistry lekanäl
as (preposition) = as, äs
(conjunction) = asä, äsä, bi
(as it were) = äsvo
as soon as = sosus
ascending löpiköl
ash zen
* ashtray = zeniär
** ash blonde = zenablonik
*** ash grey = zenagedik
ashamed jemik
(to be) ashamed (of) jemön (demü, tefü)
(to) ask (favour) = begön
(question) = säkön
(to fall) asleep slipikön
asparagus sparag
aspect lülogedäl, selogam
aspiration dasteif, ledesir
aspire, to besteifön
aspirin spirin
ass cuk
assembly kolkömanef
to) assert lesagön
assertion lesag
(to) assist yufön
* to ask for assistance = yufidön
assistance dünot, yuf
assistant dünotan, yufan
(to) associate (with) kosädön (ko)
association klubam
(to) assume (take over) = dasumön, lovesumön
(arrogate) = rogön
(suppose) = büocedön
assumption dasum; lovesum, büoced
(to) assure (verbally) = lesiön
(against risk) = surön
assurance lesiam, sur
(to) astonish stunükön
astonished stunik
astonishment stun
astrology astrolocos storocios
astronaut sinafan
asylum lasil
at tö; in; len, pö; ün
athletic latletik
atmosphere lutem
(social) atmosphere dälod
atoll korialanisul klöpik
atom taum
(to) attach fimükön
attachment fimükam
attack tatak; tatakön
attainment riv
attempt (plot) = tram
(strive) = steifül
(to) attempt betramön (eki)
plot against) = tramön (bosi eke)
(to strive) = steifülön
(to) attend dugädön; komön (in)
küpälön (ad)
* to attend to (in a café) = botön
** to listen carefully = dalilön
*** to attend to (get on with) = bejäfön
attendance dugäd, kom, küpäl
attendant dugädan, kälädan
attention käläd, küpäl
* pay attention! = prüdö!
** to draw attention to = küpälükön
attentive blümik, kälädik, küpälik, prüdik
attentiveness blümäl
attic masadacem
attitude jästäd (= gesture); lüäl (= of mind)
(to) attract gaenön, lütirön, tirädön
attraction tirädanäm
(to) attribute givülön
audience dalilanef, lüloganef
august gustul
aunt jiter, zian
author lautan
authoritative nämätik
authority nämät
(the authorities = cifodanef)
(to) authorize dälädön
autobiography italifajenäd
autonomy itreig
automatic itjäfidik
automation itjäfidavm itjäfidükam
autumn fluküp
(to) avail frutön
available gebidik
to be available = gebidön
** to have available = gebidön (dö)
avaricious labiälik; lavarik
(to) avenge vinditön
avenue lael
average tzände, zänki, zändö* on average
** an average person = komunan
avocado (pear) vaogad
(to) avoid büovitön, vitön
(to) await spetön
awake galik
to be awake (watchful) = galikön
award gönäd
aware spetöfik
to be aware (of) = spetöfön (dö); sevedön
(to become) aware = sevedikön
awareness galäl, spetöf
away mo
awe dalestüm
awful dredabik, jeikik
* full of awe = dalestümabik
awkward neskilik, grobälik
awkwardness neskil
axe cüd, lecüd
axiom xiom
azalea (bush) zaär

baby cilil, käläb, putül, sügäb

bacillus bazil
back bekli
backbone bäkabom
back (= rear) pöd
backwards pödio
backwards and forwards = pödio e föfio
bacon pined
bacteriology bakterav
bacterium bakter
bad badik
badger daf
bag sakäd, saked
a paper bag = düd
bait bätazib
(to) bake bakön
baker bakan
bakery baköp
balance leigavet, vätöm
(to) balance (an account) jötön
balcony bakun
bald jofik
ball (dance) = baol
(sphere) = glöp
(bounce ball) = tajedapled
game) = glöpäd
ballet baolet
balloon bälun
balloonist bälunaflitan
balsam balsamin
balustrade boidastutöm
bamboo bambud
banal vorädik
banana benen
band (musicians) = musiganef
(binding) = tan, tanod
(troupe) = trup
bandage flabülod
* to bandage up = flabülön
(to) banish xilön
banishment xil
banjo bänyun
bank (finance) = bank
of river) = jol
banknote bankazöt
bankrupt failam (a (financial) failure); failan (person)
to go bankrupt = failön
to) baptize blunedön
banquet daif
barbecue el „Barbecue”; loetamaparat
barber jeifan
barber shop jeiföp
bare nüdik; nüdükön
barefoot nüdafutik
bareheaded nüdakapik
(to) bargain bligidön remi/tedoti
* a bargain = rem frutik
bark animei = vaul, vaulam
(on tree) = jal
(to) bark vaulön
barley hod
barn barak
bark (on tree) jal
barracks (military) = kaser
barrel tüb
barricade barikad
base (inferior) = bapälik
bottom) = stab;
to base) = stabön
(a foundation, a plinth) = disstütot
(inferior) = bapälik
basement distead
basics (guidelines) stabaliens
basin bov
basis stab
basket bäset
basketball (game) = bäsetaglöpäd
bat (creature) = flitamug
bath ban, banöp
* to take a bath = banön
** to bathe outside = banön natädo
bathroom banacem
bathtub banatüb
battery kumulator (= for car); ziöbedem (= electrical)
battle lekomip; lekomipön (ta)
battlefield lekomipöp
battleship bländanaf, lekomipanaf
bay (inlet) = bug
(to) be binön
beach jol, sabajol
beak honed (= on bird)
bean bon
(to) bear polön
bear (animal) = ber
* a bear cub = berül
(to) bear sufidön
beard balib
bearded balibilabik
beast nim, lumni
beast of prey = ravanim
beastly nimälik
(to) beat flapön
beautiful jönik
beauty jön
because bi, ibä
(to) become vedön
bed bed
* to go to bed = golön lü bed
** a flower bed = bet
bedlinen bedastofeds
bedroom slipacem
bedtime slipüp
bee bien
* a beehive = bienadomil
beech (tree) bueg
beef bubamit
beer bir
beetle cäf
beetroot betad
before (conjunction) = büä
(preposition) = bü, fo
(adverb) = büo
(to) beg (s.th. from s.o.) begön (eke bosi)
(to) begin (to) primön (ad)
beginning prim
begonia begun
beggar lubegan
(on) behalf (of) nemü
(to) behave bitön; kondötön
behaviour bitikam, kondöt
behind (of place) = po
(of time) = pos
beige bäjunik
being jafäb
* for the time being = büfo
belief lekred
(to) believe (in) kredön (mö)
(to make) believe kredidön
belongings posbinükot
bell klok, klokil, klokül (=door)
belly bälid
(to) belong (to) (le)dutön (lü)
below dono
belt (clothing) = zönlü
** (for a gun, etc) = lägian
bench bam
bend blegod
* a bend in the road = vegablegod
(to) bend blegükön, flegön
to bend over = klienön love
beneath dis
benefactor benodan
beneficent benodälik
benefit frut
(to) benefit benükön, frutön
benevolent gudälik
bent (curved) = blegik
(to) bequeath tästumön
bequest posbinot
berry bäl
best of all gudiküno
beside(s) näi, plä
bestial nimälik
bet yül; yülön
better gudikum, gudikumo
between bevü, vü
beverage drined
(to) beware galedön
beyond etflano, etflanü, loveflanü
bicarbonate of soda natrinakarbatazüd telik
bible bib
bicycle saikul
(to) bid (command) = büdön
(offer) = lofön
bidder lofan
birch (tree) biad
big gretik
(to) bike saikulön
bikini niblitül
bilberry vaxen
bile bil
bill (invoice) = kalot
(parliamentary) = lonidisin
(bank draft) = tret
bin, waste basket, trash can defaliär
(to) bind tanön, tanädön (= books)
* to bind up = flabülön
bio-mechanical lificinik
biopic (cinema) biologamot
bird böd
birth moted
* to give birth to = motön
birthday motedadel
bishop bijop
biscuit biskut
bit bosil; gimil (= electric drill)
bite beit, beitil; beitön
bitter (taste) = biedik
(emotion) = biedälik
bittern (bird) botur
bitterness biet, biedäl
black blägik
blackberry murb
blackberry bush bramarubud
blackbird merul
blackcurrant blägaribedabäl
blacksmith grobasmitan
bladder (anatomy) = vesid
blade lam
blame blam; blamön
blameless neblamabik
blanket teged
blaze löflam
bleach vietädamed
(to) bleach vietäd
(to) bleed bludön
* to bleed s.o. = blüdön eki
(to) blend nümigön
blender (kitchen) = migöm
(to) bless benedön, lelobön
blessed läbik, beatik
blessing bened
blind (unseeing) = bleinik
(roller) = rulakörten
* blind man's buff = bleinanipled
(to become) blind bleinikön
(to) blind bleinükön
blindness blein
(to) blink logalipön
blissfully dabeno
blister buläd
block blög
blockade blok; blokön
blonde blonik
* ash blonde = zenablonik
blood blud
* blood pressure = bludiped
** a blood vessel = fesül
bloody-minded fümädälik
(to) blossom florön
blot sten
* blotting-paper = nüsugapapür
blouse yäk
blow (hit) = flap
(tragedy) = damifät
(to) blow (thro' mouth) = bladön
(wind) = lebladön
(to) blow up spranön
blubber blöb
blue blövik ffin sittq
blunt (not sharp) = nejapik
(to) blush redikön
boar saglied
board (wood) = boed
(ship) = boid
(food) = bord
(packaging) = karton
* to board ship = boidön oki
** boarding house = bordöp
boast pleidäl; pleidülön (dö/tefü)
boat bot
* a rowing-boat = gubabotil
** a lifeboat = savabotil
body (physique) = koap
(general) = kop
bodywork (vehicle) karod
(organization) = klubäd
(to) boil kukön
* a boild egg = kükanög
** to boil water = kükön vati
*** boiling hot = lehitik)
bold boldik, künik
bomb boum
bone bom
bonnet (of car) kapüt
book buk
* bookseller = bukiselan
** bookshop = bukiselöp
*** bookcase = bukaramar
(to) book bonedön
booking office bilietabür
book-keeper bukädan
boot but
booty lefanot, prid
(to) booze ludrinön
border (brim) = sim
(hem) = siem
(to border on) = simön
(to) bore (drill) = gimön
(tire) = naütön
boring vorädik
born pemotöl
boot but (car boot = päkemaspad tooda)
(to be) born pamotön
(to) borrow (from) loenön (de)
botany planav
both bofik
bother tom; tomön
(to) bother (about) jäfikön (me)
bothersome böladik, tupik
bottle flad
bottom (not top) = don
(of sea) = lestab
(of barrel) = stabül
boulder klifablög
bound for vegamü
boundary mied
boundless nenmiedik
bow (anything curved) = bob
(for shooting arrows) = car
(an act of reverence) = bieg
* to bend low before = biegön lo
** to bend wire = blegükön drati
box (large) = bog
(general) = bok
(small) = büg
(case) = kasät
(to) box (sport) = boxön (ta)
boy pul, hipul
bracers blitipolians
bracket lernim klém
braggart pleidaspikülan
braid kvatäd
brain bermu
brake frenöm; frenön
a footbrake = futafrenöm
* a handbrake = namafrenöm
branch tuig
brandy konyak
brass läten
brassière dögipolian
brave kuradik
bread bod
* a bread roll = bodedül
** breadfruit = bodepafrut
(to) break breikön
breaking the law = lonaneföl
(to) break out (eg war) = rupädön
* to be broken (out of order) = dädikön
* to take a break (= short holiday) = vakenülön
breakfast janed; janedön
breast bloite
* to breastfeed = blöto nulüdön
breath natem
breathing natemam
(to) breathe natemön
breathless nennatemik
breathtaking natemiravöl
breed (race) = bidäd
(breed) = bridot
(hatch) = kuvot
(to) breed bridön
* to hatch eggs = kuvön nögis
(to) brew birön
(to) bribe remädön
brick bakasten
bricklayer masonan
bride jigam
bridegroom higam
bridge pon
brief brefik
bright litik, kleilik
(bright, light, sound) = nedumik
brilliant nidik (= shining); legudik (= very talented)
(a cut diamond) = nidain
(to) bring blinön
to bring up children = loseidön
to bring up (a subject) = loblinön
* to bring about = davedükön, jafädön
brisk liföfik
brittle brekülovik
broad (spacious) = veitik
(wide) = vidik
broadcast broad, broadot, sesed
(to) broadcast broadön, sesedön
brocade brokat
broccoli sparagabrasid
bronze bronsöt
broom svpai
brocade brokat
brochure brojür
broccoli sparagabrasid
bronchi bronatuigs
brothel lupanar
brother brod, higem
brow logabob
brown braunik
(to) brouse (through) padön (in)
browser (computer) penädafenätil
(to) bruise blütön
brush kef; kefön
(almost touch) = tiluröbön
brusquely groböfiko
Brussels sprout sprotianabrasid
brutal grobälik
bubble bulil
bubbly bulik
bucket böket
buckle snab
bud gnob
* flower bud = floragnob
buddhist buudanian
budgerigar vefapapagil
(to) build bumön
bulb (plant) = läf
(electric) = glutapir
bull tor
bulldog toradoeg
bullet glöb
bullrush jog
bun bodül
bunch of grapes vitidabälem
bundle tuf
burdensome böladik
burglar nübreikan
burglary nübreik, rav
burial sepülam
* a burial ground - sepülemöp
(to) burn (general) = filön
(conflagration) = lefilön
(to ignite) = filidön
(to consume) = filedön
(to cause to burn) = filükön
* to burn coal = filedön boadakolati
** to burn incense = filükön boväli
(to) burst kräkön
(to) bury sepülön
bus (motora)nibud
bush bimül
bushy fotülagik
business büsid, tedot
businessman büsidan, tedan
* to do business = tedön
busy jäfädik
am extremely busy = binob jäfädikün
(to be) busy (with) bejäfön, jäfön (me)
* to busy oneself with = jäfükön oki me ...
but ab
butcher miticöpan
* butcher's shop = miticöpöp
butter bör
butterfly pab
button knop; knopön
buy remön
by (person) = fab
(position) = bi
(to) buzz brümen

cabala (teaching) kabaal
cabbage brasid
cabin kayüt, käben
cabinet (bedside) neitaramaril
cactus kaktud
café kafibötöp
caffeine kafein
cafeteria kafetar
cage cek
cake kek
(to) calculate kalkulön
calculator numian
calendar kaled
calf bubül, surad (= anatomical)
calibre (bore) kalib
(to) call vokön
* to call quits = klirikön
** to call on = levokön
(to be) called panemön
calm stilik, takedik
(to) calve bubülimotön
calyx (flower) kalig
camel jamod
camera kém
* a surgical camera = dalukäm
camp leseatöp
campaign lebit
can (tin) tünabok
canal kanäd
canary kanair
(to) cancel nosükön
candidate lisitan, steifädan
candle kandel
candle-light kandelalit
candle-stick kandelikipian
canine (tooth) jokatut
cannibal kaniban
canny visedik
canoe kanud
* outrigger canoe = kanud kostütömik
cannon kän
cap luhät (= for head); kapsül (= for bottle)
capability skil
capable brafik, fägik, skilik
capacity ninädamafäg
cape (geographical) = kep
capital (of country) = cifazif
(money) = katäd
* working capital = febakatäd
capitalism katädim
(to) capitulate klemedön
capsule (pill) kapsul
captain (army) = kapiten
(ship) = käpten
caravan (= travelling group) karov
car motoravab, tood
carab (tree) zerat
carat (gold) kirat
caravan lödavab
carbohydrate karbinahidrin
carburettor vapüköm
card kad
care (caring for) = käl
(anxiety) = kud
(to take care) = prüdön
careful kälöfik
(to) caress löfülön
(to) caricaturize mimagodön
cargo fled, lodot
carnation kariof
carol Kritidalid
carp (fish) = karip
carpenter kapenan
carpet tapäd
carriage dilijan, vab
carrot dauk
carrousel karusäl
(to) carry polön
(to) carry on laijäfön
(to) carry out (= accomplish) dadunön, ledunön
cart luvab
cartilage kartilag
* costal cartilage = ribakartilag
cartography kaedav
cartoon däsinot
(animated film) = däsinotabioskop
cartridge (computer, camera) niniär
* an ink cartridge = niganiniär
(to) carve ködön, nücidön
case (chest) = bog
boxcontainer) = bokod, bokül, kasät
an event) = jenet
suitcase) = trök
étui) = vead
(a law case = gitädasäkäd)
(in case of = üfü)
cash käd
a cash desk = kädöp
cash down = kädöfo
cashmere (wool) kajmir
cassette (tape) = kasät
(audio) = tonakasät
(video) = magodakasät
(to) cast (molten metal) = gifön
(throw) = jedön
castanet krotöm
castle kased
cat kat, zikta zhikt
cataract star gedik
catarrh katar, snöf
catastrophe katastrof
(to) catch fanön
category klad
caterpillar jonul shönul
cathedral leglüg
cattle veter
caught (in the act), to be küpodön
cauliflower florabrasid
case kod; kodön, koedön + inf.
(to) cauterize graifön
caution prüd
cautious prüdik
cave lekev
cavern kev
cavity kevil
(to) cease stopön, finükön, stöpön
ceaseless nenropik
ceiling nufed
(to) celebrate zälizelön, zelön, yubidön
celebration lezälizel
celery sälärid
cell siül (= in body); ziöb (= biology); leziöb (= prison cell)
cellar kav
celtic kältik
cement zäm
cemetery sepülemöp
censorship sänsur
cemetery deadanöp
census pöpanumäd
central heating zänahitükam
centre zän
dead centre = takät
century tumyel
cereal grenaflog(s)
a cereal packet = grenaflogapäked
certain fümik, fümetik, semik (= a certain one)
certainly ! dido, go fümö!
chain jän; jänön
chalk kret
chair stul
a wheelchair = rölastul
an easy chair = kovenastul
chambermaid jiklinükan
chamberpot neitaskal
chamois cam
chance fäd, mögod
* by chance = fädo
(to) change (money) = cänön
(alter) = votükön
(become different) = ceinön)
small change = cänamon, smalamon
loose change = lukönädamon
to change places = tökön
to change one’s mind = votacedikön
changeable (of weather) nelaidik
channel kanäd
chaos kaot
chap (old friend) bäldadan
chapel temül
chapter kapit, klerät (ecclesiastic)
character kalad
characteristic kaladik, kaladapatäd, kaladapatädik
(to) characterize kaladön
charade jarad
charge (homework, task) = bligäd
to) charge (load) = belodön
to impose task) = bligädön
accuse) = kusädön
electrically) = nämetükön
to charge someone money for something = kalükön
free of charge = glato
charged (physics) pefledülöl
charm keinot
(to) charm tirädön, keinön
charming keinik, löfidik
charter dälab
(to) chat spikotön
(to) chatter luspikön
chase pöjut, yag
(to) chase pöjutön, yagön
chassis jasid
chauvinism suslomänäl
cheap nejerik
check (to make sure) = kontrolön; (chess) = cög
cheek (anatomy) = cüg
cheeky mäpüdik
(to) cheer lobülavokädön
cheer up (to) säglumükön
* cheer up! = trodö!
cheese fromad
chef kvisinal
chemical kiemik
chemist (industrial) = kieman
(pharmacy) = drogöp, pötekan
chemistry kiemav
cheque shek
cherry sherie
chess tshes
a chess piece = cögapiäd
chest (container) = bog, trök
(anatomy) = blöt
chestnut skäul
* horse chestnut tree = skäulep
(to) chew maskön
chicken gokül
chief le..., cif
* chiefly = ledino
child tcil
* a child-minder, a nanny = cilijikälädan
childhood cilüp
childishness cilöfot
chilly koldülik
(to) get chilly koldülikön
chimney cim
chimney-piece cimamadür
chin cün
china bäsin; (ware) = bäsinot Tsyinänik
* porcelain = bösin
(to) chink toenön
chip loetapötetil
chiropodist futakälan
chiropractic namapläg
chiropractor namaplägan
(to) chirp tyilpön
chisel nüsleiföm
chives bebül
chloride klorin
chocolate jokolad* chocolate bar = jokoladatvilül
choice väl
choir kor
(to) choke teafön
to choke s.o. = teifön (eki)
cholesterol kesterin
(to) choose välön
chop (cutlet) = ribotül
chopper (for food) dacöpilöm
chopstick fidastafil
(to) christen (baptize) = blunedön
kritof kirti
chromosome kromosom
chronic dulik
chronicling jen kronigik
church glüg
cider podamust
cigar zigar
cigarette zigarül
cinema bioskopöp
cinnamon kirfat
circle sirk, sirkül;
* circle (in theatre) = parket
(to) circle (round) sirkülön (zü)
(electronic) circuit board platot (leäktronik)
circular (communication) = sirkülapenäd
(shape) = sirkafomik
(to) circulate sirkülükön; ziön (in society) = kosädön
circulation sirkülam
circumference züot
circumstance dinäd, jenot
circumstances jäfät
circus sirkud
cistern cub
city zif
civilian sifädik
civilization kuliv
(to) civilize kulivükön
claim frak fracen
(to) claim lesagön
clairvoyance kleililogam
class (category) = klad
classical klatädik
clatter stur
claw kluv, kral
(to) claw kluvön
clay taim
clean klinik; klinükön
(to) clean lekluinön
cleaner (ji)klinükan
cleanliness klinöf, leklin
clear kleilik
(to) clear kulön
cleft slitod
clergyman kultan
clerk penan; calan
clever visedälik
client dunetäb
(to) click (on) [computers] välön (me musaparat)
climate klimat
climax sömitamapün
(to) climb (up) grämön (sui)
(to) clink toenön
clippers jim
cloakroom klotikipedön; klünacem
clock koglo
* o'clock = düpik
close (nearby) = nilo, nilü; (friend) = konfidik
(to) close färmükön
closed pefärmüköl
clot (of blood) bludasolidotil
cloth (woven) = vivot, (material) = stof; (worsted) = köbamayän
(piece of) = flab
clothes klots
a clothes hanger = klotilägöm
cloud lefog
clover träf
clownish klaunöfik
club klub
clue (for puzzles) geidavöd
clump blög
coach bökavab
coachman bökan
coal (stona)kolat
* soft coal = braunakolat
coalman kolatan
coarse grobälik, crobki
coast shol
coaster vejolnaföm
coastline melajol
coat gun, mäned
cobweb spuled
cocain kokain
cock higok
cockatoo kakad
cockroach skaraf
cocoa kak
coconut kokot
cocoon kokun
cod gadut
code kot
a code word = kotavöd
coefficient (maths, physics) koäf
coffee kaf
coffee-pot kafaskal
coffin sark
(to) cohabit kelödön
coil spül
coin könäd
(to) coin frapön
(to) coincide (with) kobojenön (ko)
coincidence fäd, kobojen
colander sib
cold kold, koldät, koldik
* to catch cold = koldätikön
collar kolet
collar bone klavikul
(to) collect konletön
collection conlet
collective koböfik
collectivity koböf
collector konletan
(to) collide kobojoikön, kobojokön
colon krasum
colonial kolunik, kolunänik
* colonial produce = kolunänacans
colonist kolunan, kolunänan
colony (settlement/base) kolun
colony (country) kolunän
colour köl
* facial colour = täin
column padül (= on page); kolum (= architecture)
coma komad
comb köb
(to) comb köbön
combination yümät
(to) combine (with) yümätön (ko)
combustion fefilükam
internal combustion = nifilükam
(to) come kömön (lä, lü, nilü)
to come to one's senses = sevälöfikön
to come to terms (with) = balädikön (ko)
(to) come back gekömön
comedy fredadramat
comfortable kovenik
comical drolik
comma liunül
command büd; büdön
under the command of = sumätöfü
commander lebüdan
commander-in-chief büdal
commandment büd, büded
* the ten commandments = büdeds deg
(to) comment küpetön
commerce ted
commercial tedik
commission komit
* on commission = komito
commissioner lekomitäb
(to) commit
committee komitetanef
common (ordinary) = komunik
(customary) = kösömik
(having in common (with) = kobädo (ko)
commonplace vorädik
commonwealth kobälän
(to) communicate (with) kosädön (ko)
communication kosäd
* a communication cord (train) = ditretajänil
communism kobädim
community komotanef
companionship kompen
company kompenät
company (social) = sog
comparable leigodik
(to) compare (s.th. with) leigodön (bosi lä)
comparison leigod
* in (by) comparison = leigodo
compartment (of coach) = vabadiläd; (for luggage) = päköp; (small = dilädil
compass kompad
compassion kesenäl
(to) compel mütön
(to) compete (with) mätedön (ko)
competent duinafägik
competition (all senses) = mäted
(to) complain plonön (eke bosi)
complete lölöfik
completely löl(öf)iko
completion fiduin
compexion (facial) = logodakölül, täin
compliance flegot
complicated komplitik
composer noatädan
composite binädöl
composure ladälataked
comprehensible suemovik
comprehensive stäänik
(to) compress kobodranön, kobopedön
compromise balädikam
(to) compromise ludämön
compulsion dranäl
computer nünöm
computer programmer nünömaprogramel
(to) conceal klänedön
concealment kläned
(to) conceive (imagine) = fomälön
(baby) = grodikön
(thought) = tikodön
conceivable fomälovik
(to) concentrate säntretükön
concentrated säntretik
concentration säntretükäl
concept suemod, tikäd
conception fomälam, tikod
concern demäd, din, büsid
* to concern = tefön
** to be concerned for = labön demädi pö
concerning tefü
concert konsärt
concession däl
concise naböfik
(to) conclude kludön
conclusion fin, klud; (mental) = kludod
* to come to a conclusion (about) = süadön (dö/tefü)
concrete kokret(ot)
(to) condemn (sentence s.o. to) = cödetön eki ad
(misjudge) = micödön
condenser densitükian
condition (state) = stad
terms) = stip
conditional stipöfik
condom tagrodaslivil
conduct kondöt; kondötön
* to guide = dugön
** (music) = dilekön
conductor (person) = dugan
pipe, wire, material which conducts s.th. (water, heat, electricity...)
= rüd, drat, stöf, kel dugodon bosi (vati, vami, lektini...)
conductress (bus) jizötisumidan
(to) confer (with) baiodön (ko)
(to) confess (general) = koefön
(to admit) = lekoefön
confession koef, lekoef
to hear someone’s confession = koefidön (oki)
to go to confession = koefikön
confessor (ecclesiastical) = koefapatär
(to) confide konfidön
confidence konfid
confidential konfidovik
(to) confirm fümükön, zepön
confirmation fümükam, zep
(to) conform (to) lönülön (lü)
(to) confuse bluv, kofud
(to) congratulate benovipön
congress kongred
(to) conjugate (verbs) konyugön
(to) play conkers kastaenitaflapön
(to) connect (train, etc.) = yümädön (ko)
(general) = yümätön (ko)
connection (= link) liud; vüyümäd
(a personal connection = yümet)
(telephone connection = telefonalien)
co-operation kevoböf
(to) conquer konkerön
conqueror konkeran
conquest konker
conscience konsien
conscientious konsienöfik
conscious sevedik
* to be conscious of = sevälöfön
consciousness seved
(spiritual) = datikäl
consecutive sökaleodik
consent däl; dälön + inf.
consequence sek
consequent sekik
(to) conserve dakipön
(to) consider betikön, letikön, lelogön, tikädön, vätälön
consideration vätäl
considering vätälü (+ noun)
(to) consist (of) binädön (me)binälön (in)
(to) console trodön
consultation dakonsälam
(to) consume nüsumön
constancy laidé
constantly laiduliko
constitution (state) dalon, stabalon
constitute, to (= adopt constitution) dalonön
(without) constraint nemütovik
consulate konsulöp
(to) consult konsälidön, konsultön
consultation konsult
contact kontag (= physical)
kosam (= personal)
contact lenses kontagalentül
(to come into) contact kosikön
(to bring into) contact kosükön
(to) consider letikön
(to) contain kipädön. ninädön
container ninädian
(to) contaminate venenön
contemporary timakompenik
a contemporary person = bäldotakompenan
contempt nestüm
content kotenik
contented pekotenüköl
contentment koten
contents ninäd
contest befeit
context yumed
continent kontinän
continental kontinänik
continual laidulik
continuation fövot
(to) continue fovön (me), fovön
continuity yümöf
continuous nenropik
contract baläd
(on a contract = bai baläd)
(to) contradict taspikön (eke) bosi
contradiction taöf
contrary, contrast gü, taädam, taädik
(contrary to = güä + noun)
(on the contrary = taädo, tadilo)
(in contrast with = in taäd tefü)
(to) contribute keblünön
contribution keblünot
contributor keblünan
control kontrol
convenient koveniälik
* is this hour convenient for you? = Düp at, koveniälon-li ole?
(to) converge kobikön
conversation spikot
conversationalist spikotan
(to) converse spikotön
conversational spikotälik
convert (into), to feajafön (ad)
conviction süad
(to) convince süadükön
cook kvisinan; kvisinön
cooked pekvisinöl
cool koldälik, koldülik
cooler koldülüköm
(to) co-operate kevobön
(to) co-ordinate keleodükön
copper kuprin
copy kopied; kopiedön
copy (of book = samäd
copyright kopiedagität
coral korial, korul (= colour)
cord jain; lektina(le)fad (= electric); bäkabomakölüm (= spinal)
cordial ladöfik
core piäf
coriander koriand
cork buon, koeg
corkscrew koegitiret
corn gren; klaf (= on foot)
cornea (eye) korned
corner gul
corona (stellar) kirno
corps, disciplinary (army) pönarejimen
corpse fun
correct verätik; verätükön
* to correct work = koräkön bligädi
(to) corresond (with) spodön (ko)
(to) correspond (to) baiädön
correspondence spod
correspondent spodan
correspondingly baiädiko
corridor luyal
corset korsät
cosmetics jönameds
cosmos (si)leval, (si)lespad
cost fräd
(to) cost frädön
cottage ludom, länädadomil
cotton kotin
* cotton wool = vod
cough kög;
(to) cough kögön
council konsälalef
Council Chamber = cäm
(to) counsel dakonsälön
counsellor dakonsälan
(to) count nümädön
counter (in shop) dünetatab
counterpane löpateged
counterpart leigamod
counter-resistance tatareigäbam
countless` nenumovik
country län, länäd
a (fellow) countryman = lomänan
open country - nated
county grafän
courageous kuradik
course (movement) = kul; (of river, etc) = zug; tidodem (= lessons)
of course = klüliko
court kur (royal); yad
*court of law = cödöp
courteous plütik
courteousness plütot
courtesy plüt
courtier kuran
courtyard yad ninik
cousin kös, hiköst, jiköst
cover (general) = teg
(table linen) = tegäd
(bed linen) = teged
(hard cover) = tegod
(to) cover tegön
covered petegöl
cow kun, jibub
coward dredöfan
cowardice dredöf
cowardly dredöfik
(to) cower blotön
crab krab
crack (fracture) = frakat
(burst) = kräk
(rent) = slitod
(bang) = tonät
(to) crack brekön, kräkön
* crack of the whip = batatonät
cracker (type of biscuit) biskit
(to) crackle knätärön
cradle klädöm
cranberry redavaxen
crane krän
cranium kran
crank (mechanical) tülakurb
(to) crash troivön
crate krätäd
crater kratär
(to) crawl grulön
crayfish kref
crazy lienetik
(to) creak knirön
cream merki
iiscream celad
whipped cream = flapilakrem
creamy kremik
(to) create jafön
creation jafäd
creative jafovik
creativity jafäl
creator jafal
creature jafäb
credit kred, kredit
creditor kreditan
creed lekoef
(to) creep kripön
crematorium filasepülöp
crepe veot
crew (on ship) nafanef, skip
crib krib
cricket carad, krik (= insect); krikät (= game)
crime midun, krim
criminal midunan, kriman;
midunik, krimik
crimson karmisinik
crinoline krinul
crisis krisid
crisps (pöteta)cips
(to) criticize krütön
criticism krüt
(to) croak kvagön
crockery fidacan
crocodile krokod
crocus krok
crook kanayan
cross krod (shape)
knhirion dea travärön = to cross perpendicularly
crossroads = sütitraväröp
to cross the street = lovegolön love süt
to cross by water = lovebotön
**** crosswise through = travärü
(to) crouch (down) kropikön
crouching blotöfik
crow krov
crowd lemödot, menamödot
crown kron
* a crown coin = klon
cruel kruälik
cruelty kruäl
(to) crumble dädiledikön; dädiledükön (bread, etc)
(to) crush (tread down) = lepedön
(into powder) = troivön, troivülön
crust (earth's) krut
cry luvokäd; drenön, luvokädön
cryptography jüfav
crystal kristad
a crystal (radio) set = kristadaparat
cub -ül (add to relative noun)
cube kübäd
cucumber küg
cuckoo kukuk
cuff (for shirt) slivül
cul-de-sac sakalusüt
(to) cultivate befeilön, glöfön
cunning lukäfik
cup (competition) = köp
(drinking) = bovül
cupboard ramar
curable sanovik
cure lekäl; sanön
curious nulälik
* to be curious (about) = nulälikön (dö)
curiosity nuläl
curl herakrugül, krugül
curly krugülaherik
currant bäl
a black/red currant = ribedabäl
current flum
currency (= monetary system) völäd
curse blasfäm; blasfämön
cursed deätik; maleditik
curtain körten
curve krugalien
curving (winding) krugik
cushion kusen
custom (habit) = kösömot; (traditional) = geböf
customary kösömik
customer laidareman, dünetäb
customs (toll) = toläd
* a customs officer = tolädan
cut köt, kötäd; kötön
maikötön = to cut open
cutter (female) jilajiman
cybernetic kiberik
cybernetics kiberav
cyborg kiber
cycle (of events) sirkülam
cycle (of nature) sirkamuf
(to) cycle saikulön
cylinder zilid
cynic künidan
cynicism künidim
dad fat, fatül
daffodil narzid
dahlia daliad
daily aldelik, aldeliko
dairy miligöp
damage däm; dämükön
damn it! maleditilö!
damp luimöf, luimöfik, luimülik
dampness luimül
dance danüd; danüdön
* dance tune = danüdüm
danger riskäd
* to be in danger = riskädikön
(to) dare (venture) = riskön
(allow to) = dalön + inf.
dark dag, dagik
darling löfäb
dart jedot
* to play darts = pledön jedotis
dash it! maleditilö!
date (of month) = dät
(fruit) = daet
* up-to-date = baitimädik
daughter daut, jison
dawn gödalulit
day del
one (= indefinite) day = ün del semik
daybreak delaprim
dazzling tulitik
dead deadik
deaf surdik
(to) deafen surdükön
deafening lilämisurdüköl
deal mödot
* a great deal = bundano, lemödot
dealer tedan
dean dekätan
dear (lovable) = löfik
(expensive) = jerik
(oh, dear !) = vi !
death deadam
* to sentence to death = deidacödetön
debt deb
debtor deban, debetan
decade degyel
decadence neben
(to) decay (general) = rübikön
teeth) = puridikön
deceit cüt
deceitful cütik
(to) deceive cütidön, cütön
December e z mnt
decency plüt
decent plütik
deception cütam, cütid, lekäf
(to) decide to sludön (ad)
(to) decipher säkikön
decision slud
decisive fümälik
deck (of ship) = däk
deckchair takädastul
declamation deklam
(to) declare stetön
* to declare war (on) = plänön militi (ta)
** something to declare (at customs) = tolabot
declaration stet
(to) decline deklinön (= nouns); klemön, läsikön
(to) decode dekotön
(to) decorate dekön
decrease nepluikam; smalükam
(to) decrease nepluikön; smalükön
decree büad
to dedicate dedietön
(to) deduce (infer) = kludön
deed dun, dunot
deep dibik
deer stäg
defeat peräd; vikodön
* to bring about defeat = lüblinön perädi
defeatism misekim
defect def
defective dádik, defik
defence jelod
defenceless nenjelodik
(to) defend jelodön
defensive jelodik, taedik
defiant todik
deficient defik
(to) define miedetön
definite kuratik, miedik
definition miedot; plän (kuratikum)
(to) deflate (air from tyre) leadön deflumön (luti se rif)
(to) defy letodön
degree (qualification) = diplom
(thermometer) = grad
(calibration) = gred(mark, stage) = gredät
(high degree) = vem
* by degrees = gredamo
(to) dehumanize sämenükön
(to become) dehumanized sämenikön
delay stopäd, zög
(to) delay stopädön, zögön
(to) delegate gividön
deliberately desino
deliberation letik
delicate (fragile) = brekovik
delight lejuit
delightful dafredüköl, lejuitik
(to) deliver (bring) = blünön
(releas e) = libükön
deliverance blün, libükam
delivery (in birth) = motam
demand (insist(ask price) = flaged; flagedön
demanding flagiälik
democracy demokrat
(to) demolish dosleatön
demonstration jonetükam, meugijon
demon diabil, diabül, milanan
den sep
denial noam
dense (thick, fat) = bigik
dentist tutisanavan
* a dentist's surgery = tutisanöp
(to) deny noön
(to) depart detävön, motävön
department diläd, räyun
* a department store = caniselidöp
departure detäv, devegam, motäv
(to) depend (on) sekidön (de)
(to) deposit kipidön
depression nenkuradäl
(to) deprive (s.o. of s.th.) sädütön (eke bosi)
depth (general) = dib
(measure) = dibot
deputy dälädäb
dervish därvid
(to) descend nexänon
descendant licinan
descent nexän
(to) describe bepenön
description bepenam
(to) desert lüvön
(to) deserve meritön
deservedly meritabiko
deserving meritabik
design (sketch) = disin; disinön
desirability desirab
desirable desirabik
desire desir; desirön
desirous desirik
desk püpit
despair däsper; despärön
desperate däsperik
(to) despise nestümön
dessert poszib
destination lükömöp, tävazeil
(to) destine (for) jonidükön
destiny fät
(to) destroy distukön, nosükön
destroyer distukan
destruction distuk, modun
detail notet, pat
more detailed = prolidik
an isolated detail = soelot
(to) detain (delay) = stöpädön
(to) detect tüvön
(to) deteriorate badikumön
(to) determine fümetön
determination fümetam, lonam
determinative lüyümod
(to) determine fümetön, lonön
determinism fümetim
determinist fümetiman
(to) detest naudön
detriment (to the -- of) dämü
(to) devastate distukön
(to) develop daglofön; sävilupön (= photos)
development daglof, jenäd
devil diab, milanan
devilish diabik, diabälik
(to) devise datikön
(to) devote liedietön, saludükön
devoted divodik
devotion devod, divod, saludükam
devout relöfik
dew dav, gödaluim
dewdrop davatof
dial numataplat (on a clock
numataplatil (on wristwatch)
numatasirkot (on telephone)
(to) dial telefonön (numati)
dialogue telspikot
diameter diamet
diamond nidain
diaphragm ditavöl
diary delabuk
dictator diktoran
dictionary vödabuk
(to) die deadön
diet diät
difference (essential) dist
different difik
difficult fikulik
(to) dig jüpön, sebön, tovädön
(to) digest dicetön
digestion dicet
digestive system dicetasitot
dignified gravik
(to) dignify sikön
dignity dinit, grav, stimadig
(to) digress deikön
dilemma diläm
diligent zilik
dimension mafot
(to) diminish disön, nepluükön
dimness trub
(to) dine fidedön
dining-car staudavab
dining-room fidacem
dinner fided
dinosaur dinosaur
(to) dip blunön
direct nemedik, stedöfik, stedöfo(to indicate way) = lüodükön
directly nemediko
direction lüod
dirty miotik
disadvantage däm
disagreeable neplitik
(to) disappear nelogädikön
(to) disappoint (expectations) = läsetön (speti)
disapproval dod, micöd, micödot
(to) disapprove micödön
(to) disassemble seablimön
disaster katastrof
(to) disburden säfledön
disc (compact) sirkotül
(to) discipline tütedön
discontented nekotenik
discothèque sirkotadanüdasälun
discourse spikäd
(to) discover tüvön
* to discover country = letüvön
discovery tüv, letüv
discreet prüdik
(to) discuss bespikön
discussion bespik
disease maläd
(to) disembark säboidön (oki)
disfigured mifomik
disgrace jemod
(to) disgrace jemükön
(to) disguise (o.s.) votaklotön (oki)
disgust naud; naudön
dish (bowl) = bov
course) = zib
large) = skel
dishonest nesnatik
(to) disinfect sänäfätön
(to) disintegrate dästurön
disintegration sustonäd
dishwasher bovilavacin
(to) disinherit sägerükön
(to) dismiss sädünükön
dismissal sädünükam
(to) disperse seaikön
display seidet
(to) displease neplidön
(to) dispose of (get rid of) = moükön
(sell) = selön
disposed to klienik ad
(to be at one's) disposal gebidön lü
disputable befeitovik
(to) disrupt däropön
(to) disseminate vidükön
dissension teläl
dissertation penot
to disestablish sästitön
(to) dissolve soluön
distance vegäd (= distance away); fag (= far off)
distant fagik
distillery spitifabrik
distinct distik
(to) distinguish (differentiate) = distidön
* to distinguish oneself = benodistükön oki
distinguishable distidovik
distinguished stümik, süperik
distress ditret
(to) distribute seagivön
distribution dilam, seagiv
district ziläk
(to) disturb tupön
disturbance lemuifükam, tup
ditch söp
ditty (short song) priomalidil
(to) dive daivön
diver daivan
(to) diverge (from) difön (de)
(to) divide dilädön, dilön
(to) divide (by) (maths) müedön (dub)
division dilam, müedam (= maths)
divorce matiteil
(to get) divorced matiteilön
dizzy suidik
(to feel) dizzy suidikön
(to) do dunön
* to do without = nelabön
** to do business = bligidön
dock käv
doctor dokan, sanan
doctorate dok
document doküm
documentation dokümam
dog dog
doll pup
dollar dolar
dolphin delfin
domain räyun
dome glöpot
domicile topät
(to) dominate dareigön
dominos (game) dominov
(to) donate givülön
donkey cuk
door yan
* front door = leyan
** a door knocker = noköm
double telik
* a double-barrelled gun = telrüdedagün
(to) double telön
doubt dot; dotön (dö)
doubtful dotik
down (fluffy feathers) daun
(to) download säfledön
* to download (from computer) = feapladön
downstairs dono
downwards donio
dozen degtelat
draft riget (= rough copy); tret (= commercial)
(to) drag tränön
dragon drak
dragonfly libelul
dragoon (military) drägun
drama dramatav
(to) dramatise dramatön
(to) draw (pull) = tirön
(make drawing) = däsinön
(attention to) = küpälükön
a drawing = däsinot
to draw a prize = tiredön
drawback mistad
drawer (furniture) = layet
(to) dread dredön (demü, tefü, pro)
dreadful dredabik
dream drim; drimön
dress (general) = klot
(lady's) = kloted, lädaklot
(suit) = klotem
dress circle (theatre) = bakun balid
a dress coat (with tails) = trelülagun
*** a dressing-table = klünatab
evening dress = zälülaklotem
a dressing gown = cemaklot
(to get) dressed = klotön, lenükön klotis
fancy dress ball = klotedazäl
(to) drift sveamön
drill (electric) gimül (lektinik)
drink drin, drinod; drinön
* soft drinks = drineds nelalkoholerik
drive (in vehicle) = vabam
(excursion) = spatavabam
* to drive a vehicle = vabükön vabi
driver joför
driving licence toodamazöt
(to) drop (let fall) = koedön falön, leadön falön
* a drop (of liquid) = tof
** a droplet = tofil
drought lesig
(to) drown (s.o) nöyön (eki)
drug drog
drum trum
a drum roll = trul
drummer truman
drunk brietik
dry sägik; sägükön
dryness säg
(to) dry (oneself) säluimükön (oki)
duchy dükän
duck dök
due debik
the train is due at seven = tren mutön lükömöm tü düp velid
duet telüm
dull stupik, dofik, dölik, dumik, trubik
duly kuratiko
dumb müätik
duodenum duoden
durable dulöfik
duration dul
during (...the time that) = dü
dusk soaralulit
dust püf
dustbin defälotaninädian
dusty püfik
duty (obligation) = blig
(moral) = söt
* duty free = fläno
(to) dwell blibön, lödön
dwelling löd, lödadom
dwelling-place lödöp
(to) dye kölön
dyke daem
dynamic semofabik
dynamite dinamit

each a, al, alik
eachtime zalna
at 2 dollars each = a dolas tel
eager ledesirik
eagle kvil
ear lil
earphones kapakosädöm
early gölik, göliko
(to) earn gaenön, meritön
earnest fefik
in earnest = fefo
earnestness zil
earth (planet) = tal
(material) = tail
east lofüd

easy fasilik, nefikulik
* free and easy = nenmütig
an easy chair = kovenastul
(to) eat fidön
ebony bäad
eclipse grahan
economics konömav
(to) economize spälön
ecstasy stäat
eczema käsem
edge (blade) = köted
(border) = siem
(margin) = sim
edible fidovik
edition dabükot
editor dabükan, redakan
(to) educate (to bring up) = dugälön
(general) = kulivükön
(instruction) = tidön
educated benodugölik, kulivik
education dugäl, kuliv
eel pil
(to) effect davedükön
effect vobed, sek; vobedön
effective jenöfik, vobedik, vobiälik
effects (possessions) = dalabots
effervescence gas bruidik, löbruid
efficient duinafägik
effort steifül, töbid
egg nög
* scrambled eggs = nögs pemufilöl
egg-plant berjen
eiderdown lestekateged
eight jöl
eighteen degjöl
eighty jöldeg
either ... or u ... u
elaborate ledunöfik
elbow kubit
elderberry sambukabäl
election daväl
electric lektinik
electricity lektin
electronics leäktronav
elegant klotugik
elefant leefad
element dilet; lömin (chemical)
elevation föd
eleven degbal
elm lorm, lum
eloquence spiköf
else votik, voto
elsewhere votaseimo
(to) elucidate stetön
(to) emancipate sipön
(to) embalm balsamükön
embankment käv
(to) embark boidön (oki)
(to) embitter bietälükön
(to) embrace bradön
(to) embroider brodön
embroidery brodat
embryo brüom
emerald smaragoin
(to) emerge (from) sekömön (se)
emergence daved
emergency ditret
emotional fäkädik, nämöfik
(to) emphasize kazetön
empire lampörän, reigän
(to) employ (professionally) = cälön
(to use generally) = gebön
(to make o.s. useful) = jäfükön oki
(non-professionally) = vobükön
(to) be employed binön cäläb/vobükäb
employee cäläb, vobükäb
employer cälan, vobükan
employment (profession) = cal
(job) = jäfot
employment (=business) = büsid
empty vagik; vagükön
(to) enact zepön
(to) encamp tänadöpön
(to) enclose läükön
(to) encode nükotön
encounter (meeting) = kolköm; kolkömön
(to) encourage kuradükön
(to) encroach nüdranön (in); glepön
encyclopedia züklopäod
end fin, finot
(to) end finidön, finikön, finükön
(to) endanger riskädükön
endeavour steif, töbid
enemy neflen
energetic nämöfik
energy (physics) = nämet
(human) = viläl
(to) engage matirajanön (ko)
engaged (occupied) = beseidik;
(to be engaged in) = bejäfön (me)
engagement (betrothal) = matirajan
(to) engender süvokön
engine (machine) = cin
(locomotive) = lemüf
(car, bus) = motor
engineer (chief) = kaenal
(mechanical) = cinädan
(to) enhance geilükumön
enigmatic rätöfik
(to) enjoy fredön, fredükön, juitön, yofön (oki)
enmity neflenam
enormous levemik
enough saidik, saidiko
enquirer seividan
enquiry seivid
(to) ensure fümükön, garanön
(to) entangle komplitükön
(to become) entangled komplitikön
(to) enter ninikön, nügolön, nükömön
enterprise (arts & crafts) = feb
(to) entertain (wine & dine) = daifidön
(receive as guest) = getedön
(amusement) = muadön
enterprise febäd
entertaining muadik
entertainment daifid, muad, säjäfälükam
(to) enthuse lanälön, lanälükön
enthusiasm lanäl
enthusiast lanälan
enthusiastic lanälik
enticement bät
entire lölik
entrance nügolöp
(to) entrust lükonfidön
envelope köv; kövön
envious mibönik
environment züamöp
envy, to glötön, mibön; mibönön
epaulette peolät
epilepsy peiläp
episode (radio / fernsy) näijenot
epithet läod
epoch-making kulik
equal leigik
(to) equal leigön
equality leig
equally leigiko, leigoso
equator kveator
equestrian monit
* an equestrian statue = monitanamagot
equilibrium leigavet
(to) equip blimön
equipment blimot
equivalent leigät
era timäd
(to) erase radön
eraser radagum
error pöl
erudite nolik
escalator rolatridem
escape mofug, skeap; skeapön, mofugön (de, se)
esotericist pödakösömedan
especially pato
essay baläd
essential binälik
* in essence = binäliko
(to) esteem digidön
estate glunidalabot, länilabot; posbinot (= legal estate)
esteemed (highly) dalestümik
(to) estimate täxetön
etc. e.r. (e ret, e rets)
eternal nenfinüpik
eunuch homen
euthenasia deadiyuf
(to) evaporate vapikön
eve büsoar
even (level) = kamik; kamükön
(notwithstanding) = igo
evening soar
evenly leigöfiko
event jenot
in any event = alo
course of events = goled
a single event = soelot
eventful veütik
eventual baik, sekik
eventually fino. mögädo
ever (at all times) = ai
(at any time) = föro
(ever since) = siso
every alik
everyone dabinanef, valikans
everywhere valöpo
evidence klülab
evident klülabik
evidently klülabiko
evil bad
(to) evolve daglofön
exact kuratik, kuratälik, stediko
exaggeration tuükam
(to) exaggerate tuükön
examination vestig, xam
(to) examine vestigön, xamön
examiner vestigan, xaman
example sam
* for example = as sam / äs sam
(to) exceed pluön (demü, tefü, in)
exceeding plödakösömik
exceedingly plödakösömiko
(to) excel (distinguish o.s.) = benodistükön oki
(to abound with) = pluön lä
excellent cädik, süperik
except pläamü
exception pläam
without exception = nenpläoto
with the exception of = sesumü
excessively tumödo
exciting stigedik
(to) execute dadunön; cödetadeidön (death penalty)
exercise tur (gymnastic); pläg (physical); okskilükam (mental)
excess plumaf
excessive plumafik
(to) exchange cänön
* to exchange (one thing for another) = tökön (tä)
exchange rate cänakursüd
(to) exhaust lefenikön
(to) excite (stir up) = fäkädükön
(stimulate) = stigedön
excitable fäkädik
excitement fäkäd, stiegedam
(to) exclaim vokädön
exclamation vokäd
(to) exclude fakipön, plödakipön
excluding fakipü ..., plödakipü ...
exclusively te
excrement jiedot
excursion zugot
excuse säkusad; säkusadön
exemplar dasaman
exercise okskilükam, bligäd
* physical exercise = koapaskilükam
(to) exhaust lefenükön, nenämükön
exhausted lefenik, nenämik, penenämüköl
* to be exhausted = lefenön
exhaustion lefen
(to) exhibit dajonädön
exhibition dajonäd
(to) exist dabinön
existence dabin
exit segolöp
(to) expand pakön
expansion stäänükam
(to) expect spetön
expectantly spetiko
expedition vestigatäv
expel momofön
expenditure fegeb
expense fräd, fräds
expensive jerik
experience belifot, lifot, plak
(to) experience belifön
experienced plakugik, plobik
experiment sperimänt
experimental sperimäntik
* experimental stage = stadäd sperimäntik
expert jäfüdisevan
(to) explain kleilükön, plänädön, plänön
explanation plän
(to) exploit tufrutidön
exploration vestig
(to) explore beletävön, vestigön
explorer vestigan
export, to seveigön
(to) express notodön
expression notod
(to) extend stäänikön (love)
extensive lardik
extent, to what viomafädo
(to) exterminate dadeidön
external plödik
extinct (to become) dadeadön
(to) extinguish kvänön
extortion demüt
extra läfulükik
(to) extradite dablünön
(to) extract setratükön, setirön
extraordinarily nekösömiko
extraordinary nekösömik
extreme lefäkälik, lemuam, lemuik
extremely levemo, lemu
extremist lölimik
extremity (superlative degree) = lemuam
(poin, tip) = finot
* an eye clinic = logasaunüköp
eyeball logaglöp
eyebrow logabob
eyedrop logatof
eyelash logaflipaher
eyelid logalip
eye socket logakev

fable fab
face logod
facility fasilot
facing visoik; äl
fact jenöfot
in fact = ibo, jenöfo
factory fabrik
faculty fäg
(to) fade fainikön
faeces jied(ot)
(to) fail defön; dufalön
failure dufalan (= a person); failam (= financial); lepök
faint lefenik; svenön
faint-hearted dredöfik
(to) faint lesuidikön
fair (not dark) = blonik
(honest) = snatik
(seemly) = gidöfik
(a travelling fair) = kermetatrup
fairness gid
* in fairness to = ko gid kol
fairy fey, feyik
fairyland feyalän, märalän
fairy-tale mär
faith (general) = fied
(trust) = konfid
(religion) = lekred
faithful fiedik, lekredik
falcon falok
fall fal; falön
fall in prices, temperature, etc. = nepluikam; nepluikön
to fall short of = pödablibön
(to) fall asleep slipikön
(to) fall in love with lelöfädiköm dö
(to) fall ill malädikön
fallopian tube nögameat
false dobik, dobälik
falsehood dob, dobäl
falsification dobükam
(to) falsify dobükön
fame fam
familiar komunöfik, nätimik
familiarity komunöf, nätim
family famül
a family line = dafamül
famine faemaditret
famous famik
fanatic lezilan
fanatical (act) dunikod
fanaticism lezilim
fancy (imagination) = fomäl
daydreaming) = magäl
passing thought) = vim
fantasy) = magälod
fanfare fafar, tambur
fantasy magäl
far fagik
farrago migäd, migot
fare vegamasuäm
farewell ledit
farm farm, farmadom; feilön (me)
farmer farman
fascinating jänälik
fascist fajistik
fashion vogäd
(to) fashion fomön
fashionable vogädik
fast (religious) = cun; cunön
(fixed) = fimik
(speedy) = vifik
(to) fasten (fix) = fimükön
fat (ample) = bigik
(stout) = pinädik
fatal mifätik
fate fätot
father fat, hipal
father-in-law lüfat
fault midun, döbot
(döbot duton lü ol ! = it's your fault !
favour gön; gönön
favourable böniälik, gönik
favourite gönik
fear dred; dredön
feasibility pötöf
feast daif, zäl
feather plüm
feathered plümilabik
feature fomäd
federal fedik
feeble fibol
(to) feed nulüdön
(to) feel (ill, well) = senön
* to feel sorry (for) = keliedön (ko)
to feel compelled = senälön dranäli
feeling sen, senäl
feeling(s) ladäl
February e d mnt dx mnt
fellow kompenan, hikompenan
a fellow- countryman = kelomänan
felt fülik
femur femur
ferocious kruälik
(to) fetch out süramenön
female vomik
fence (hedge) = buid; buidön
(wood) = kiud; kiudön
to fence (sport) = fegön
to fence off = deteilön
fern filig
ferryboat lovenaf
ferry crossing lovenafamöp
fertile fluköfik
festival zäl
(to) fetch ramenön
fever fif
feverish fifilik
few nemödik
fiasco misek
fibre faib
fictitious nelegik
field (general) = fel
(enclosure) = feled
(terrain) = läned
fierce (wild) = sovadik
(wrath) = lezunik
(angry) = zunik
fig fig
figment (of imagination) fomälod
fight komip; komipön ta
figure (illustration) = figur
(appearance) = kopafom
(numeral) = numat
file (computer) = ragiv
(folder) = map
(tool) = räp
(to) fill fulikön, fulükön
* to fill a pipe = steigädön
** to fill a tooth = plumbön
to fill in (forms) = benüpenön
a (tooth) filling = plumbafulükot
film biomagodem (= movie); film, filmod (= substance)
* a film star = bioskopastelan
(to) film filmön
fin (fish) = stiragöb
final finik
finally fino
finance finen
finch janafrin
(to) find tuvön
fine (not dense) = feinik
(in order) = jönik
(penalty) = monapönod
finger doat; doatön
(the) little finger = rikül
fingernail = doatanuel
(to) finish (complete) = fimekön
(conclude) = finükön
fir fir
* a fir cone = konüd
** a fir tree = kanad
(to) fire (weapon) = jütükön
fireguard treil
fireman lefilapoldan
fireplace filetatopafön
firm (enterprise) = fiam
(fixed) = fimik
(certain) = fümik
(persevering) = laidälik
(solid) = solidik
firmness laidäl
first balid
* in the first place = büiküno
firstly balido
first-rate balidkladik
fish fit; päskarön
* fish and chips = fit e loetapötetüls
fisherman (hi)päskaran
fist pun
fit (opportune) = pötik
(qualified) = skilik
ts w.c. dea
(suitable) = lönedik
(clothes, shoes, etc) = seadöfön (oke)
five lul
(to) fix fimükön
flag stän
flake flog
flame flam; flamön
to flame up = löflamön
(to) flap (wings) mufükön (mäpetiko) flitämis
flash kämalelit (= photographic); leklär (= of lightning);
käramalit, pokalampad (=flashlight)
flat (level) = platik
(even) = plenöfik
* a flat = lödadom, lödatead (in block)
** a flat tyre = rif döfik
(to) flatter flätön
flattery flät
flea flib
(to) flee (run away) = mofugön
fleet nafem
flesh (human) = mid
flexible flekik
(to) flicker flamülön
flight (air travel) = flit
(of stairs) = vüplatedtridem
flimsy voalaslenik
(to) fling lejedön
(to) flit mufätön
float (raft) = floted; flotön
(to) flock (to) trupön (lü)
flooding tuvatam
floor glun, tead
flour lemeil
flow (of liquid) = flum; flumön
* to flow around = züflumön
flower flor; florön
fluent skilädik
fluid flumot

fly in sky flvku
(escape) = defugön
(flee) = fugön
* a domestic fly = musak

foam sköm
focus fouk
fog fog
fold plif; plifön
folder map
(to) follow (on) = fovön
(after) = sökön
(mentally) = suimön
following sökik, sököl
fond lelöfädik
food fid, nulüdöt, zib
fool fopan
(to) fool cütön
foolhardy lukünik
foolish fopki hopki
foot fut
a foot (in verse) = liänülam
a foot (measure) = pied
footprint futaretod
football futaglöpäd
footbrake futafrenöm
for (preposition) = ad, pro
(conjunction) = ibä
forbearance spal
(to) forbid proibön
force näm; mütön
fore föfo
* to the fore = lü (sui) föfaglun
forecast (to predict) = büosagod; büosagön
* weather forecast = büosagod stoma
forefather büröletan
forehead flom
foreign foginik, foginänik
foreigner foginänan
foreman (of jury) = cif yulacödalefa
forename pösodanem
forenoon büzedel
forerunner büogolan
(to) foresee büologön
foresight büologam
forest fot
forester fotikonöman
forestry fotikonöm
(to) foretell büosagön
forethought desin
forever ai ladio
foreword fovöd, fonun
former (deceased) büätik
(to) forge smitön
(to) forget glömön
forgetfulness glömäd
(to) forgive pardön
forgiveness pard
fork fok
forked zikzakik
form (shape) = figur; fom; fomön
seat) = bam
to fill in) = fomet
form of address) = lüspikavöd
format fomät
former büätik, büik
formerly büäto, vönädo
formula fomül
fortification fortif
fortnight telvig
fortune benofät, lieg
a fortune teller = büosagan
fortunate läbik
fortunately läbiko
forwards föfio,
fortune monem
fosterchild hi/jikäläb
fosterparent hi/jikälan
foul miotik
fountain (in garden) foned
fountainpen fulükapen
(to) found (establish) = fünön
Foundation Fünod
four fol
in fours = folo
fowl böd, gok, higok, jigok
fowler bödan
fox renar
fox fur = renarapläd
fracture bomabrek
fragile brekovik
(to) fragment brekotön
fragmentation smalotülam
frame (for portraits) = fremäd
baseframe) = jasid
to frame) = fremön
window-frame) = fenätafrem
(to put into words) = fomätön
framework skelät
franc (currency) fran
frank stedälik
frankly stedäliko, stedälo
freckle feelid
free libik
free and easy = nenmütig
freemason lelivamasonan
(to) freeze flodön
* to freeze to death = deiflodön
to freeze (due to actions, emotions) foldöf
freezer flödacin, flödöm
freezing flodam
freight trade fledinaif
freighter fledanaf
frequent dünuamik, suvöfik; visitön suviko
frequently dönuamo, suöfikna
fresco freskod
fresh (new) = flifik, flifädik
chilled) = koldülik
unknowe fleic dosce dea disce dea
Friday fridel san ten seiqng
fried egg loetanög
friend flen
friendly flenöfik
(close) friendship flenalöf
friendship flenam
fright jek
(to) frighten jekön, jeikön
frivolous badöfafredik
frog frog
frolicsome badöfafredik
from de
from then on = denu, sisoik
front (forehead) = flom
forefront) = föfaflan
in front of) = föfü
(military) = front
frontier mied
frost flod
frosty flodik
frugal späliälik
fruit fluk
frustration neodül
(to) fry loetön
frying pan loetamapaäl
fuel filamastöf
(to) fulfil fölön; jenöfükön
full fulik
(to) fumigate sesmokädön
fun cog
function jäfid (= general); sekät (= maths)
(to) function jäfidön
fun drol
to have fun = böfön
fundamental stabik
funeral (interment) = sepülam
(funeral party) = sepülanef
funnel (of ship) kaskod
funny cogik, drolik
fur pläd
furious lezunik
furnace fön, lefön
(to) furnish (chairs, etc.) = möbön
to fit out) = blimön
furniture (items) = möbs, möbem
further pluik
(to) further födön
furthermore fovo
furry plädik
fury vut
furtively lükölo
future fütür, fütürik
eskonian gurffan ridoqu nu dea
gaiety lefred
gaily lefrediko
gain gaenod; gaenön
galaxy galaxid
gallery (theatre) = bakun kilid
of computer images) = magodemöp
(to) gallop galotön
gallows deilägöm
gallstone bilaston
(to) gamble gämön
game (play) = pled; (food) = jib
gang lusog
gangway golaboed
gap bevüspad
garage garad
garden gad
(to) garden gadön
gardener gadan
garlic läl
garret masadacem
gas (petrol) = bänsin
gasworks) = gasin
natural) = vap
gastric juice stomägavaet
gate leyan
to) gather (gather) = kädedön
(include) = ninükön
(bring in) = nüblinön
(crops) = klopön
(meet) = kobikön
(pick) = plökön
to gather (mentally) from = kludön se
gathering (collection) = käded
gauze gaod, veot
gay (happy) = lefredik
(homosexual) = otgeniälik
(to) gaze logetön (föfio)
gear box mofian
gear lever traböm
geese gans
gene gered
general (person) = general
(universal) = valemik
generally valemo
generation menäd
generous giviälik
genetic geredik
genitals genäms
genius (tutelary) = jelalan
man of genius = letälenan
genome geredem
gentleman siör, söl
genuine legik
geographic taledavik
geography taledav
geometry geomet
gesture jäst
(to) get getön
(to) get on (with) kosädön (ko)
(to) get rid of nelabükön
(to) get up (rise) = löädön (de/se)
geyser gäysär
ghost lan, späk
giant gianan, gianagretik
(the) gigantic gian
gift legivot
gigantic gianik, gianagretik
gill (fish) = ciel
gimlet gim
ginger zingib
girl jipul, jicil
giraffe giraf
(to) give givön, gevön
to give rise to = süükön
to give way (under) = sukubön (sekü)
to give back = gegivön
glad fedki
glance loged viföfik
(to) glance through luxamön
gland glan
glaring tulitik
glass (material) = glät, glätik
(drinking) = vär, väret
glazier glätädan
(to) glean gleinön
(to) glide sleafön, slifön
(to) glimmer flamülön, glimön
(to) glitter glimön
globe talaglöp
gloom glum, glumäl
gloomily skano
gloomy glumik, glumälik
(to) glorify glorükön
glorious glorik
glory glor
glove gluf
glow glut; glutön
(to) glue gludön
glum favik
gnat muskitil
(to) go (on foot) = golön (ad, len, lü, ve)
(in vehicle) = vabön (me)
(to go through = to use one after another) = mojütön
goal finot, zeil
goalkeeper zeiligaledan
goat (nanny) = jikapar
(billy) = hikapar
(to) go away mogolön
(to) go out plödikön, segolön
(to) go to bed golön lü bed
godchild hi/jispönäb
godparent hi/jispönan
gold (ore) = goldin
golden) = goldik
goldfish ziporüt
goldsmith goldismitan
golf (game) golf
gong goun
good gudik
good-bye adyö!
* to say goodbye = leditön
good-for-nothing nenvöladan
goods can(s)
good-tempered benovimik
* bad-tempered = mivimik
goose gan
gooseberry stigaribedabäl
goshawk gokahauk
gossamer lutofad
gossip kagulan
(to) gossip kagön. (malicious) = lukagön
gout gig
(to) govern guverön
government reiganef
grace benäd, kein
with good grace = keino
with bad grace = nekeino
graceful keinik
gracious benädik
gradation gredam
grade gred
gradual gredik
gradually nelaidiko, pianiko
graduate (university) = bitüran, gredätükäb
* to graduate (at university) = gredätükön
(to) graft grifön
granddaughter posdaut
grandfather lefat
grandiose sublimik
grandmother lemot
grand-piano göbapianod
grandson posson
(to) grant dälön, gevön
grape vitidabäl
grapefruit pampelut
grapheme penät
graphology penät
grasp gleip; gleipön
grass yeb
grasshopper krikül
(to) grate (irritate) knirön
grateful danöfik
(to) gratify kotenükön, plitön
gratis (free of charge) = glato
gratitude danöf
grave (tomb) = sepül
(serious) = fefik
gravel gronaston
gravity fef
gravitation = vetotanäm
grazing land bälätöp
great gretik
great-grandfather dalefat
great-grandmother dalemot
greedy zibidesirik
green grünik
greenhouse planaglätadom(il)
greet glidön
greeting glid
grey gedik
grief glif
(to) grieve glifön, glifükön, lenofön
grievous glifik
griffin grifiun (mythology)
(to) grind (small) = grainön
(to) grin grinedön, grinön
grit grüd
(to) groan hagön
ground glun, glunot
ground floor donatead
group grup; grupön
grove lael
(to) grow (animals, plants) = bridön
(general term) = glofön, glöfön
(to become) = vedön
(to) growl yamedön
growth glof
(to) grumble murön
(to) guarantee garanön
guard (watchman) = galedan; galedön
* railway guard = trenigaledan
guardian tütan
(to) guess (conjecture) = niludön
(puzzle out) = rätön
to find out) = tuvedön
'm up to your tricks = etuvob käfodis ola
guest lotan, lotidan, lotidäb, vüdäb
guest-room lotidacem
guidance lüodäl
guide (person) = geidan; geidön (eki)
(book) = geidian
guild döb
guiltless nendöbik
guilty döbik
* to be found guilty = döbikön
guinea-pig kavead
guitar gitar
gulf (coastal) lebug
gullet slug
gum (in mouth) = gingif
(chewinggum) = maskagumod
gun (shot-gun) = gün
(canon) = kän
gunpowder pur
gushing susflumöl
gymnasium turöp

habit kösöm, kösömot kustme
habitual kösömik
habitually kösömo, kösömiko
haddock veitafit
hail gräl; grälön
hailstone grälaston
hair her, herem
hair loss = herasefal
hair) parting = heremiteil
hair oil = pin
hair tongs = zäp
a haircut = heremikötäd
hairbrush heremikef
hairdresser (ji)heran
hairdryer heremisagüköm
hairstylist heremamastan
half laf, lafik
halfanhour düpatelid
halibut holbut
halo nimbud; saludananid (around saint’s head)
hall lecem
hallowed saludükik
ham ham
hammer fög
(to) hammer fögön
hand nam
a clock hand = jonian
a hired servant = loatäb
to have at/to hand = gebidön (dö)
secondhand = neflifedik
secondhand book shop = selidöp neflifedabukas
on the other hand = votaflano
hand out = ditibön
palm of the hand = namakev
handbag ladys sakte
handbrake namafrenöm
handful, (by the) nameto
handkerchief pokasärvätül
handle gleipäd, gleiped;
(to) handle gleipülön; tölatön (tools, etc)
handsome nobik, jönik
handwriting penät
(to) hang (down, up) = lagön
(s.th.) = lägön
(a hangeron) = sekidan
(to) happen jenön
happiness fred, läb
(to make) happy gredükön, läbükön
harbinger bügolan
harbour pof
hare liev
hard düfik, fikulik
* hard labour = mütavob
hardening düfikam
hard-hearted düfälik
hardness (material) = düf
hardly (scarcely) = töbo
harebell luäg
harem härem
harm däm; dämön, dämükön
harmful dämik
harmless nendämik
harmonious baitonik
(to) harness harnadön, yokön
haste spid
hastily spido
hat hät
hate het; hetön
haughty pleidälik
harvest klopüp; klopön
haste spidiäl
(to) haunt späkön
it'ss house is haunted späkos in dom at
vi will haunt you ospäkob lä ol
(to) have labön
hawk falok
hawker kolportan, lutedan
hawking beluted
hay sigayeb
a hay loft = sigayebamasad
hazy fogül
(to become) hazy fogülön
he om
head kap, cif
to lose one’s head = perön süeni oka
headache kapadol
headland fobel
headlight fläkömalampad
headmaster letidan
health saun
* health care = sanakäl
healthy saunik
heap kum
(to) hear lilön
hearer dalilan
hearing (sense of) = lilasien
heart lad (hard-hearted = düfaladälik)
by heart = nenbuko
heart and soul = binäl
heartbreak ladälalied
hearth filetatop, filetatopafön
heathland brüyäralän
heartily ladöfiko
hearty ladöfik
heat hit; hitükön
heated hitik
heater (electric) hitöm
heather brüyär
heatshield tahitajeläd
heaven sül
heavy vetik, vetöfik; (weather) = teifülik
hedgehog lüstrid
(to) hedge in buidön
heel hil
height geil (= general); geilot (= measure)
helicopter tovaskrubian
hell höl
hello glidis
helmsman stiran
help yuf; yufön
hemp jan
hen jigok
hence denu, isao, sekü atos
henceforth denu, de tim at, fovo
henceforward denu, de tim at, fovo
herb keb
herd jep
here is
heresiarch lehäretal
heresy häret
hermetic härmetik
hero heroedan
heroic heroedik
heroine juheroedan
heroism heroed
heron härod
herring hareng
(to) hesitate zogön
hesitation zog
heterosexual votageniälan
(to) hide (o.s.) klänedön (eki)
hierarchy dinitaleod; (religious = kleraleod)
higgledy-piggedly (chaotically) pemiko
(to) hinder stöpädön
hindu (= person) hindutan
hinge fleged
high geilik
High Street = cifasüt
highway lesüt, leveg, vabamakul
higgledy-piggledy pemiko
hill lubel
hinny (she-mule) jimulat
hint jon(il)
hip (anatomy) = hip
hippopotamus flumedajevod
(to) hire loatön (eke bosi)
* hire fee = loatamon
historian jenavan
historic(al) jenavik
history jenav
life history = lifajenäd
hit flap; flapön
hither isio
hitherto jünu
hm ! ö !
hobby löfäl
hockey hokiy
hoe cop
hood kapüt
hoist (mechanical) tovian
(to) hoist (up) tovedön
hole hog
(to) hold dakipön, kipön
hold of a ship = lodaspad
hold an opinion, theory, etc = dakipön
to get hold of (= to acquire) = labedön
hole hog
the black hole = siblägahog
holiday vaken, zäladel
holiness salud
hollow kev, kevöfik
holy saludik
holly liäg
home lom, lomio, lomo
homeland lomän
homosexual otgeniälan
honest snatik
honesty snat
honey miel
honeycomb mielaziöbem
honeymoon matedatäv
honour stim; stimön
hoof (animal) = saf
hook huk; hukön
(to) play at hoop and hook rifedön
hop (for beer- making) humul
(to) hop bunülön
hope spel; spelön
horizon horit
* on the horizon = tö horit
hormone (sensitive) spörinasenöfik
horn (on animal) = hon
(musical) = horn
hors-d'oeuvre büzib
horse jevod
horsepower jevodanäm
horse-radish räfor
hosepipe tuin
hospital malädanöp
hospitality lotidiäl
hostess hi/jidaifidan
hostility mimeug
hot hitik
hotel lotidöp
hour düp
per hour = a düp
an hour and a half = düp bal e lafik
house dom
household linen vietastofäd
household (= management) konöm
housekeeper jikonöman
(to) hover vebön
how? lio?
* how much? = liomödoto-li?
however ön mod seimik, ön kel . . .; too, ye
human menik
humane menälik
humanity menät
(to) humanize menätükön
humble mükik
humid luimöfik
(to) humiliate mükükön
humiliation mükükam
humility mük
(sense of) humour cogedäl
hundred tum
hunger faem
hungry faemik
(to be) hungry faemön
hunt yag; yagön
hunter yagan
(to) hurl lejedön, sturön
hurry spid; spidön
hurt (pain) = dol; dolön
(injury) = viod; viodön
husband himatan, matan
hut ludomil
hyacinth hüasen
hyena hüen
hygiene saunikäl
hymn hüm
hypocrite simulan
hypnosis hüpnod

ic cio, gio
ice (frozen water) = glad
ice cream) = gladet
ice cube) = gladül
ice hockey) = gladahokiy
eisland islan
idea ide
ideal idex
(to) idealize burden
identity dientif
identification, an identity card = dientifäd
idle (lethargic) = nevobik; nevobön
(unoccupied) = nenvobik
shiftless) = trögik; trögön
idleness (inactivity) = nosdun
shiftlessness) = trög
idler (person) = nosdunan
idly nevobiko, nendesino, trögiko
aimlessly = nendesino
idiotic diotik
if if
igloo gladadom (Läskiomik)
ignition filid
ignorance nennol, nensev, nesev
ignorant nennolik, nensevik, nesevik
(to) ignore nedemön
iguana leguan
ill maläd
illtempered mivimik
good-tempered = benovimik
(to) illuminate litükön
illumination litükam
(to) illustrate magodön
illustration leigamagod (parable); magodam, magod
illwill nebenäl
image mag, magod
imagery magäl
imaginable datikovik, magovik
(to) imagine (something) magälön (bosi)
(to) imitate sümädön
to ape züpädön
imitation sümäd, sümädot, züpäd
immediately sunädo (= of time)
of space) = nemediko
immense levemik
immigrant nütevan
imminent sunokömöl
immobile nenmufik
immoderate nestönik
immodesty nepued
immortality nedeadöf
imp diabül
impaired dädik
imperfect defik; (grammar) = pasetatim
implant (medical) ninotian
implement stöm
impolite neplütik
(to) import (goods) nüveigön
important veütik
(to) impose (on) suseitön (su)
impossible nemögik
(to) impregnate prägenön
(to) impress (stamp) = stäpedön
(senses) = magädön (pö)
(on the mind) = stäpodön
impression stäpedot, magäd
impressive magädabik, magädafägik
(to) imprison fanäbükön
imprisonment fanäbam
improbable neluveratik
improper negidöfik
(to) improve gudikumön, gudükumön, menodön
improvement menod, gudükumam
impulse stigäd
in (place) = in
(time) = ün
inalienable nelovedutovik
inaudible nelelilovik
in-built ninedik
incalculable nekalkulovik
incapable nefägik
incessant laidulik, nenzedik
inch puid
incident jenot
incidental fädik
incidentally näio
incision ködet, kötädil
inclined (to) (disposed) = klienik
(to) include länumön, ninädön, ninükön
inclusion ninükam
inclusive of keninükamü...
income lemesed
incomparable nenleigodovik
inconceivable nesuemovik
inconsequent nekludöfik
inconvenience nekoveniäl
inconvenient nekoveniälik, neplidik, tupik
incorrigible neträitöfik
increase glof; glofön
pluikam; pluikön; pluükön
incredible nekredovik
incurable nesanovik
indebted debik
indecency nepued
indeed dido, jenöfo; jenöfö!
indefinable nefümükikün
indefinite nefümik
* to put off indefinitely = cögön dü tüp nefümik
independent livätik
indenture (apprentice's) taleab
indescribable nebepenovik
hindiarubber gum hindik
(to) indicate jonön
(to be) indifferent lindifön
* lindifos = it doesn’t matter
indignant leskanik
indignation leskan, sidin
indigo lindigot
indisposed (to) neklienik (ad)
indistinct nekleilik
indistinguishable nedistidik
(to) induce stigädön
inductor nidutian
indulgent dälälik
industrial dustodik
industrialist dustodan
industrious vobiälik, zilik
industry dustod, vobiäl, zil
ineffective nenvobedik
inefficient negidöfik
inevitably nevitoviko
inexhaustible nejafovik
inexpensive nejerik
inexperienced nenplakik
(to) infect näfätön
inferior bapik
infidel nenlekredik
(to) infiltrate nüdranön (ini)
infinity nenfinam
(to) inflate bladosvolükön
inflation (economics) niflat
influence flun; flunön
influential flunilabik
in folio (album) fliodabuk
(to) inform nunön
information (office) = nünamabür
informative nüniälik
ingenuous nüniälik
ingratitude nedanöf
(to) inhabit lödükön; pöpön (me)
inhabitant lödan
(to) inherit gerön
inheritance gerot
inheritor geran
(to) inject nüskutön
(to) injure dämükön, viodön
injury däm, viod
ink nig
inkjet (computer) nigaskutiär
inkwell nigiär
innate lönanatälik
inner ear lilamazän
innocence nedöb, nennefölot, nensin
innocent nedöbik, nennefölotik, nensinik
innumerable susnumik
inoffensive neskänik
(to) inquire säkön, seividon
inquirer säkölan, seividan
inquiry säk, seivid
inquiry office nünamabür
inquisitive noliälik, nulälik
insane lienetik
insect näsäk
insecure nesefik
(to) insert (into) nüpladön (ini); ninükön
insert ninädianil
inside nin, ninik, nino
* inside right (football player = nidetatatakan
insignificant pülik
(to make oneself insignificant) = blotükön (oki)
(the insignificant) = pül
(to) insist flagedön
(to) insist on one's own view = blibön su tikädöp okik
blibön pö ced okik
insistence laidäl
insomnia nenslip
insolence rog
insolent rogik
(to be) insolent rogön
insomniac nenslipan
(to) inspect dalogön
inspection dalogam
inspector dalogal
inspiration nügiv
instance (case) = jenet
(example) = sam
(occurrence) = stadät
* in the first instance = pö stadät balid
* at the instance of... = flagü
(to) install stitön
instantly sunädo
instead (preposition) = pla
(conjunction) = plas
* if I were you = if binoböv pla ol
instep (of shoe) gared
(to) instigate mufükön
instinctively klienälo
institute stitod
(to) instruct tidön
instruction lejonod, tid
instructive tidaliegik
instructor tidal
instrument stum
(to) insulate siolön
insult (le)nof; (le)nofön
insurance sur
(to) insure surön
intact nätik
intelligence sagat, vised
intelligent kapälik, sagatik, visedik
(to) intend desinön
intensity vemöf
intention desin
intercourse (sexual) kosäd (genik)
interest nited, nitedäl; nitedön, nitedälön (dö)
* (cash) interest = fien
interesting nitedik
interface (computer) = loveiköm
(physics) = kontagapün
(to) interfere vügolön (vü)
interference tup
interior (of country) nilän
internal ninik
* internal combusion = nifilükam
internet vüretod
to interpret (dreams, etc) plänädön
interpreter nätäpretan
(to) interrogate besäkön
(to) interrupt ropön
interruption rop
interval vütim
(to) interview bespikön
interviewee bespikäb
interviewer bespikan
intestine(s) ninäm(s)
intimate nätimik
into ini
(to be) intrigued trigön
intrinsic ninedik
(to) introduce nüdugön
* to introduce someone to someone else = jonodön
introductory nüdugik, nüdugöl
intruder dranädan
intrusive dranädik
intuition klienäl
(to) invade nütatakön
invariably nenpläoto
(to) invent datuvön
invention datuvot
inventor datuvan
(to) invest (money) dagebön (moni)
investigation vestig
(to) invigorate liföfükön
invisible nelogamovik
invitation vüd
(to) invite vüdön
(to) involve (in) tefön (pö)
iris lirid (of the eye and also flower)
iron (metal) = fer
(smoothing-iron) = smufükammafer; smufükön
(iron ore) = ferinamün
(cast iron) = gifafer
irreplaceable neplaädovik
irresistible netadunovik
irresolute nefümälik
(to) irritate lestigädön, skänön
(to become) irritated tirädikön, stigedön
island nisul
isolated soelölik
(to become) isolated soelikön
(to) issue dabükön
it on, os
item (single) balat, (written) = notet
itinerary tävadisin

jack (carraising device) = tovöm
jackal jakal
jacket jakät, yäk
jam kompot
janitor leyanan
jaw maxül
* the lower jaw = donamaxül
January yanul
javelin sped
javelin throw = spedijedam
jaw maxül
Jazz el “jazz”
jealous glötik, jaludik
jealousy jalud
jerk jok, jokül
jetpropelled skutilemofik
* a jet (aircraft) = skutaflitöm
a jumbo jet = leskutaflitöm
*** a jet (hose) = skutalavian
jewel bijut
jeweller bijutel
* a jeweller's shop = bijutel
jewellery bijutül, bijutüls
jigsaw puzzle koboyümükarät
job vob, vobod
(to) join yümön
xom and join us! = lükömolös lü obs!
joint yoin
joke cog; cogön
jolting jokam
journalist gasediman
journey täv; tävön
joy fred
jubilantly yöbölo
jubilee yubid
judge cödal; cödön
judgment cödot
jug luflad
juggler hestan
juice vaet
July yulul
(to) jump bunön
jump bugle
* high jump = geilotabunam
** long jump = fagotabunam
June yunul
juniper berry yunipabäl
just (fair) = gidik
(just now) = ebo
(scarcely) = töbo
(simply) = naedilo
justice gid
justification gitod
(to) jut out seädön
kangaroo kangur
kayak (boat) kayak
keen (sharp) = japik
(to) keep (maintain) = kipedön, laibinükön
(retain) = kipön
kelp varäk
kernel püt
kettle cafed
* a kettle drum = timpun
key kik (= for door); klav (= for musical keyboard)
key-hole kikahog
* key-hole surgery = dalukötetav
(to) key in klavön
kick tridod; tridodön
(to) kid (oneself) simulön (oki)
kiddie cilül
kidney roin
* kidney stone = roinaston
kidney bean vietabon
kilometre milmet
(to) kill deidön
kind (polite) = flenöfik
(kind-hearted) = gudälik, löföfik
(one kind of) = balsotik
(any kind of) = seimik
(all kinds of) = alseimik, alsotik
(category) = sot
king hireg, reg
kiss kid; kidön
kitchen kvisinöp
knave (of hearts) köraman
knee kien
knickers sleafablit
knife neif
knight kavidan
(to) knit trikön
* a knitting needle = trikanad
(to) knock nokön
knob gnob
knot snob; snobön
(to) know nolön, sevön
(to get to) know sevädön
(to make) known notükön
knowledge kesev, nol
known sevädik, lesevädik
knuckle maleol
laboratory sperimäntöp
laborious vobiälik
labour vob, vobod
* hard labour = mütavob
labourer voban
labyrinth labüren
lace led
lack def, nelab; defön, nelabön
ladder xänöm
lady läd
lake lak
lamb jipül
lamp lampad, lantär (= decorative)
lance sped
(to) land (on shore) = jilön; (aviation) = jolön
* an emergency landing = ditretajolam (aviation)
landowner länedal
landscape länod
lane lusüt
language (phrasing) = fraseod
(community) = pük
(expression) = spikamamod
laphund vümadog
larder viktualacem
large gretik
lark (bird) = laud
larynx larin
laser laser
last lätik, lätiko; dulon
* at last = fino
** last of all = lätiküno
*** to last (for) = dulön (dü) (= duration)
last night äneito
last week ävigo
lasting dulik
late (tardy) = latik, lato
* late-lamented = büätan
** at the latest = lätiküno
lather sobasköm
lattice laed
(to) laugh (at) smilön (dö)
laughter smil
* a burst of laughter = smilarorül
laundry (place) = lavastitod
(washing) = lavastofädem, lavod
(to) launch lejedön
launching pad (rocketry) = lejedöp
lava lavat
lavatory (general) = tvalet
(on bus, trains) = prifet
lavatory pan = tvaletabasin
law lon, lonem
* by law = lono
** a lawsuit = gitädasäkäd
*** father-in-law, mother-in-law = lüfat, lümot
lawn yebafeled
lawsuit cödäd
lawyer lavogan
(to) lay (with concrete, etc) beseitön
(to) lay (railway line, garden) meikön
layer (thin) jüd
laziness trög
lazy trögik
(to) lead dugön, stirikön (steer)
lead (metal) = plumb, plumbin
leaden plumbik
leader dugan
leaf bled
leafless nenbledik
leaflet bledil
* pamphlet = pämod
leafy bledagik
league fed
* to be in league with / against = fedön (ko / ta)
lean (not fat) = mägik
(to) lean klivön
* to lean against = stutön (ta)
(to) leap bunön
leap-year vüpladotayel
(to) learn lärnön, lelilön
learning nol
least nemu, pu
at least = nemuiko
leather kürbv
leave (armed services) livod
(to) leave lüvön
* (to) leave (behind) = posbinükön
** to take leave (of) = ditön (de)
lecture komoreid; spikäd
(to) lecture komoreidön, spikädön
leek porud
left nedetik
* on the left = nedeto
leg lög
legation legät
legend konäd
leisure livüp
lemon zitron
lemonade limonad
(to) lend s.th. to s.o. prünön (eke bosi)
length (geographical) = lunet
(spatial) = lunot
(to) lengthen lunükön
lenient dälälik
lens (eye) lentül
* contact lense(s) = kontagalentül(s)
lentil lentül
leper lepradan
leprosy leprad
less nepluik, läs, neplu
* less and less = ai neplu
lesson lärnod
lest dat no...
(to) let (lease) = bailön (eke bosi); leadön + infinitive (to allow)
* let us go! = golobsöd!
letter (communication) = pened
(of alphabet) = tonat
letter-box penedabog
lettuce salad
level nivät, nivod
level-crossing (railway) = trenavegamöp
lever tovian, tovömatig (= arm)
lexeme vödät
(to) liaise (with) baiodön (ko)
liar lugan
liberal veitacedik
liberation libükam
liberty lib
library bukem
licence (driving) toodamazöt
(to) lick läkön
lid tegot
(to) lie down; (lay, lain) seatön
lie lug; lugön
lieutenant liötan
life lif
* a way of life = züäd
lifeboat savabot
lift lift; tovön
light (to ignite) = filidön
(not heavy) = leitik
(not dark) = klilik
(traffic light) = maletalit
lighter filidöm
lightning leklär
lighthouse far, maletamatüm
like (similar, same) = sümik, ot
(to like) = löfilön, plidön
(preposition) = äs
likewise leigo
lilac süren
lily lel
lily of the valley mügät
lime svidalelmun; tiliad (fruits); zem
limit mied; miedükön
(to) limp boatagolön, lemülön
line (clothes) = jain
(fishing) = lefad
(written) = lien
* on the lines of = prinsipü
linen stofädem, linumastof, linumik
lining furot
link liud (= connection); yumädalim (= mechanical); vüyümäd
(to) link kedülön; yumädön
linoleum linkrust
lion leon
* a sea lion = leonatoar
lip lip
lipstick lipastafül
liqueur likör
liquid (liquid body) = flumot
(not solid) = flumöfik
liquorice likvir, likvirod
(to) lisp säyön
list lised; lisedön
(to) listen dalilön
listener dalilan
literate nolik
literary literatavik
literature literatav
litter defal
(small animals) = nimül(s)
little nemödik, smalik, boso, nemödo
* little by little = pianiko
(to) live lifön, lödön
(to) live on (= without end) lailifön
livelihood kosid
liver (anatomy) = foad
livestock nimed
living kosid
to make a living = kosidön
load fled, fledot, lodot
(to) load fledön, lodön
fledülön (a gun)
loan, to loenön
(to) lobotomize (in brain operation) löbidakötön
lobster humar
local topik
locality topam
(to) locate pladön
lift bor to be located = topön
a location = topam
lock klut (= nautical) lök (= in door)
(to) lock färmükön löko, färmükön me lök
locomotive lemüf
lodger loatan
(to) log in (computers) nunädön oki
(to) log out (computers) senunädön oki
logical tikavik
lollipop sugadaifet
long lunik
longboat jalup
* so long as = ün tim, das; sovüo jüs
longer lunikum
(to) long for desirön, ledesirön
look loged; logedön
(to look like) = logotön; (to look forward to) = fredo koslogön
look-out selogam; galädöp (= building)
(to) loosen livükön
(to be) loose livön
loosely slobiko
lorry fledatood, fledavab
(to) lose perön
* to lose the way = pölavegön
loss per
(thing lost) = perot
* lost = peperöl
lot (destiny) = fät
everything) = lemöd
lottery chit) = loterazöt
loud laodik
louse puf
love löf, lelöf; löfön, lelöfön
a loved one = löfäb
to fall in love (with) = lelöfädikön (dö)
low (not high) = lövik
lower (primary) school = donajul
(to) lower donükön
loyal ritöfik
loyalty ritöf
(to) lubricate leülön, smivön
luck läb
lucky läbik
luggage päkem
* Left Luggage Office = päkemikipedöp
** luggage compartment = päköp
lukewarm vamülik
lunch koled
(to have) lunch koledön
lung lueg
(to) lust rütön
lustre nid
luxurious lüxüödik
luxury lüxüöd
lychee (= fruit) licid
lyingplace seatöp
lymph (gland) lümf
macabre ledredodik
machine cin
mackerel skomb
mad lienetik
magazine gased
magic magiv
* to practise magic = magivön
magician magivan
magistrate cödan
magnanimous nobaladälik
magneto magnet
magnitude (maths) = greted
magnolia (tree) magnol
mahogany mahun
maiden jipul, jivirgan, vomül
mail pot; potön
main cifa..., cifik
mainland cifalän
mainly ledino
mains (connection) dugian
(to) maintain (an opinion, theory) dakipön
maize mait
majestic mayedik
majesty mayed
major mayor, gretikum
majority (adulthood) = nentüt
(greater number) = plunum
(to) make fabrikön, mekön
(to make up a bed) = leblimön
male manik
malefactor mifätan
mallow maluv
mammal süganim, sügaf
man (masculine) = man, himen
(people) = men, mens
(species) = menabidäd
(to) man (ship) = skipön
(to) manage (to master) = bemastön
(to direct) = dilekön
(to lead) = dugön)
(to suceed) = plopön ad dunön
(to deal with) = träitön
(to do something) = reafön
manager büsidacif, dilekan
mandolin mandolin
mania lienet
(to) manipulate tolatön
manner(s) (chivalry) = leplüt
methods) = mods
mores) = süds
manor (house) lesiöradom
manufacture fabrikam, fabrikot
(to) manufacture fabrikön
manuscript namapenäd
many mödik
how many? = liomödotik?)
map kaed
marathon marat
marble glöpil, maboin (= material)
march malek; malekön
* march in musical notation = maleküm
March (month) = mäzul
margarine margarin
marjoram mäyoram
mark (currency) = mak
(emblem) = mäk; mäkön
(sign) = mal; malön
(schoolwork) = penet
* good/bad mark = beopenet/mipenet
** mark my words! = küpädolöd vödis oba!
(to) mark mäkön
marked (observable) = küpidik
market maket
supermarket = susmaket
marriage mat
(to) marry matükön (eki)
to get married matikön (ko)
(bone) marrow pif
Mars Mard
marsh maräd
martyr martüran
marvel milag, stunidot; stunön
marvellous milagik
marzipan masapen
mask maskar
mass (quantity of material) = masat
(religious ceremony) = mäsäd
(a great deal) = mödot
(to) massage masetön, röbön
masseurmasseuse hi/jimasetan
mast (ship's) = maat
master mastan; bemastön
masturbation masturbat
mat (of straw) stolajuged
mate (= pal) keolan
match (for striking) = lümät
(competition) = mät
* to be a match for = plobön (pro)
matchless (without equal) = neleigodovik
(to) mate koitön (ko)
material mater
mathematician matematan
matter din, stöf
it doesn't matter = lindifos
mattress matrad
maximum, maximal muik
* to the maximum = muiko
maze pölagad
May mayul
Mayonnaise mäyonäd
mayor sifal
maxim prinsip
meadow bälät, yebalän
meal (general) = fidäd
(dinner) = fided
(evening meal) = säned
(flour) = meil
* a meal time = fidüp
mean (average) = zäned
(centre) = zänod
(to) mean (opine) = cedön
(to intend) = diseinön
(lowly) = bapälik
(to be) mean negiviälik
meaning siämöf
means (income, salary) = lemesed
(by means of...) = medü...
means to an end) = medöm
meantime (in the) vüo
measles misul
measure maf; (device) = mafetöm
(to) measure mafön
meat mit
mechanic mufavan
media nünamakanädem
medical sanavik
* medical man = sanan
medicine (remedy) = medin, sanamed
(science) = sanav
mediocre zänedöfik
Mediterranean Zänodamel
medlar (tree) mäspil
medium zänedik
(to) meet kolkömön
meeting (assembly) = kobükam
melancholy glumaladäl
melody melod
melon melun
(to) melt smetön, smeitön
member lim, liman
membership limedükam, limanam
memory mem
menagerie nimikonlet
(to) mend (patch up) = nägedön
(restore, heal) = nätükön
meninges menen
mental tikälik
(to) mention mäniotön
menu fidädakad (= menu d'hote) zibalised (= à la carte)
merchant tedan
merciful miserik
merciless nenmiserik
mercury (substance) = märkurin
mercy miser
mere te
merit meritab; meritön
mermaid sären
merriment lefred
merry lefredik
merry-making yof
message nun
(a text message = vödanunil)
messager, instant sunädanunükian
messenger nunan
metal metal
metallic metalik
metempsychosis dönukopam
method metod
metodical metodavik, metodik
methodology metodav
metric metik
* metric system = metöf
metrology metöfav, metrigav
micrococcus kök
microcosm daluval
microscope daluskop
microwave mikrovef
* microwave oven = mikrovefafurnod
midday zedel
middle zänod
midfield (football) zefel
* midfield player = zerönan
midnight zeneit
midsummer zehitüp
might nämäd
mighty nämädik
(to) migrate (se)tevön
mild fiböfik, sofik
mile liöl
military militik
militia sifanakomipanef
milk milig
* milk shake = miligamigot
** milkbar = miligasälun
(to) milk tätön
milk tooth miligatut
mill mül
miller mülan
million balion
millionaire balionan
millstone mülaston
mind (reason) = tikäl
take to heart) = kälälön
occupied with) = jäfikön me
call to mind) = süvokön
frame of mind) = ladälod
(presence of mind) = süen
(to change one’s mind) = votacedikön
mine meinäd
miner meinan
mineral min
* mineral water = minavat
miniature miniatürik
(to) minimize nemuükön
minimum, minimal nemuik
mining meinav
minibar bötädil
miniskirt brefajuüp
minister (politics) = ministeran
(religion) = pastan
department) minister
minority neplunum
mint mänt (= plant ); mint (= money)
(to) mint (money) frapön
minute (time) minut
miracle milag
a miracle worker = milagidunan
mirage magälod
mirror lok; lokö* a mirror image = lokamamagod
(to) misbehave mikondötön
misbehaviour mikondöt
(to) miscalculate pölakalkulön
mischief-maker jäpülan
mischief (a little child) put
mischievous badöfafredik
mischievousness badöfil
miser lavaran
miserable miserabik
misgiving(s) dod
(to) mispronounce mipronön
(to) miss (not hit) = nedrefön; (miss out) = seletön
miss lädül, vomül
(to) miss (= neglect) lustebedön (= neglect); senön nekomi (= to miss someone)
we miss her = senobs nekomi ofa.
missionary lekredanasedäb
mist fog
* evening mist = soaravoal
mistake (oversight) = pök; pökön
(error) = pöl; pölön
* to mistake for = pölacedön (äs)
mistress jimastan
misuse migeb
(to) misuse migebön
(to) mix migön
to mix up together = pemükön
to mix (= socialize) with = sogön (oki lä)
mixed pemigöl
mixer (food) = migöm
mixture migot
mobile golovik, vabovik
** a mobile ('phone) = telefon polovik
mockery kof
mockingly lukofo
model pated, samot
* to model oneself on . . . = magulön oki su . . .
moderate tämik; tämükön
moderation täm
modern nulädik, nutimik
modest neflagiälik, pülik
modesty neflagiäl
moisture luimöf
molasses melat
mole (animal) = talp
moment pülatimil, timül
Monday mudel
money mon
monk hikleudan
monkey lep
monopoly monopul
monster most
monstrous mostöfik
month mul
monthly almulik
monument mebamal
mood vim
* good/bad mood = benovim/mivim
moon mun
* full moon = fulamun
moral südöfik
morality südöf
more plu
* more and more = ai plu
** more or less = pluneplu
(the) more ... (the more) plü ... plü
moribund deadöl
morose favik, skanik
morosely faviko, skano
the more . . . . the more plü . . . . plü
moreover zuo
morning göd
morrow odel
morsel daifotil
mosquito muskit
moss musk
most mu
mostly mödadilo
mother jipal, mot
motion muf
* to motion by hand = vinegön
motionless nenmufik
moth neitapab
* clothes moth = tarm
motor motor, mufükian; vabön
motorbike motorasaikul
motorway toodaleveg
motto devid
mountain bel
(to) mourn (s.o.) belügön (eki)
mouse mug
(computer) = mugaparat
moustache bafod, mustag
mouth mud
* mouth of river = seflum
(to) move (state) = mufön
(budge) = müfön
(move house) = fealotedön
(move on [from one place to another] = topätikön
(move (something/someone from one place to another) = topätükön
(emotionally) = fäkikön, fäkükön
movement muf
movie (cinema) biologamot
(to) mow fodön
mower fodian
* lawn mower = yebifodian
Mr. Söl
Mrs. Läd
much mödo, mödik
much more = mödo mödikumo
mucous membrane slimaflid
mucus slim
mud släm
muddy slämik
mulled wine glutavin
mule mulud
multiplication naedot
(to) multiply (maths) = naedön
(to) mumble murülön, stötön
murder sasen; sasenön
murderer sasenan
murderous sasenik
(to) murmur mürön
muscle muskul
museum mused
mushroom garid, jaben
fungus = funig
music musig
musical instrument = musigöm
sheet) music - noated, noatem
musician musigan
mussel koananim, müul
mustard mutar
mutual rezipik, kobädik
mutton hojipamit
muzzle lemudiär
mysterious müsterik, klänöfik
mystery müster, rätöf
mythology miteolocia

nail nail, kluf; klufön
* a finger/toenail = nuel
naked nüdik
name nem; nemön
nape (of neck) nük
napkin särvät
narcissus narzid
narrator konan
narrow (tight) = nabik
(roads, lanes) = rovik
(thinness) = rovik
nation net
national netik
ational ociaism aziism) = Netasogädim
nationality netät
native (born and bred) = länan, lomänan
(native land) motedalän
* patriot = lomänälan
natural natik, natöfik
naturalist nativestigan
nature nat, natäl
naughty neplütülik
nausea tufav
navel numbril
navy (fleet) = nafem
(colour) = maren
near nilo, nilü
neat klinik, plitülik
nebula silefog
necessary zusüdik
necessity zesüd
neck nük, särvig
neckerchief tanod
need neodot; nedön, neodön
needle nad
needlework namavob (vomik)
negative noik
(to) neglect nedemön, nedunön, nefölön, nekälön
negligence nekäl
negligible neledamabik
negro nägär
neighbour nilädan
neighbourhood niläd
neighbouring nilädik
neither ... nor ni ... ni
nephew hinef
nerve norve
* nervous system = nevasitot
nervous närvodik; plafik
nest näst; nästön
(to) nestle nästülön (len)
net filät
network filäts, resod
neuron (motor) nevasiül
neutered penegenüköl
never neföro, neai, nonikna
nevertheless too
new nulik
news nulods, nuns
newspaper delagased
newt salmun
next mu nilü
* next coming = okömöl
** next week = ovigo
*** next to each other = bal len votik
nice (good-looking) = jönik
(disposition) = plitälik
(neat, smart) = plitülik
(well-behaved) = söto
nickname länem; zanädanem (abusive)
nicotine nikotin
niece jinef
night neit
nightingale reitak
nine zül
(to) nip knibön
nipple blötatät
no! (denial) = nö!
no longer no fovo, no plu
nobility noub
noble (worthy) = nobik
(aristocracy) = noubik
nobleman nouban
nod (of the head) nut
(to) nod one's head (in agreement) nutön
noise lenoid
nomad nomad
(to) nominate cälön
nonsense nesiäm
none nonik
noodle pested
noon zedel
nor: neither ... nor ni ... ni
norm nom
normal nomik
north nolüd
northern nolüdik
nose nud
nostalgia pasetaledesir
nostril nudahog
not no
* not even = igo no...
** not at all = leno
*** not yet = no nog
notary notaran
note (musical) = noat
(short) note) = penet, penetil
(counterfoil) = zöt
* a short letter= penedil
** to (take) note = penetön
notebook päm, penetabukil
nothing nos
(absolutely nothing) = lenos
Inothing else) = nos plu
notice (information) = nun
(warning) = nuned
(note) = penet
(observe) = küpedön
noticeable küpedovik, sienovik
notion suemod
novel lekoned
novelist lautan lekonedas
novelty nuläd
November novul
now nu
* nowadays = nutimo
** now and then = semikna
*** just now = enu
nowhere neseimo
nucleus ker, püt
nude (model) nudädan
nuisance bölad
numb pesäsienüköl, sorditik (figuratively)
number (quantity) = num
(in series) = nüm
numerate nümädik
numerous mödik
numismatics könädav
nun jikleudan
nurse (nursery nurse) = cilijikälan
(in hospital) = jikälan
(wet nurse) = sügan
(to) nurse kälön
nursery (plants) = planidabridöp
(infants) = putacem
nut nöt
nutmeg muskat
nylon (fabric) nailon

oak (tree) kvärep
oar gub
oasis loasid, vasov
oatmeal grot
oats vaen
obedient lobedik
(to) obey lobedön
object (thing) = yeg
(to object) = taspikülön, taön (ta)
objection taspikül
(to) oblige bligön
oblong lunädik
observance küped
observation küpedot
observatory küpedöp
(to) observe küpedön
observer küpedan
obstacle neletian
obstinate fümädik
(to) obstruct neletön
(to) obtain dagetön
obvious klülabik
occasion pöt
(on the occasion of = pötü)
occasional semiknaik
occupant beseidan
occupation (in occupation) = beseid, bepladam
(profession) = cal
occult koult
(to) occupy beleseatön, bepladön, beseidön
occupation febod
(to) occur jenön
occurrence jenot
ocean sean
octavo (page size) jölplifätik
October tobul
octopus polüd
odd bisarik, neteldilovik
oddity bisar
oesophagus söof
oestrogen löstrogenin
of de
off de
offence nof, skän
(to) offend nofön, skänön
offender nofan
offensive skänik, tatakalebit
offer lofot; lofön
office (room) = bür, büröp
(position) = cal
(head office) = lebür
officer (military) = fizir
official calan, calöfik
officious ticalöfik
often suvo
oh! o !
oil leül; leülön
* an oil and viinegar set = leülevinigalöläd
** hair oil = pin
ointment nugvet
old (age) = bäldik
(not fresh) = neflifedik
(old) = vönedik
(ancient) = vönik
old-fashioned vönädavogädik
olive learafluk
olive oil learaleül
olive tree lear
omelette moelät
omen mimalaloged
omission moäd, nedun
ominously mimaliko
(to) omit moädön, nedunön, seletön
on su
on top of = löpü
once (one time) = balna
one (numeral) = bal
(s.o.) = balan, ek
(pronoun) = oy
onion beb
only (sole) = balik
(mere) = te
(is only) = pas
onslaught tutatak
opal poalain, poaloin
) opalise poalön
open maifik; maifükön; (to open a book) = maipadön
opening maifod, slit
(to) operate (vehicle, etc) tölatön
operation kötet (surgical); tölat (general)
opium mäkun
opinion ced
* a general opinion = levalidaced
opportune koveniälik, pötik
opportunity pöt gönik
(to) oppose tadunün, taön, tapladön
opposite (facing) = kos
(contrary) = taik
(to) oppress sumätükön
optician lünavan
optimism fredim
optimist frediman
optimistic fredimik
or u, ud, ü, üd
* either ... or = u ... u; ü ... ü
oracle roag
orange (colour) = rojanik
(fruit) = rojat
oration spikäd
orbit zümuf
orchid lorkid
order (command) = büd; büdön
(subscription) =leboned; lebonedön
(arrangement) = leod; leodön
(goods) = bonedön
(of numbers) = söket
ordinary (usual) = geböfik
(common) = komunik
(customary) = kösömik
ore mün
* iron ore = ferinamün
ordinary komunik, kösömik
organ (animal/plant) = jäfidäm
(human) part) = jäfidan
(journal), etc.) = jäfidot
(musical instrument) = gel
(to play the organ) = gelön
organic jäfidämik
organization noganükam
organism nogan
organist gelan
(to) organize noganükön
orgasm sömitamapün
origin rig
original rigädik, rigik
(to) originate davedön, davedükön
ornithologist bödavan
ostrich strut
other votik
otherwise pläo
out de, dese, se
outburst rupäd, splodül
outcast deimäb
outer plödik
outline skät; züliun
(to) outline skätön
in outline = skäto
(to) outlive lovelifädön
(to) outshine lestralön (love)
outside plödo, plödü
* an outsider = foginan
outspread stäänik
outstanding lelogädik (= very noticeable); pelabik (= due for payment)
outstretched petenüköl
outward plödik
oven furnod
over love, sus
* over there = usio
overall valodik
overbalance pluvät; dofalön
overcast (weather) = glumidik, lefogik
* to become overcast (mentally) = glumikön
overcoat plögun, plömäned
(to) overcome bemastikön
overdue tulatik
overenthusiasm tuzil
(to) overexert tutöbidön
overflow loveflum, tuvatam;
loveflumön, tuvatön
(to) overlook neküpön
overpopulated tupöpagik
overproduction tujafäd
(to) overrate tudigidön
overseas lovemelik
(to) overshadow lovejadön
overstatement tuükam
(to) overstate tuükön
(to) overstrain tutöbidön
(to) overtake reivön
overture (music) primüm
overweight pluvät
overwhelming nespalik
(to) owe (money) = debetön
(someone something) = debön (eke bosi)
owl lül
own (one's) = lönik; dalabön
owner dalaban
ox hobub
oxygen loxin
oyster hüit

pack päk
(to) pack päkön
packet päkil
page pad
a double page = telpad
pain dol
(to) pain (= hurt) dolön
painful dolik
paint kölam
(to) paint kölön
to paint on canvas = pänön
paintbrush pensit
painter (house) = kölan
(artist) = pänan
painting pänot
pair pär; pärükön
pal keolan
palace ledom, regadom
palate palat
palate (soft) müdapalat
pale faalik, paelik
(to) become pale paelikön
palm (tree) = pam
(of hand) = namakev
palmistry namabüosag
pan paäl
pancake paänakek
pancreas (gland) pankreat
panel fremül
(to) panic tudredälön
panorama banorem
pansy kilkölaviol
panties niblit
pantry viktualacem
pants niblit
paper (newspaper) = delagased
(ordinary) = papür
(wallpaper) = tapot
(to) paper (wallpaper) = tapön
papyrus papürod
parachute falajelöm
parade päräd
paradox taced
paraffin parafin
paragon dasaman
paragraph bagaf
parallel fagotaleigik
paralysis lem; paralüd
paraphrase prafad
parasite parasit
parcel (ordinary) = päked
(small) = päkedil, päkil
pardon pard, säkusad; pardön, säkusadön
parent(s) pal(s)
parish (area) pädän
park legad, parköp (= for vehicles)
parliament dail
parlour lomöfacem
parrot papag, psitak
(to) parse (grammar) miedetön
parsley pärjid
part dil, dilot; dilön
* part in a play = roul
** to take part (in) - kompenön (pö)
(to) participate (in) kompenön (pö)
particular patik
parting (of hair) heremiteil
partition kiud
* partition of staves = stafädakiud
partly dilo
partner (in firm) kompenätan
partridge pädrit
patriotism lomänäl
(many) parts kombinator
party (faction) = palet; social gathering = zälül
(to) pass beigolön, beivegön
(to) pass on lovestürön
passenger tävan
passer-by beian
Passion (of Christ) Lügadramat
passion (sexual) levip
passionately lefäkiko
passive (grammar) sufalefom
passport dientifäd, tävapäs
past (time) = paset, pasetik
pastime livüp
pasture bälätöp
patella patel
patent (shoes) laigaküir
path luveg
patio gadapiadil
patient (person) = malädan
(long-suffering) = sufädik
patriotism lomänäl
patrol patrul
pause paud; paudön
(to) pave pavön
* to pave the way = kulön vegi
pavement pavot, pärunaveg
paw (of animal) = lufut
(to) pawn panön
(to) pay pelön
payment pel, pelam
pea pisäl
peace püd
peach pärsig
peanut raagid
pear bün, guayad, vaogad (= avocado)
pearl pärlat
* mother-of-pearl = nakar
peasant feilan
peat torf
peculiar patik
peculiarity pat
pedal tridöm
(to) pedal tridön
peddler kolportan
pedestrian futogolan
peel säjalam
(to) peel säjalön
(to) peep (at) sülogedön
* a peep - hole = logedahog
pelican pelek
pelt (= animal skin) pläd
pen pen
penalty (death) deadapönod
pence pänid(s)
pencil stib
pencil sharpener stibijapüköm
pendulum pendül
peninsula tinisul
penniless nenmonik
penguin pinguen
pensioner pänsionäb
penis koitöm
people (persons) = mens
one) = oy
(community) = pöp
pepper kapsig (= Spanish pepper plant); pep (= general)
a pepper pot = pepiär
(to) perceive küpön, sienön
per cent dötum
percentage dötumanum
perception küp, sienam
perch bemül
perchance fädiko
perfect nedöfik, nendöfik
(to) perforate hogön
(to) perform (to do) = dunön
(achieve) = ledunön
(present) = plösenön
performance (theatre, etc.) = plösen
performer plösenan, roulan
perfume benosmelot
perhaps ba
period period
periodical gased, timapenäd, periodik
permanent laidik
permanently laidiko, laidio
permission däl
(to) permit dälön, leadön (+ infinitive)
pernicious rübüköl
perpetuation laidulükam
(to be) perplexed bluvön
(to) persecute pöjutön
persecution pöjutam
perseverence laidäl
persimmon plakminep (tree); plakminepafluk (fruit)
(to) persist laidulön
person pösod
* a (certain) person = seman
** any person = seiman
personal pösodik
personality pösodöf
personnel (= staff) pösodef
(to) persuade süadükön
persuasion süad, süadükam
pessimism badim
pessimist badiman
pessimistic badimik
pet nimül
petal petiol
petrol bänsin
* petrol tank = bänsinacub
** petrol consumption = bänsinifegeb
*** petrol station = bänsinöp
petroleum petrol
petticoat nijuüp
petty (to be - about) demilön (dö)
perverse rübälik
phalanx doatabomil
pharmacist pötekan
pharynx farin
phase stadäd
phenomenon maged
philosophy filosop
photograph fotografot
photographer fotografan
photography fotograf
phrase (turn of) fraseod
phrenology frenolog
physical kopik
* physical training = koapiskilükam, turav
physics füsüdav
physiotherapist füsiolekälan
pianist pianodan
piano pianod
* a grand piano = göbapianod
** to play the piano = pianodön
*** a piano-accordeon = pianodaharmonöm
(to) pick (pluck) = plökön
(pick up) = lasumön
* (rich) pickings = pisälabemül
pickaxe tipotacop
picnic pignig
(to) picnic pignigön
picture (illustration) = magod
(painting) = pänot
(portrait) = pöträt
pie (pastry) = bastet
fruit pie) = flukatoed
piece balat, kötot
pier melajetet, melapon
(to) pierce dadranön
pig svin
pigeon pijun
pike (fish) = paik
pill (medication, in strip) (tanoteda)pilul
pillow kapakusen, bedakusen
pillowcase kapakusener
pilot stirädan
pin peän; peänön
pinafore bavet
(to) pinch knibön
pine (tree) pein
pineapple nanad
pincer(s zäp
pink (flower) = diant
(colour) = redülik
pipe (tobacco) = pip
(water, etc.) = rüd
pirate melaravan, piratan
pity pid; pidön
pizza el pizza
place plad, top; pladön, topön
* to take place = jenön
plaice (fish) = veitafit
plain (location) = plen, kamalän
(level) = plenöfik
(clear) = kleilik
(smooth) = smudik
plait (of hair) flökot
plan (intention) = desin; desinön
(aim) = disein; diseinön
(sketch) = disin; disinön
'plane (aeroplane) = flitöm
planet planet
plant plan; planön
plaster (to cover wound) mäplat
plastic plastätik
plate boved
platform (railway) = xänakäv
play pled; pledön
pleasant blesirik
please! begö!
(to) please plidükön, plitön
pleasure blesir, yof; yofön
* a pleasure yacht = blesirayakt
pleated plifädik
plenty bundan, bundanik
* in plenty = bundano
pliers zäp
plough plaud: plaudön
(constellation) = sigretaber
ploughman plaudan
plug buon (= for sink); kontagabuonäd (= electrical)
bujid (= a sparking plug)
plum plöm
plumber rüdan
(to) plunder beravön
(to) plunge blunön
plush trib
Pluto Plutun (dwarf planet)
pneumonia luegaflamat
pocket pok; pokön
poem poedot
poetic poedik
poetry poedav
point (dot) = pün
(sharp end) = tipot
(point of view) = leced
(to make pointed) = tipükön
(to be on the point of doing something = primikön ad)
pointed tipik
poison venen; venenön
poisonous venenik
poker (for fire) = lefilahuk
pole staf
* pole vault = bunstafabunam
** north / south pole = nolüda- / sulüdapov
police (force) = poldanef
policeman poldan
police station poldabür
policy dunamod
(to) polish lekluinön, smufetön
polite plütik
politeness leplüt; plüt;
political bolitik
politics bolit
(to) pollute miotükön
pollution miotükam
polyanthus primul
polyp polip
polyphony (music) mödavög
polytheism mödagod
pomegranate granat
pomp lumagif
pond lulak
(to) ponder ninälön
pool fiv
* swimming pool = svimöp
poor pöfik
poppy pop
popular brafik, pöpedik, pöpätik
population pöp
poplar (tree) plop
popularity pöped, pöpät
(to) populate pöpön
population pöp
populous pöpagik
porcelain bösin
porch yal
pork svinamit
port (seaport) = pof
(spirit) = portvin
porter päkemipolan
portfolio map
portion dilod
portly (gait) klöpöfik
(to) pose in the nude nudädön
position (in society) = sogät
(general) = stad
(army) = leseatöp
positive (electrical) = positik; (outlook) = siik
(optimistic) = siik
positively siämo
(to) possess dalabön
* to take possession of = labedön
possibility mög
possible mögik
* as much as possible = mögiküno
possibly bo
post (workplace) = bür
(job) = cal, calül
(mail) = pot; potön
(postbox) = penedabog
(stake) = stafäd
postage potamon
postcard potakad
postman penediblinan
post office potöp
pot skal
potato pötet
potentate nämädan
potential mögod
potter skalel
pound paun
(to) pour (cast) = gifön
(drinks) = nügifön
(rain etc.) = stürön
(pour out emotions) = sestürön
(to) pout prulön
poverty pöf
powder (gunpowder) = pur
(toiletry) = puin
power nämäd, lektinanäm (= electrical)
powerless nenämik
(to be) practicable pötöfön
practical plagik, pötöfik
practice (acquiring skills) = okskilükam
(actually doing) = plag
(not theory) = pläg
(to) practise plagön, plägön
(to) praise lelobön
praiseworthy lelobabik
(to) prattle kagön
prawn krevát
(to) pray plekön
(to) preach predön
preacher predan
(to) precede befoön, fogolön
(without) precedent nensamik
precisely ebo
precinct (pedestrian) = futagolanazon
(shopping) = selidöpazän
precious jeragik
precipice kliv
precise kuratik
predator ravanim
predecessor fogolan
(to) prefer buön, buükön
preferably buikumo, buo
pregnant grodik
* a pregnant woman = jigrodan
prejudice bücödot, bümicödot; bücödön
(to) prejudice bümicödön
prematurely tusuniko
(to) prepare blümükön, mökön, preparön
preparedness (mental) gespiköf
preparation (medical) mökot
(to) prescribe büdülön
prescription rezäp
prerequisite bümal; büostip
(in the) presence (of) komü, lo
present (gift) = legivot; legivön, lofön
(place) = komik
(time) = presenik