objects; ratni, gradu, gusni, nejni, linji))
kanxa’u xa1 = k1 is a roommate of/lives with
k2 at location/habitat/nest/home/abode x3 =
kanxe [kax] x1 is a conjunction, stating that x2
(du’u) and x3 (du’u) are both true. (See also vlina.)
kapcikna cikna1 = skapi2 experiences goose
kapkevna k1 is a skin pore of
pelt/skin/hide/leather k2 = s1 from x3 = s2. (Cf.
nazbi, pilka, xasne.)
kapsiku x1 is a chili/bell pepper (Capsicum) of
species/variety x2. (cf. cpina, spatrpiperi, tamca,
patlu, tanko, mlongena)
kapxra x1 = p1 is a tattoo/body
art/brand/[image on the body] depicting x2 = p2
on animal/body part x3 = s2 made by artist
x4 = p3 (Cf. skapi, pixra.)
karbi [kab] x1 [observer] compares x2 with
x3 in property x4 (ka), determining comparison
x5 (state). (See also klani, mapti, sarxe, zmadu,
mleca, dunli.)
karce x1 is a car/automobile/truck/van [a
wheeled motor vehicle] for carrying x2, propelled
by x3. (See also carce, xislu, marce, sabnu.)
karcutci c1 is a sandal for protecting feet c2, and
of material c3. (Cf. tupcutci, smoka.)
karcycelxa’i x1 = c1 = k2 is a self-propelled
artillery gun for use against x2 by x3, launching
projectile c2 propelled by c3. (Cf. karce, cecla,
xarci, xumjimcelxa’i, gutyjamkarce, xiljamkarce,
karcycelxa’i, sorjaknykarce.)
karda x1 is a card [small nearly-2-dimensional
shape/form] of material x2, shape x3. ((x3 shape
default rectangular); See also matci, tapla, plita.)
karfigre f1 is in the genus Dorstenia, species f2
kargau g1 opens portal/passage/entranceway
k1, permitting access to k2 by k3. (Cf. kalri, gasnu,
kargu x1 (object/commodity/property/event)
is costly/expensive/dear to x2 by standard x3.
(x1 may be a specific object, a commodity
(mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for
objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from
ownership of the object/commodity (= poskargu
for unambiguous semantics). See also vamji,
dirba, vajni, jdima, pleji, canja, jerna, jinga, jemna,
sfasa, vecnu.)
karkade x1 is hibiscus of species/variety x2.
karkaju k1 is a wolverine of variety k2.
karli x1 is a collar/ring/belt/band
around/surrounding x2 made of material x3.
(Also sphincter. See also sruri, djine.)
karni x1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/[newspaper] with
content x2 published by x3 for audience x4. (x2
may be a subject, but not all journals have a single
subject; all have some sort of principle defining
what is included, so this need not be a list. See
also papri, pelji, tcidu.)
karnyke’u x1 is the x3’rd issue/number of
journal/periodical/magazine/publication x2
with content x4 published by x5 for audience x6 .
karpo’ijbe j1 = k3 hatches from eggshell j2 =
p1 = k1 (kalri+porpi+jbena This is based on the lujvo karpo’i, glossed as ”something breaks open”.
It is not obvious to me whether any of k2 (portal
destination), p2 (pieces of broken thing), j3 (birthdate), or j4 (birthplace) are appropriate to include
in this lujvo.)
karpo’i x1 is an open-break with broken piece
karsna s1 is a vowel sound. (Cf. zunsna.)
kartamo x1 is safflower of species/variety x2.
kartuli x1 is Georgian (Caucasus) in aspect x2.
(see also sakartulos)
karvana x1 is a caravan consisting of x2 traveling across/through x3 (Cf. bende, girzu, gunma.)
katkana x1 is a katakana (Japanese syllabary) of
sound x2. (Cf. lerfu.)
katna [ka’a] x1 (tool/blade/force) cuts
[through]/splits/divides x2 (object) into pieces
78kelci ketco
x3. (For x1 force, it is a force acting as a blade, not
acting upon a blade; agentive cutting (= ka’argau,
ka’arzu’e). (cf. kakpa, sraku for cutting into
without division; plixa, dakfu, jinci, porpi, spofu,
tunta, xrani, fatri, fendi, balre, dilcu))
kaurdata x1 is a salamander of family/genus/species x2. (Cf. banfi.)
kaurselju’o d2 = k1 is common sense to knowers d1 = k2 about subject d3 by epistemology d4.
(Cf. selju’o, kampu.)
kau [UI3a] discursive: marks word serving as
focus of indirect question: ”I know WHO went to
the store”.
kavbu [kav] x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with
trap/restraint x3. (Catch something thrown (=
rerkavbu). See also jersi, kalte, pinfu, sisku, se
ka [kam] [NU] abstractor: property/quality
abstractor (-ness); x1 is quality/property exhibited
by [bridi].
ke’a [KOhA7] pro-sumti: relativized sumti (object of relative clause).
ke’e [kep ke’e] [KEhE] elidable terminator: end of tanru left grouping override (usually
ke’i [GAhO] open interval bracket marker;
modifies intervals in non-logical connectives; exclude boundaries.
ke’o [COI] vocative: please repeat.
ke’unai [UI*3] discursive: repeating - continuing.
ke’usku x1 repeats x2 (sedu’u/text) to audience
x3 via expressive medium x4 for the x5th time.
(See also krefu, cusku)
ke’u [UI3] discursive: repeating - continuing.
(See also refbasna, krefu, rapli, velde’a.)
kecti [kec ke’i] x1 (person) pities/feels
sorry for x2 (person) about x3 (abstraction). (See
also cinmo, xendo.)
keigri k1 = g1 is a team / play group together
playing / playing with plaything / toy / game
k2 = g2; members are from set g3 linked by relations g4. (Made from kelci + girzu.)
keirmu’u x1 is a moving piece used in a game
keirta’o x1 is a board used for playing the game
kei [kez] [KEI] elidable terminator: end abstraction bridi (often elidable).
kelci [kel kei] x1 [agent] plays with plaything/toy x2. (Play game (= ci’erkei), play competitively (= jvikei). See also jivna, jinga, zdile.)
kelcrkroke x1 plays croquet against x2 in competition x3 for prize/title x4. (Cf. krokete, kroke,
kriketi, ga’arboijvi, bolci, mruli. )
kelgi’a g1 is a game master/dungeon master for
players k1 = g2 in role-playing game g3.
kelka’u x1 is a turn/move by player x2 in game
kelkubli ku1 is a die/are dice for game x2 with
surfaces/sides ku3 (default 6). (Shortened from ke
nu kelci ke’e kubli. Omitted ku2 (dice have always
three dimensions). Cf. cu’arkubli.)
kelvo [ke’o] x1 is x2 degree(s) Kelvin [metric
unit] in temperature (default is 1) by standard x3.
(See also gradu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo,
gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi,
petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro.)
kelvrfarenxaito x1 is x2 degrees Fahrenheit in
temperature by standard x3. (Cf. jacke’o, glare,
lenku, dunja, febvi.)
kenra [ken] x1 is a cancer [malignant disease]
in x2. (See also bilma, mikce, spita.)
kensa [kes] x1 is outer space near/associated
with celestial body/region x2. (See also canlu,
munje, terdi, tsani.)
KEnydys Canada (Cf. kadnygu’e, kenyDAS,
kerfa [kre] x1 is a/the hair/fur [body-part]
of x2 at body location x3. (See also skapi, sunla,
kerlakse l1 is earwax/cerumen. (Cf. kerlo,
kerlo [ker] x1 is a/the ear [body-part] of x2;
[metaphor: sensory apparatus, information gathering]. ((adjective:) x1 is aural. See also kanla,
savru, smaji, tirna, ractu.)
kernerbo’o n1 = b1 is an eardrum (tympanic
membrane) of n2 = k2. (The tympanic membrane
separates the external ear from the middle ear. Cf.
kerlo, tirna, sance.)
kerza’u k1 = z1 is an earlobe of k2 = z2. (Cf.
kesyske x1 is astronomy based on methodology x2.
ketco [ket tco] x1 reflects South American
culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2. (See
also merko, xispo, brazo, gento, spano.)
79kibro kisto
ketlete x1 has a body mass index of x2 by standard x3.
kevna [kev ke’a] x1 is a cavity/hole/hollow/cavern in x2; x1 is concave
within x2; x2 is hollow at locus x1. (Also pit,
depression, concavity; hollow (= selke’a). See also
fenra, kunti, canlu, canko, galxe, tubnu.)
kevypracpi ci1 = cu1 is a woodpecker/wryneck/piculet/sapsucker of species ci2
(Family Picidae)
kevyxejyji’o k1 = xe1 = j1 is a cleft/dimple
chin of xe2. (Cf. flira, kevna, xedja, xejyji’o.)
kevzda k1 = z1 is a cave for housing x2 = z2,
located in x3 = k2.
ke [kem] [KE] start grouping of tanru, etc; ...
type of ... ; overrides normal tanru left grouping.
(Cf. ke’e, bo.)
4 ki’ai [COI2] Converts following cmevla or
zoi-quote into a nonce interjection/attitudinal.
(See sa’ei)
ki’anai [UI*6] non-question: understanding of
something said.
ki’arzau z1 = k1 applauds/acclaims/praises
loudly action z2 (object/event) with sound k2. (Cf.
krixa, zanru, xanvruzau, geirki’a.)
ki’asku c1 = k1 shouts/cries out c2 = k2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to audience c3 via expressive medium c4 (from krixa cusku)
ki’a [UI6] attitudinal question: confusion about
something said. (See also cfipu, kucli.)
ki’enai [COI*] vocative: thanks - no thanks to
ki’e [COI] vocative: thanks - no thanks to you.
ki’i [BAI] ckini modal, 1st place (related to) relatively; as a relation of ...
ki’ogra g1 is g2 kilograms in mass by standard
ki’otre x1 is x2 kilometres long in direction x3
by standard x4. (Cf. gusminli, darno.)
ki’o [PA3] digit/number: number comma;
ki’u ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a rational explanation/justification; why?.
ki’unai [BAI*] krinu modal, 1st place despite
reason ...
ki’u [BAI] krinu modal, 1st place (justified by)
justifiably; because of reason ...
kibdu’a d1 uploads d2 to d3 = k1. (Cf. kibro,
dunda, kibycpa.)
4 kibro x1 pertains to the internet/cyberspace
in aspect x2. (Proposed by xorxes. Short rafsi -kib-.
Cf. mujysamseltcana.)
kibyca’o c1 is a web browser for retrieving/presenting/traversing information k1. (Cf.
kibro, canko, zgana, datni, kibycpa, kibdu’a.)
kibykarni ki1 = ka1 is an internet-journal/webarticle/blog (web-log) with content ka2 published
by ka3 for audience ka4 (Cf. kibro, karni, snukarni,
kibypapri p1 is a web page of site p2 = k1. (Cf.
kibro, papri, kibyca’o.)
kicne [kic ki’e] x1 cushions x2 with material x3; x1 is a cushion/pillow/pad [for x2] of
padding material x3. (See also ckana, matci.)
kijno [kij] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of oxygen (O); [metaphor: supporting
life/combustion]. (See also jelca, vacri, vasxu.)
kijycau c1 lacks oxygen k1; c1 is anaerobic. (Cf.
kilga’axa’i x1 = xa1 = g1 = k1 is a
lance/spear/javelin/pointed-rod weapon for use
against x2 = xa2 by x3 = xa3 of material x4 = g2.
(kinli grana xarci; this lujvo structure is from noralujv. The author of this definition is uncertain
that jesxa’i would not be a better lujvo for the purpose.)
kilga’a x1 spear/lance/assegai made of x2. (Cf.
kinli, grana, rerga’a.)
kilto [ki’o] x1 is a thousand [1000; 10
] of
x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (See
also grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo,
xampo, gradu, litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto,
femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, megdo, mikri, milti,
nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti,
zetro, minli)
kinli [kil] x1 is sharp/keen at locus x2. (See
also balre, dakfu, jesni.)
kinpei p1 = s3 = s4 thinks about subject p2 = s2
by imagining s1 which is like an imaginary movie
about that subject.
kinsle x1 = s1 is a frame from motion picture x2 = k1 about x3 = k2
[plot/theme/subject/activity] ((skina x3, x4 omitted for lack of usefulness.) Cf. skina for some
useful lujvo you can tanru-ize this with – eg
”selxraci’a skina” -¿ frame of drawn animation ,
kisto [kis] x1 reflects Pakistani/Pashto culture/nationality/language in aspect x2. (See also
80klanrdjuli klina
kisybau k1 = b1 is the Pakistani Urdu language used by b2 to communicate b3 (si’o/du’u,
not quote) (from kisto bangu c.f. xurbau.)
kisyglibau k1 = g1 = b1 is the Pakistani English
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf. kisto, glico, bangu,
glibau, bangenugu, kisybau)
kisygu’e k1 = g1 is Pakistan. (Cf. kisto, gugde,
gugdepuku. The ’national’ language of Pakistan is
xurbau. )
kitselzba x1 is pottery made by x2 of clay x3.
(see also staku)
kitybli b1 is a clay-based building brick of composition k2, surfaces/sides s4. (Cf. kliti, bliku.)
kityzba x1 is a potter who makes x2 out of clay
x3. (see also kitselzba, staku)
ki [KI] tense/modal: set/use tense default; establishes new open scope space/time/modal reference base.
klacpe c1 calls/summons c3 = k1 to location k2
in manner/form c4. (Cf. cpedu.)
klaje’i j1 = k1 follows j2 to destination k2 from
origin k3 via route k4 by means k5. (Cf. klama,
klaji [laj] x1 is a
street/avenue/lane/drive/cul-desac/way/alley/[road] at x2 accessing x3. (Also
corridor; not typically a route between points,
but offers access to sites along it. See also naxle,
panka, pluta, dargu.)
klaku [kak] x1 weeps/cries tears x2 about/for
reason x3 (event/state). (See also badri, krixa.)
klama [kla] x1 comes/goes to destination x2
from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle
x5. (Also travels, journeys, moves, leaves to ...
from ...; x1 is a traveller; (x4 as a set includes points
at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly).
See also cadzu, bajra, marce, vofli, litru, muvdu,
cpare, cmavo list ka’a, pluta, bevri, farlu, limna,
klami’e m1 summons m2 = k1 to k2 from k3 via
route k4. (Cf. klama, minde, klacpe.)
klani [lai] x1 is a quantity quanti-
fied/measured/enumerated by x2 (quantifier) on
scale x3 (si’o). (Also count. See also cmavo list
la’u, namcu.)
klanrbeli x1 measures x2 bels on scale x3 (si’o).
(One bel is equal to 10 decibels. Cf. klani, sance,
klanrdjuli g1 is g2 joule(s) of energy (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. djaule, klanrniut,ni, klanrxuati.)
klanrfaradi g1 is g2 farad(s) of capacitance (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. terdikca, xampo.)
klanrniut,ni g1 is g2 newton (s) of force (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. niutni,
klanrpaskali x1 is x2 pascal(s) of pressure (default is 1) by standard x3. (Cf. klanrniut,ni.)
klanrtesla g1 is g2 tesla(s) of magnetic field B
(default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. maksi.)
klanrvolta g1 is g2 volt(s) of electromotive force
(default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. xampo, klanrxomi, klanrxuati, klanrdjuli, terdikca.)
klanrxenri g1 is g2 henry/henries of inductance
(default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. enri, klanrvolta,
klanrxertsi g1 is g2 hertz of frequency (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. ertso.)

klanrxomi g1 is g2 ohm(s) of electrical
impedance/resistance (default is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. omso, xampo, klanrvolta, klanrxuati,
klanrxuati g1 is g2 watt(s) of power (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. klanrdjuli, klanrvolta,
klanrzimenzi g1 is g2 siemens of electrical conductance (default is 1) by standard g3. (klanrxomi,
klanrvolta, xampo.)
klasazri x1 = s1 = k1 drives x2 = s2 = k5 to
x3 = k2 from x4 = k3 via route x5 = k4 (Used
to specify agentive operation of the transportation
vehicle, as opposed to simply being carried by it.
See also: sazri, klama, ma’ekla)
klaunji x1 is blackseed/nigella of
species/variety x2
klesi [kle lei] x1 (mass/si’o) is a
class/category/subgroup/subset within x2
with defining property x3 (ka). (Also type, kind,
classification, species, genus, family, order, phylum. See also cmavo list le’a, cmima, jutsi, ciste,
girzu, lanzu, vrici.)
klina [kli] x1 (object/medium) is
clear/transparent/without obstacle to in-theclear x2 [transmission]. (Also lucid; x2 remains
apparent/lucid/clear (figurative use for ’understandable’ is discouraged, better expressed as =
filseljmi or filsmu). (cf. kandi, zunti - nalzu’i is
better for ’unhindered’))
81koinka konju
kliru x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
halogen of type x2 [chlorine, fluorine, iodine, etc.].
(Also bromine; default chlorine. See also xukmi.)
klisodva x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity
of a clear/transparent carbonated beverage/soda
of sweet flavor, of brand x2. (Not any carbonated beverage, but one which is transparent and
with sweet flavor, like Sprite (=sprait), 7-up, Sockerdricka (=a soft drink that is consumed in Sweden) or similar. Another flavor may be added and
expressed as a tanru, as long as the combination
doesn’t differ too much from the characteristics of
kliti [kit] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of clay [moist, clammy dirt] of composition
including x2. (See also dertu, pesxu, staku.)
klubarcreka c1 = b1 = k1 is a jumper of material
c2. (A loose outer jacket (barcreka). Cf. creka.)
kluce’u c1 is a society of c2 = k2 with cultural
aspects k1. (Cf. cecmu, kulnu, jikca, kulnu.)
klupe [lup lu’e] x1 is a screw [fastener] for
purpose x2, threads [pitch, material] x3, frame
[size, material] x4. (Also bolt. See also korcu,
sarlu, tutci.)
klura’a s1 pertains to culture of s2 = k2 (Cultural gismu replacement lujvo for cultures: From
gismu kulnu and srana)
kluske s1 is social anthropology. (Cf. kulnu,
saske, jikske)
kluza [luz] x1 (obj.) is loose/bloused/not
tight on x2 (obj.) at locus x3. (See also tagji, trati,
kluzei z1 is a taboo in culture z2 = k1.
ko’a [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #1
(specified by goi).
ko’e [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #2
(specified by goi).
ko’i [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #3
(specified by goi).
ko’otli x1 is a coyote of subspecies/breed x2.
(Cf. gerku, labno, lorxu, tcakali.)
ko’o [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #4
(specified by goi).
ko’u [KOhA4] pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #5
(specified by goi).
kobli [kob ko’i] x1 is a quantity of cabbage/lettuce/leafy vegetable of species/strain x2.
(See also stagi.)
koblrsinapi x1 is mustard of species/variety x2.
(especially mustard greens; see also spatrsinapi,
tsijrsinapi, sansrmustardo)
koinka x1 is a cognac distilled from grapes x2.
(Cf. xalka, jikru, vanjyjikru, vanju. For brandies
without an AOC designation use vanjyjikru.)
koizva x1 = z1 is at an
edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2 = k2
next-to/bordering-on x3 = k3; x1 = z1 skirts
x2 = k2. (Cf. korbi, zvati)
koi [BAI] korbi modal, 1st place (bordered by)
bounded by ...
kojna [koj ko’a] x1 is a corner/point/atleast-3-dimensional [solid] angle [shape/form]
in/on x2, of material x3. (Also apex; a corner exists on three dimensions but need not be limited to
points; it suggests a discontinuity in slope in some
direction; i.e. in some planar cross-section. See
also jipno, konju, bliku, fanmo, jganu, krasi.)
kokaKOlys Coca-Cola.
kokcinela x1 is a ladybug/ladybird/lady beetle
of genus/species x2. (see cakcinki, spacivla)
kolbasa x1 is a sausage made of x2. (Not necessarily with a gut skin; see also tisycanti.)
KOLkatas Kolkata
kolmba x1 is a pigeon/dove of genus/species
x2. (more general than tcacpi)
kolme [kol ko’e] x1 is a
quantity of/contains/is made of
coal/peat/anthracite/bituminous from source x2.
(See also tabno, tarla.)
komcu [kom] x1 is a comb [many-needled
shape] of material x2 with tines/needles x3. (See
also julne, forca, burcu.)
konceto zei pagbu p1 is a movement of concerto for solo instruments k2, number k3 in key
k4 composed by k5. (Cf. konceto, pagbu, zgike,
nolzgi, simfoni.)
konceto x1 is concerto number x2 in key x3
composed by x4 performed by/at x5( event). (Cf.
zgike, nolzgi, konceto zei pagbu, pipnrpaino zei
konceto, jgitrviolino zei konceto, simfoni, zgifi’i.)
kondomo x1 is a condom of x2 size for x3 sex
and x4 material
konfuzi x1 pertains to the Confucist culture/religion/ethos in aspect x2
konjaku x1 is konjac of species/variety x2. (see
also samcrtaro, samcu)
konju [kon ko’u] x1 is a cone [shape/form]
of material x2 with vertex x3. (Also ellipse, ellipsoid (= konclupa). See also jesni, djine, sovda, kojna, jganu.)
82kramu krili
korbi [kor koi] x1 is an
edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2
next-to/bordering-on x3. (See also cmavo list koi,
greku, mlana, jimte, ctebi, bartu.)
korcu [kro] (adjective:) x1 is
bent/crooked/not straight or direct/[twisted]/folded. (See also cinje, klupe,
kruvi, polje, sarlu, sirji, bargu, genxu.)
korgretro t1 controls g1 = t2 who crosses g2 =
k1 to g3 = k2 from g4 = k2. (see also natmi, pagre,
korka [kok] x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of cork/bark from tree/species x2; [material]. (See also tricu, calku, skapi, stagi.)
korsenta s1 = k1 is a cortex (outermost layer)
of structure s3 = k2. (x2 may be an organ, a cell, a
plant, or a rock. Cf. skapi, pilka, sefta.)
4 korvo s1 is a crow/raven of species s2.
kosta [kos] x1 is a
[extra outer garment] of material x2. (See also
pastu, sunla, taxfu.)
kotledona x1 is a cotyledon of seed x2 of plant
kotygu’e g1 is Scotland (country). (Cf. ritygu’e,
ko [KOhA3] pro-sumti: you (imperative); make
it true for you, the listener.
krafamtei x1 is the duration of x2. (See also ze’a,
ze’e, ze’i, ze’o, ditcu, faurtei)
kraga’igau gas1 resets/changes gal1 to its original value/content. (Cf. krasi, galfi, gasnu,
4 krali x1 (NU) is a legal/moral entitlement of
x2 (individual/mass) by standard x3. (Normative principles, variously construed as legal, social, or moral freedoms or entitlements. rarkrali
for ”natural rights and flakrali for ”legal rights”;
xuskrali for ”claim rights” and zifkrali for ”liberty rights”; crukrali for ”positive rights” and
ri’urkrali for ”negative rights”; sepkrali for ”individual rights” and gumkrali for ”group rights”;
selcemkrali for ”civil rights” and seljeckrali for
”political rights”; jiknykrali for ”economic rights”,
jikykrali for ”social rights”, and klukrali for ”cultural rights”; remkrali for ”human rights” and
dalkrali for ”animal rights”. Cf. selfla, selzi’e,
terzi’e, selzau, selpikta.)
krambola x1 is a starfruit/carambola of variety
kramu x1 is x2 local area unit(s) [non-metric]
(default 1) by standard x3, x4 subunits. ((additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...);
See also rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli,
krasi [kra] x1 (site/event) is a
source/start/beginning/origin of x2 (object/event/process). (Also root (figurative
sense); (adjective:) x1 is initial. See also fanmo,
cmavo list ra’i, sabji, cfari, jipno, traji, kojna, genja,
jicmu, sitna, jinto.)
krastu s1 = k1 is the origin of s2 = k2. (Cf.
terkla, famstu.)
krataigo x1 is a hawthorn of species/variety x2.
krati [ka’i] x1 represents/is an
agent/proxy/stands-in for [absent] x2 in matter(s)/function(s) x3. (Also: on behalf of. See also
cmavo list ka’i, jansu, catni, vipsi, pulji.)
krebasti b1 is wig/toupee/mirkin worn by k2
on body location k3. (Cf. kerfa, basti, runkre.)
krebu’u b1 is an amount of velvet/velour/towelling/tufted cloth of
type/material b2.
krefu [ref ke’u] x1 (event) is the x3’rd recurrence/repetition of x2 (abstract); x2 happens
again in [form] x1. (Also case, another, instance,
different, other, time, occasion. See also fukpi,
rapli, cafne, fasnu, xruti.)
krekalsa ka1 = ke2 has disheveled/tousled hair
(from kerfa kalsa)
krelu’i x1 washes x2’s hair, removing x3 with
shampoo x4.
kresi’e s1 is dandruff on the head of k2. (Cf.
kerfa, snime.)
krevelylu’i x1 is a shampoo for washing x2’s
hair, removing x3, used by x4.
krevi’u x1 = v1 shaves/[removes hair] x2 =
k1 = v2 from x3 = k2 = v3 (Applies to any form of
hair removal, not necessarily with a blade.)
krici [kri] x1 believes [regardless of
evidence/proof] belief/creed x2 (du’u) is
true/assumed about subject x3. (”without
evidence” refers to objective external evidence;
also gives credence, has conviction. See also censa,
cevni, lijda, makfa, malsi, senpi, birti.)
kriketi x1 plays cricket against x2 in competition
x3 for prize/title x4. (Cf. ga’arboijvi, krokete, kelcrkroke.)
krili x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
crystal of composition x2 in form/arrangement x3.
83ku’inai kukfusra
(x2: composition including x2, which need not be
complete specification. See also jemna, bisli.)
krinu [rin ki’u] x1 (event/state)
is a reason/justification/explanation
for/causing/permitting x2 (event/state). (See
also ciksi, rinka, nibli, mukti, se jalge, te zukte,
cmavo list ki’u, bapli.)
kriofla x1 is a clove bud/tree of species/variety
x2. (see also cifxrula, baljypau)
krixa [kix ki’a] x1 cries out/yells/howls
sound x2; x1 is a crier. (See also klaku, bacru.)
kro’oke x1 croquets x2’s ball. (Cf. kelcrkroke,
krokete, bolci, mruli.)
krobi’o b1 = k1 bends under conditions b3. (Cf.
korcu, binxo, krosa’i, bolbi’o, krori’a.)
krogarna k1 = g1 is bow/arc supporting/restraining g2, of material g3.
krokete x1 plays croquet against x2 in competition x3 for prize/title x4. (Cf. kelcrkroke, kroke,
kriketi, ga’arboijvi, bolci, mruli.)
krokodilo x1 is a crocodile (family Crocodylidae) of breed x2
krori’a r1 (event/state) bends/flexes k1 under
conditions r3. (Cf. korcu, rinka, krobi’o.)
krorinsa r1 = k1 curtseys in front of r2. (Cf.
korcu, rinsa, krosa’i.)
krosa’i s1 = k1 bows/takes a bow on surface s2
supported by limbs/supports s3. (Cf. korcu, sanli,
krorinsa, sa’orgau, dzibi’o, demtse.)
krotofaga x1 is an ani of species x2. (see also
kruca [kuc] x1 intersects/crosses/traverses
x2 at locus x3. (See also cripu, ragve.)
kruji [ruj] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of cream/emulsion/puree [consistency] of
composition x2. ([x2: composition including x2,
which need not be complete specification]]; See
also ladru, matne.)
kruvi [ruv kru] x1 is a curve/turn/bend
in x2, at locus x3, and defined by set of
points/properties x4. ((adjective:) x1 is curved;
(x4 as a set of points is sufficiently specified to
identify the relevant properties of the bend). See
also korcu, bargu, genxu, linji, sirji.)
ku’a [kuz] [JOI] non-logical connective: intersection of sets.
ku’e [KUhE] elidable terminator: end mathematical (mex) forethought (Polish) expression; often elidable.
ku’inai [UI3b] discursive: hence/therefore.
(Used to draw conclusions in accordance with
what said previously, as opposed to ku’i (in contrast).)
ku’i [UI3b] discursive: however/but/in contrast. (See also karbi, dukti, nalpanra.)
ku’o [KUhO] elidable terminator: end NOI relative clause; always elidable, but preferred in complex clauses.
ku’u [BAI] kulnu modal, 1st place in culture ...
kuadragesim Lent
kuarka x1 is a quark with flavor x2. (Cf. kantu,
guska’u, lektoni.)
kubli [kub] x1 is a cube/regular polyhedron/polygon of dimensions x2 (def. 3), surfaces/sides x3 (def. 6). ((cf. kurfa - needed for
’cube’, bliku for a physical object; tanbo, tapla,
kuclanli l1 cross examines l2. (Cf. kruca, lanli,
kucli x1 is curious/wonders about/is interested
in/[inquisitive about] x2 (object/abstract). (Inquisitive (= retkucli). See also manci, sisku, se
kucyga’asni x1 is a crucifix. (See also kucyga’a)
kucyga’a x1 is a cross made of x2.
kucysimgau g1 folds/crosses/intertwines
s1(set). (Cf. kruca, simxu, gasnu.)
kucyvla x1 = v1 = k1 is a word/quotation
crossing other words/quotations, meaning/defined by x2 = v2, located at x3 = k3
(Across -¿ pinta, down -¿ sraji, crossword puzzle
-¿ ”kucyvla se namkei”. Example: ”12 across:
what you like -¿ beautiful” is ”zo melbi cu kucyvla
lu da poi do nelci li’u li pare poi pinta”. x1 may be
a non grammatical quotation. )
kufra [kuf] x1 feels comfort/is comfortable
with conditions/environmental property(ies) x2.
(See also cinmo.)
kuinke x1 reflects Seri culture/language in aspect x2
kujmikce m1 is a nurse to/nurses m2. (Cf. kurji,
kujyjai j1 = k1 nurses/holds with care j2 = k2
(object/event/person) with/in j3 (part of j1). (Cf.
kurji, jgari.)
kukfusra f1 = k1 is fermented with fermenting
agent f2, tasty to observer x3 = k2. (Cf. jurme,
fomymledi, mledi, birje, vanju, nanba, cirla, ladru,
sobysanso, furfipsanso.)
84kumtrvalpaka kurki
kukselzbasu z2 = k1 is something made by z1
out of z3 that is pleasing/delightful to sense k2.
(Cf. kukte, zbasu, kukselzba.)
kukselzba z2 = k1 is something made by z1 out
of z3 that is pleasing/delightful to sense k2. (Cf.
kukte, zbasu.)
kukte [kuk] x1 is delicious/tasty/delightful
to observer/sense x2 [person, or sensory activity].
(x1 is a delicacy. See also gusta, ralci, vrusi, cpina.)
kulcitsi ci1 is a term/semester with interval ci2
of year ci3 for school ck1. (x2 may be formed with
”bi’o”. Cf. citsi, ckule.)
kulmu’o k4 = m1 graduates/completes coursework from k1 at location k2 in subject matter k3, by
the standards of the administration k5 = m3 (This
is really a dropped SE of velkulmu’o. m2 is the implied ”property of learning at k2 subject matter k3
from school k1”)
kulnrnorge x1 is Norwegian/pertains to Norwegian culture in aspect x2.
kulnrturkie x1 is Turkish/pertains to Turkish
culture in aspect x2. (Cf. kulnrturko, bangrturkie,
kulnrturko x1 is Turkic/pertains to Turkic culture in aspect x2 (c.f. kulnrturkie)
kulnu [klu] x1 [mass of ideas, customs, skills,
arts] is culture of nation/ethos x2 (mass); x1 is ethnic. ((note that x2 is NOT individual; culture is
what is shared among people and is not an individual trait). See also cmavo list ka’u, cmavo list
ku’u, natmi, cecmu.)
kulpikta p1 is a diploma entitling p2 to
entitlement/privilege p3 (event/state) from
school/institute/academy x4 = c1 teaching
subject(s) x5 = c3.
kumfa [kum ku’a] x1 is a room
of/in structure x2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x3 (mass/jo’u). (Also
chamber. See also bitmu, canlu, zdani.)
kumte x1 is a camel/llama/alpaca/vicuna/dromedary
of species/breed x2. (Llama (= tcokumte), Bactrian
camel (= zdokumte); Arabian camel/dromedary
(= rabykumte). See also sunla, kanla, xirma, xasli.)
kumtrguanako x1 is a guanaco of breed x2.
(Cf. kumte, tcokumte, kumtrvalpaka, kumtrlama,
kumtrlama x1 is a llama of breed x2. (Cf. kumte,
tcokumte, kumtrvalpaka, kumtrvikunia, kumtrguanako.)
kumtrvalpaka x1 is an alpaca of breed x2.
(Cf. kumte, tcokumte, kumtrvikunia, kumtrlama,
kumtrvikunia x1 is a vicuna of breed x2.
(Cf. kumte, tcokumte, kumtrvalpaka, kumtrlama,
kumyzda z1 = k1 is an apartment for z2 in structure k2. (A complete domicile occupying only part
of a building. Cf. zdani, selxa’u.)
kungundi g1 is a/the metals and mining industry/sector producing/mining g2 = k1 of
type/metal k2 from location k3 by process g3
(From kunra, gundi.)
kunkakpa x1 = ka1 (agent) mines material/ore
x2 = ku1 = ka2 of type x3 = ku2 from
mine/source x4 = ku3 = ka3 using tool x5 = ka4.
(Used in Theodore Reed’s translation of A Princess
of Mars.)
kunra [kun] x1 is/contains/is made from a
mineral/ore of type/metal x2 mined from location/lode/mine x3. (See also jinme, bisli, rokci,
kunrlazuli x1 is/contains/is made from lapis
lazuli of type/grade x2 mined from location x3.
kunrmarmaro x1 is/contains/is made from
marble of type x2 mined from location x3.
kunrxalabastre x1 is/contains/is made from
alabaster of type x2 mined from location x3.
kunske s1=t1 is mineralogy [science about minerals] based on methodology s3. (kunra2, kunra3
and saske2 subsumed. See also derske.)
kunti [kut] x1 [container] is empty/vacant of
x2 [material]; x1 is hollow. (Also vacuum (= kunti
be roda/so’ada). See also culno, tisna, claxu,
canlu, kevna, setca.)
kurfa [kur] x1 is a right-angled shape/form
defined by set of vertices x2, dimensions x3 (default 2). (Also rectangle, square, rectilinear; square
(= kubykurfa, pitkubykurfa), cube (= kurkubli),
rectangle (= clakurfa), rhombus/diamond (=
sa’orkurfa, sa’orpitkubli). See also bliku, kubli, tapla, salpo, tarmi.)
kurji [kuj ku’i] x1 takes-care-of/looks after/attends to/provides for/is caretaker for x2
(object/event/person). (Also tends, cares for,
keeps; x1 is a keeper/custodian of x2. See also
jundi, cinri, prami, raktu, zgana.)
kurki x1 is bitter/acrid/sharply disagreeable to
observer/sense x2. (See also titla, slari.)
85la’irze’a lacni
kurkuli x1 is a weevil of genus/species x2. (see
also cakcinki)
kurkuma x1 is turmeric of species/variety x2.
kurmo’a m1 is a check/checkerboard pattern of
squares k1 = m2 arranged in structure m3 (x2
might be a set of colors, with x3 specifying their
kurtenfa t1 is the square of t2. (see tenfa)
kurtsapi x1 is a spice of the mint family, with
flavor x2. (see also tebrulspa, spatrbasiliko)
kusnkusu x1 is a quantity of couscous of ingredients including x2
kuspe [kup ku’e] x1
across/over interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range
x2. (Also continues. See also ranji, renvi, tcena,
bancu, cripu, ragve, vorme, canko, bitmu, sirji,
jbini, jimte, preja.)
kusru [kus] x1 (person) is
cruel/mean/unkind to victim x2. (See also
xendo, jursa.)
kustru k1 = t1 governs and oppresses k2 = t2.
(see also kusyja’a vliraitru)
kusyja’a x1 is a cruel-captain with object of
cruelty-captained x2.
kutyje’u x1 a tautology by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2. (See also
kunti, jetnu)
kutytu’a t1 = k1 is a desert located in/at t2
(from kunti tumla)
ku [KU] elidable terminator: end description,
modal, or negator sumti; often elidable.
ky [BY2] letteral for k.
la’anai [UI*3] discursive: probability - improbability.
la’a [UI3] discursive: probability - improbability. (See also lakne.)
la’edi’u [KOhA*] pro-sumti: the referent of the
last utterance; the state described: ”IT was fun”.
4 la’ei [LA] combines LA with DOI (used to
address someone in the 2nd person by name and
use that as a sumti at the same time, that is: do doi
la broda is equivalent to la’ei broda)
la’erji’i x1 expects x2 on grounds x3. (See also
bavykri, uenai)
la’erlai x1 has probability/likelihood x2 of occurring under conditions x3. (See also zilpa’a,
la’e [LAhE] the referent of (indirect pointer);
uses the referent of a sumti as the desired sumti.
la’irze’a z1 = l1 gets closer to l2 in property l3
by amount z3. (Cf. lamji, zenba, jbize’a, jbibi’o.)
la’i [LA] name descriptor: the set of those
named ... ; takes name or selbri description.
4 la’oi [ZOhOI] single-word non-Lojban name;
quotes a single non-Lojban word delimited by
pauses (in speech) or whitespace (in writing) and
treats it as a name (See also la’o, zo’oi.)
la’ornacle’u le1 is a Roman numeral representing le3=n1.
la’ornai x1 is the Roman nation made up of people x2 (se la’ornai means the Roman people. The
term refers to the ancient Romans, not to modernday residents of the Italian capital, or small Wisconsin town.)
la’orxi’o x1 = l1 is Roman Catholic in aspect
x2 = l2. (Cf. xriso, latmo, glixi’o, patxi’o, sunxi’o,
la’o [ZOI] delimited non-Lojban name; the resulting quote sumti is treated as a name.
la’u ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a
quantity; how many?.
la’u [BAI] klani modal, 1st place (amount)
quantifying ...; being a quantity of ...
labnanba n1 is white bread made from grains
n2. (Cf. burnanba, jinynanba, jintitnanba,
labno x1 is a wolf/lupine of species/breed x2.
(See also gerku.)
labybi’o bi1 turns pale/white under condition
bi3. (Cf. blabi, binxo.)
labyblusle x1 is a white blood cell of the
blood/pus x2 of animal x3.
labyblu c1 is lymph of animal c2. (Cf. blufle,
labyfi’e f1 = b1 is a whitefish of genus/species
f2. (Cf. blabi, finpe, merlanu.)

labyxu’e x1 is rose. (Cf. blabi, xunre, xunblabi.)
4 lacni x1 is an eyewear used/worn by x2 serving purpose x3. (It is a frame worn in front of the
eyes and bears or does not bear transparent/semitransparent/non-transparent shields for visual
correction, eye protection, fashion, or entertainment. The shields are not necessarily lenses.
Cf. le’otci or le’orlacni for a corrective type,
which may include tidlacni for reading glasses and
xrelacni for bifocal and trifocal glasses; badlacni
for a protective type, which may include srulacni
for goggles and solylacni for sunglasses; jadlacni
86lampru lartodektu
for fashion glasses, which may include rekmeclacni for rimless glasses and solylacni; mincimdylacni for 3D glasses.)
lacpu [lap cpu] x1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags
x2 by handle/at locus x3. (Gravity (= ka maicpu,
maircpukai). See also catke, sakci, cokcu.)
lacri [lac] x1 relies/depends/counts
on/trusts x2 to bring about/ensure/maintain
x3 (event/state). (See also minde, nitcu, tinbe.)
lactergu’e l1 = g3 is a dependent territory relying on the sovereignty of l2 (state). (Examples are
British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles, and
American Samoa. Cf. gugde, zifyje’a.)
ladru [lad] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of milk from source x2; (adjective:) x1 is lactic/dairy. (See also lanbi, mabru, tatru, cirla, kruji.)
lafti [laf] x1 (force) lifts/applies raising/supporting force to x2 at locus x3 in gravity well x4. ((x1 may be an abstract); verb
lift/raise/elevate (= lafmuvgau). See also farlu,
lairka’e x1 is quantifiable by quantifier x2 on
scale x3.
lai [LA] name descriptor: the mass of individual(s) named ... ; takes name or selbri description.
lajre’e x1 is a train with train car x2 with train
system x3 propelled by x4.
lakne [la’e] x1 (event/state/property) is
probable/likely under conditions x2. (See also
cumki, jinzi, kampu, tcaci, cunso, cafne, fadni,
lakse [lak] x1 is quantity of wax [substance especially soft/moldable when warm] from
source x2. (Also paraffin. See also bifce, ranti,
laktergu’i g3 = l1 is a candle/wax light with
wax source l2. (Cf. fagytergu’i, dictergu’i.)
4 laldo x1 is old/aged [relatively long in
elapsed duration] by standard x2 ((= tolci’o) See
citno, slabu)
lalxu [la’u] x1 is a lake/lagoon/pool at
site/within land mass x2. (See also daplu, djacu,
rirxe, xamsi, zbani.)
lamji [lam la’i] x1 is adjacent/beside/next
to/in contact with x2 in property/sequence x3 in
direction x4. (Also touching, contiguous, against.
See also zvati, cpana, jibni, diklo, stuzi, bartu,
lampagre p1 = l1 passes by p2 to p3 from p4 by
l2. (Cf. lamji, pagre.)
lampru l1 = p1 is recent, immediately preceding
l2 = p2. (Cf. purci.)
lanbi x1 is a quantity of protein/albumin of type
x2 composed of amino acids (sequence/jo’u) x3 .
(See also ladru, sovda.)
lanci x1 is a flag/banner/standard
of/symbolizing x2 with pattern(s) x3 on material x4. (See also gugde, jecta.)
landegmei m1 is a mass of set m2 with an even
number of members m3 (see also xirdegmei)
lanka x1 is a basket with contents x2, woven
from material x3. (See also vasru, baktu.)
lanli [lal] x1 analyzes/examines-in-detail
x2 by method/technique/system x3 [process/activity]. (See also catlu, zgana, jarco,
pensi, pinka.)
lanma’i x1 is April of year x2 in calendar x3. (Cf.
vonmasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
lanme [lan] x1 is a sheep/[lamb/ewe/ram]
of species/breed x2 of flock x3. (See also kanba,
lanpanzi p1 is a lamb of species/breed l2 (from
lanme panzi)
lante x1 is a can/tightly sealed/pre-sealed container for perishable contents x2, made of x3. (See
also botpi, baktu, tinci.)
lanxe [lax] x1 is in balance/equilibrium under forces x2 (mass). ((cf. midju, nutli; fapro for
balancing/opposing forces, nutli))
lanzu [laz] x1 (mass) is a family with members including x2 bonded/tied/joined according
to standard x3. (Also clan, tribe; x2 is in x1, a member of x1 (selylanzu for reordered places); relative
(= lazmi’u - xy mintu y’y leka cmima da poi lanzu).
See also natmi, cmima, girzu, jutsi, klesi.)
larcu [lar] x1 (process) is an art [creative application] of craft/skill x2 (idea/activity). ((adjective:) x1 is artistic. See also finti, zbasu, stati.)
lardai x1 is a work of art created by an application of craft/skill x2. (See also larcu, dacti.)
larfi’i f1 is an artist creating work of art f2 = l1
in medium l2 for purpose f3 from elements/ideas
f4 .
larmuzga m1 is a gallery exhibiting m2 at location m3.
larpra x1 is-an-artist/produces x2 by artistic application of skill/craft x3. (See also larcu, cupra)
lartodektu l1 is a widow spider of species l2. (cf.
malminiata, jukni)
87laxma’i le’ai
laryrakpra c1 sculpts/carves c2 = l1 from s2 using tool s1 (implied c3 is ”lo nu jai gau sraku s2 fai
s1” implied l2 would likewise be ”lo si’o nu jai gau
sraku s2 fai s1”)
lasna [la’a] x1 (agent) fastens/connects/attaches/binds/lashes x2 to
x3 with fastener x4. (No implication that result
is considered a single object; although x2 and
x3 may be reversible, x3 may be used for the
substrate, the fixed/larger object to which x2
becomes attached. See also jorne, fenso, jgena,
batke, dinko, kansa.)
lastu x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
brass [copper/zinc alloy] of composition including x2. ((adjective:) x1 is brazen). See also jinme,
ransu, tunka.)
latcmo x1 = c1 = m1 meows expressing x2 =
c3. (Cf. mlatu, cmoni, latpukcmo.)
latcribe x1 is a panda of genus/species x2. (syn.
latfekspa x1 is catnip of species x2.
latfi’e x1 is a catfish of genus/species x2.
latmo [la’o] x1 reflects
Latin/Roman/Romance culture/empire/language in aspect x2. (See also
ropno, fraso, spano, xispo, itlo.)
latna x1 is a lotus, plant/flower/herb of
species/strain x2 symbolizing x3 to culture/religion x4. (See also budjo, censa, lijda,
latpukcmo b1 = p2 purrs, expressing pleasure
at p1 (event/state). (Cf. mlatu, pluka, cmoni,
lauble r1 = c1 sounds quiet/weak at observation point c2 by standard c3 = t3. (Cf. cladu, ruble,
smaji, cmato’a.)
lauDZIS Laotze (aka. Laozi)
laurblesku cu1 = r1 (agent) whipers cu2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience cu3 via
expressive medium cu4. (Cf. cladu, ruble, cusku,
smasku, mliba’u.)
lausku cu1 = cl1 shouts cu2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e
concept) for audience cu3 via expressive medium
cu4, loudly by standard x5 = cl3. (Cf. laurba’u,
smasku, smaba’u.)
laus Laos. (Under some interpretations of the
morphology rules, not a valid word.)
lau [LAU] 2-word letteral/shift: punctuation
mark or special symbol follows.
laxma’i x1 is October of year x2 in calendar x3.
(Cf. pavnonmasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
laxygau g1 balances l1 with force l2. (Cf. lanxe,
lazni x1 (person) is lazy/avoiding work/effort
concerning action x2. (See also nejni, vreta,
lazycange c1 is a family farm/ranch at c2,
farmed by family c3 = l1 (mass), raising, producing c4.
lazyzda z1 is the home of family members z2 =
l2. (Cf. lanzu, zdani.)
lazyzukykei k1 (agent) plays house. (A child’s
play to emulate parents.)
la [LA] name descriptor: the one(s) called ... ;
takes name or selbri description.
le go’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti: reuses
the value of the x1 of the previous bridi.
le jaica [LE*] description: marks description
extracting the time tense place of the description
le jaigau [LE*] description: marks description
extracting the agentive place of the description selbri.
le jaivi [LE*] description: marks description extracting the location place of the description bridi.
le sego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x2 of the previous bridi.
le tego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x3 of the previous bridi.
le vego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x4 of the previous bridi.
le xego’i [KOhA*] description pro-sumti:
reuses the value of the x5 of the previous bridi.
4 le’ai [LEhAI] replace recent mistakenly uttered text (The lo’ai ... sa’ai ... le’ai replacement
construct asks the listener to replace the text after
lo’ai with the text after sa’ai. The order sa’ai ... lo’ai
... le’ai is also allowed, and either or both parts can
be omitted and thus left up to context. When both
parts are omitted, the word le’ai on its own indicates that a mistake was made while leaving all
the details up to context.
It is also possible to attach SAI to a le’ai construct: le’ai dai (or le’ai da’oi ko’a) indicates
that someone else made a mistake; le’ai pei asks
whether someone else made a mistake; and sai,
ru’e and cu’i can be used to indicate the importance of the substitution. Furthermore, le’ai nai
88lei leta
can be used to explicitly deny mistakes instead of
acknowledging them (compare ”sic”).)
le’avla v1 is a loanword meaning v2 in language
v3 based on foreign-language word l2. (Old, deprecated synonym for fu’ivla. Could be considered
an u’ivla.)
le’axru xr1 = l1 takes back xr2 = l2 from xr4 =
l3. (Cf. lebna, xruti, xrube’i, xrucpa.)
le’a [BAI] klesi modal, 1st place (scalar set)
in/of category ...
le’e [lem] [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the
stereotype of those described as ...
le’ipli pi1 = pl1 employs pi2 = pl3 for a payment/compensation/salary/wage/reward of pl2
for the provision of goods/services pi3 = pl4.
(From: pleji, pilno. Cf. seljibri.)
le’i [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the set of
those described as ..., treated as a set.
le’ocu’i [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: aggressive
- passive - defensive.
le’onai [UI*5] attitudinal modifier: aggressive -
passive - defensive.
le’otci t1 is a monocle/pair of
(eye)glasses/spectacles for observational activity t2. (Cf. lenjo, tutci, barkalyle’o, vistci.)
le’o [UI5] attitudinal modifier: aggressive - passive - defensive. (See also gunta, bandu.)
le’u [LEhU] end quote of questionable or outof-context text; not elidable.
lebna [leb le’a] x1
x2 (object/property) from x3 (possessor). (Also
confiscate, appropriate. Acquire with volition
such that x1 gains possession; x3 is possessor and
not merely source, alienation is implied. (cf. punji,
cpacu where volition or previous possession is not
necessarily implied, vimcu for alienation where
x1 need not gain possession, canci, cliva))
lecyde’i d1 is a/the wisdom tooth of d2 (See also
ka’arde’i, gerde’i, crazalde’i, zalde’i.)
lecydo’i d1 = l1 is the afternoon of day d2 at
location d3.
ledgrute g1 is a mushroom of species g2.
ledo [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
the one(s) described as, of yours.
leiske s1 is the taxonomy of s2 = k2 based on
methodology s3. (x2 may be subjects of biology,
semantics, economics, military science, safety science, etc. Cf. jutske, klesi.)
lei [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the mass of
individual(s) described as ...
lejbai x1 = p1 bribes x3 = p3 with x2 = p2 into
doing x4 = p4.
lekmi’i m1 is a fridge/air conditioner for cooling x2 = l1. (Cf. dujmi’i, dujyku’a, lenku, kelvo,
dunja, varmuvmi’i.)
leko’a [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
the one(s) described as, of it-1’s.
lektoni x1 is an electron in quantum state x2
(Cf. protoni, nurtoni, xumsle, dicka’u, guska’u,
kuarka. )
lektu’a t1 = l1 is tundra at location t2, cold by
standard l2 (See also lenku, tumla)
4 lelxe x1 is a lily [Lilium] of species/strain x2
(cf. rozgu. lel- is short rafsi)
lemi [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
the one(s) described as, of mine.
lenjo [len le’o] x1 is a lens/glass [focussing shape/form] focussing x2 to focus/foci x3
by means/material x4. ((adjective:) x1 is optical;
focussing may be optical or otherwise, hence x2
which may be light, sound, X-ray, etc., default is
light/optical lens; ka is refraction. See also kacma,
lenku [lek] x1 is cold/cool by standard x2.
(See also glare, bisli.)
lerci [lec] x1 (event) is late by standard x2.
(See also clira.)
lercu’aca’a ca1 is a keyboard for entering letters/symbols l1 = cu2. (Cf. batkyci’a.)
lerfu [ler le’u] x1 (la’e zo BY/word-bu) is
a letter/digit/symbol in alphabet/character-set x2
representing x3. (Also x1 glyph, rune, character
(also me’o BY/word-bu), x2 symbol set; (adjective:) x1 is alphabetic/symbolic; ”letteral” used by
analogy with ”numeral”; sinxa is the more generic
symbol. See also mifra, namcu, sinxa, pandi.)
lerldjamo x1 is a jamo in syllable x2 in writing
system x3 (default Hangul)
lerpinsle s1 = p1 is a line in the text s2. (Cf.
vlali’i, lerseltcidu.)
lerseltcidu t2 is a text in medium t3 with character set l2.
lertermifra m3 is a character encoding for bytes
m2 with symbols/font m1. (Cf. lerfu, mifra,
leta [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
nearby demonstrative possessive; cannot use for
’THAT ...’.
89LIEtuvas limna’i
leti [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
immediate demonstrative possessive; cannot use
for ’THIS ...’.
letu [LE*] possessive/associative descriptor:
distant demonstrative possessive.
leva [LE*] located descriptor: descriptive thatthere (non-demonstrative).
levi [LE*] located descriptor: descriptive thishere (non-demonstrative).
levu [LE*] located descriptor: descriptive thatyonder (non-demonstrative).
le [LE] non-veridical descriptor: the one(s) described as ...
li’anai [UI*3] discursive: clearly - obscurely.
li’avro v1 is an exit out of c2. (Cf. cliva, vorme,
li’a [UI3] discursive: clearly - obscurely. (See
also klina.)
li’erla’i li1 = la1 immediately precedes li2 = la2
in sequence li3 = la3.
li’e [BAI] lidne modal, 1st place preceded by ...;
non-time sequencing.
li’i [liz] [NU] abstractor: experience abstractor; x1 is x2’s experience of [bridi] (participant or
li’orkliru x1 is fluorine.
li’orklirysilna s1 is a fluoride of s3. (see also
li’orklirytau t1 is a fluoride of t3. (See also
li’o [UI3a] discursive: omitted text (quoted material).
li’u [LIhU] elidable terminator: end grammatical quotation; seldom elidable except at end of
libjo [lib] x1 reflects Libyan culture/nationality in aspect x2
lidne [li’e] x1 precedes/leads x2 in sequence x3; x1 is former/preceding/previous; x2
is latter/following. (Also x1 before, forerunner;
leading, as in ’leading indicators’; x2 after, trailing
(= selyli’e for reordered places
lidvilti’a t1 = v1 is a thunderstorm at
place/region t2
lidvru s1 is thunderous to s2
lidysna x1 is a sound with emit sound-lightning
líetuvas Lithuania
lietuvos Lithuania.
lifri [lif fri] x1 [person/passive/state] undergoes/experiences x2 (event/experience);
x2 happens to x1. (Also has/have (of
events/experiences); (adjective:) x1 is empirical; suggests passive undergoing but does not
exclude active (per zukte) intent; a deserved
experience: reward or punishment (= jernyfri,
zanjernyfri, maljernyfri). See also cmavo list ri’i,
jmive, fasnu, renvi.)
ligyfebvi x1 = f1 = s2 sublimates/evaporates
from the solid state at temperature x2 = f2 = s3
with vapor pressure x3 = f3. (From sligu febvi;
refers to a state change from solid to gas or vice
versa, at the solid surface.)
lizhda [jda] x1 is a religion of believers including x2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets
including x3. (Also mythos, creed, traditional beliefs, x2 people(s), adherents; (adjective:) x1, x2,
x3 are religious/ecclesiastic in nature; x2 is a believer in/of x1, an adherent/follower of x1 (=

seljda for reordered places); x2 is a practitioner
of x3 (= selterjda for reordered places); x3 is a
tenet/belief/ritual/creed of x1/x2 (= terjda for reordered places); priest/clerical (= jdaca’i, jdaka’i,
jdaja’a); organized church/religion (= be’ejda);
congregation (= jdabe’e, jdagri). See also budjo,
censa, cevni, crida, dadjo, jegvo, krici, latna, malsi,
marde, muslo, pruxi, ranmi, ritli, xriso, zekri.)
lijdrba’a,i l1 is the Bahai religion with beliefs/practices/tenets including l3
lijdrdjaina l1 is the Jain religion with beliefs/practices/tenets including l3
lijgri g1 is a row (group) showing common property (ka) g2 due to set g3 linked by relations g4. (Cf.
lerpinsle, depypoi.)
likpu’i x1 = p1 (agent)
onto/applies/lubricate/baptises x3 = p3
with liquid/semi-liquid/oil/cream/ointment
x2 = p2 = l1.
lilgundi g1 is a/the energy industry/sector producing fuel/energy source g2 = l1 for powering l2
based on process g3 (From livla, gundi.)
limla’u la1 is a pool where li1 swims in fluid li2.
limna’i n1 is a flipper [body-part] of n2
limna [lim] x1 (agent) swims in fluid x2
lindi [lid] x1 is lightning/electrical
arc/thunderbolt striking at/extending to x2
from x3. (Also thunder (= lidysna
linga’axa’i x1 is a nunchaku. (A Japanese
weapon consisting of two wooden sticks connected by a chain; also spelled “nunchuku”)
linji [lij li’i] x1 is a line/among lines [1-
dimensional shape/form] defined by set of points
x2. (Ray/vector (farli’i or porli’i). See also kruvi,
sirji, jganu, kantu, mokca.)
linlani x1 is a lily-of-the-valley / may-lily (Convallaria) of species/strain x2
linsi [lin] x1 is a length of chain/links of material x2 with link properties x3. (See also skori.)
linto [li’o] x1 is light in mass/weight by
standard x2. ((cf. junta, tilju; se xalbo, kandi for
lirgli g1 is Old English/pertains to Old Englishspeaking culture in aspect g2, early by standard
x3 = c2.
lirmau x1 is earlier than x2 by amount of time
x3. (cf. lecmau, temci)
liryraixa’u lr1 = xa1 is / are the earliest person(s) to dwell/live/reside/abide at/inhabit/be
a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode
xa2 among set / range lr2. (Made from liryrai +
liryrai c1 = t1 is the earliest among set / range
lisne’i n1 is in character (actions or speech to be
interpreted as part of a story/role-playing game)
(out of character: lisybartu)
lisnuntoi n1 is a drafting by author l3 = t1 of
story l1 = t2 using method t3.
lisri [lis] x1 is a story/tale/yarn/narrative
about plot/subject/moral x2 by storyteller x3 to
audience x4. (Also legend; a narrative need not
be fictional; x2 may be merely a convention rather
than a subject; also x3 tells/recounts story/tale x1
about x2 to x4 (= selterlisri for place reordering);
note that the storyteller need not be the author. See
also ranmi, cfika, skicu, prosa, pemci.)
liste [ste] x1 (physical object) is a
list/catalog/register of sequence/set x2 in order x3 in medium x4. (Also roll, log. (x2 is
completely specified); (cf. porsi, girzu, cmima
for mental objects wherein order is of varying
importance; some manifested order is intrinsic
to a physical list, but the specific order may be
incidental and not intentional/purposeful))
lisxra x1 = p1 is a comic strip about
plot/subject/moral x2 = l2 illustrated by x3 = p3
with story written by x4 = l3. (Cf. lisri, pixra.)
lisybartu b1 is out of character (actions or
speech not to be interpreted as part of a story/roleplaying game) (in character: lisne’i)
lisycku c1 is a story book containing
story/tale/yarn/narrative l2 by author c3 = l3 for
audience c4 = l4 preserved in medium c5
litce [lic] x1 is x2 liter(s) [metric unit] in volume (default is 1) by standard x3
litcreka cr1 is a dress shirt of material cr2, potentially formal by standard cl3. (A shirt with a
collar, a full-length opening at the front from the
collar to the hem, and sleeves with cuffs; normally
made from woven cloth, and are often accompanied by a jacket and tie, for example with a suit
or formalwear, but can be worn also more casually
without. Cf. creka.)
litki [lik] x1 is liquid/fluid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3.
(Conditions include temperature and pressure.
See also cilmo, djacu, lumci, runta, pambe, sudga,
gapci, sligu, flecu, jduli.)
litru [li’u] x1 travels/journeys/goes/moves
via route x2 using means/vehicle x3; x1 is a traveller. ((x2 as a set includes points at least sufficient
to constrain the route relevantly); See also bajra,
cadzu, cpare, tcana, klama, cliva, pluta, limna, muvdu.)
litxendo xe1 = c1 is gracious to xe2 in matter
xe3 = c2. (xendo, clite.)
litytce m1 is very/extremely polite/courteous/civil in matter c2 according to
standard/custom c3. (Cf. clite, mutce.)
liunko x1 is a lynx (Felis lynx) (See mlatu)
livbai b1 expels c1 from c2; b1 throws c1 out of c2
livgau g1 causes c1 to leave c2 via route c3
livga x1 is a/the liver [body-part] of x2
livla [lil] x1 is a fuel/energy-source for powering x2. (See also nejni, xaksu, jelca.)
li [LI] the number/evaluated expression; convert number/operand/evaluated math expression to sumti
4 lo’ai [LOhAI] start quote of recent mistakenly uttered text to be replaced (See le’ai.)
lo’a [BY1] shift letterals to Lojban (Roman) alphabet.
lo’e [lom] [LE] veridical descriptor: the typical one(s) who really is(are) ...
lo’i [LE] veridical descriptor: the set of those
that really are ..., treated as a set.
lo’o [LOhO] elidable terminator: end math express.(mex) sumti; end mex-to-sumti conversion;
usually elidable.
lo’u [LOhU] start questionable/out-of-context
quote; text should be Lojban words, but needn’t
be grammatical.
logji [loj] x1 [rules/methods] is a logic
for deducing/concluding/inferring/reasoning
to/about x2 (du’u). (Also (adjective:) x1, x2 are
logical. See also nibli.)
loglytuan Loglan-worker.
loibru b1 is a broom for purpose b2 (event) with
bristles b3. (From loldi, burcu.)
loisli l1 = s1 undergoes an earthquake/an event
of the ground shaking of magnitude x2. (not necessarily earthquake, could be due to bomb explosion etc. too.)
loi [LE] veridical descriptor: the mass of individual(s) that is(are) ...
lojbab Bob LeChevalier.
lojban Lojban. (Cf. banjubu’o.)
lojbau b1 is the loglan/Loglan/logic language
used by community b2 to express ideas b3. (Cf.
bangu, runbau, lojbo, lojban)
lojbo [lob jbo] x1 re-
flects [Loglandic]/Lojbanic language/culture/nationality/community in aspect
x2. (Pre-Lojban forms of Loglan (= dzejbo
lojycpa x1 infers/concludes/draws conclusion
x2 from premise x3 based on logic/reasoning x4.
loldi [lol loi] x1 is a floor/bottom/ground
of x2. (Floor/level/story of a building/edifice (=
setloi, dijysenta
lolgai g1 is floor covering/flooring/carpet/rug
for covering floor g2 = l1 of x3 = l2. (Cf. buklolgai.)
lolni’ajbama j1 = c1 is a landmine with explosive material/principle j2. (Cf. loldi, cnita, jbama.)
lolni’apu’i p1 (agent) buries/puts underground
p2 = c1 under surface x3 = c2 = l1 of x4 = l2

lolni’a c1 is underground/buried within ground
c2 = l1 of x3 = l2. (Cf. lolni’apu’i, derse’a.)
lolro’iboi b1=r1 is a cobblestone of material
b2=r2 in floor l1.
lorvera x1 is a quantity of aloe vera of
species/strain x2
lorxu [lor lo’u] x1 is a fox [bushy-tailed
wild dog/canine] of species/breed x2. (See also
los'anzhelys Los Angeles
lo [LE] veridical descriptor: the one(s) that really is(are) ... (Under the xorlo reform, lo converts
a selbri to a sumti in a rather generic way. In particular, lo broda = zo’e noi broda.)
lu’a [LAhE] the members of the
set/components of the mass; converts another
description type to individuals.
lu’e [LAhE] the symbol for (indirect discourse);
uses the symbol/word(s) for a sumti as the desired
lu’i [LAhE] the set with members; converts another description type to a set of the members.
lu’o [LAhE] the mass composed of; converts
another description type to a mass composed of
the members.
lu’u [LUhU] elidable terminator: end of sumti
qualifiers; usually elidable except before a sumti.
lubno [lu’o] x1 reflects Lebanese culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also xrabo.)
lujna’u x1 is a complex number. (See also ka’o,
xarna’u, tolxarna’u)
lujvo [luv jvo] x1 (text) is a compound
predicate word with meaning x2 and arguments
x3 built from metaphor x4. (See also stura, cmavo,
gismu, rafsi, smuni.)
lumbrinki x1 is an earthworm of species x2. (Cf.
curnu, dertu, carvi.)
lumci [lum lu’i] x1 (agent)
washes/cleanses x2 of soil/contaminant x3
in/with cleaning material(s) x4. (Agentless washing/cleansing (= cuvbi’o, jisybi’o
92ma’arfe’a macnu
lumku’a x1 = k1 is a bathroom, in which
x2 = l1 washes x3 = l2 (self/other(s)/body
part), in home/building/structure x4 = k2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x5 =
k3 (mass/jo’u) (A room with a sink technically
qualifies, but this is more like a room with a bath
or shower as well. What most Americans call a
”bathroom”. For a room specifically for urination
or defecation, see vimku’a.)
lumpatxu p1 is a wash tub/bath tub, for l1 to
wash p2 = l2, made of material p3.
lumtansi t1 is a sink, for l1 to wash t2 = l2, made
of material t3
lunbe [lub] x1 is bare/naked/nude; x1 is
without cover/clothes/[protection]. (See also
taxfu, bandu.)
lunmes x1 is Aries [astronomical constellation/astrological sign]. (From lanme
(=sheep/[lamb/ewe/ram];lojban) and lu
(=sheep;sumerogram). This constellation has
been known as the ram/sheep since babylonian
times, and later become the leading sign of the
zodiac (7th century BCE). In Hellenistic astrology,
the constellation of Aries is associated with the
golden ram of Greek mythology that rescued
lunra [lur] x1 is Earth’s moon (default); x1 is
a major natural satellite/moon of planet x2
lunsa [lus] x1 condenses/liquefies on/into
x2 at temperature x3, pressure x4; x1 is
dew/condensate on x2
lupcartci t1 is a screwdriver for turning screw
lurdei x1 is Monday of week x2 on calendar x3.
lutfa’o f1 is a dead end of route f2 = p1 from
origin p3. (Cf. klaji.)
luzbarcreka c1 = b1 = k1 is a jumper of material
c2. (A loose outer jacket (barcreka). Cf. creka.)
luzycreka c1 = k1 is a blouse of material c2. (Cf.
creka, taxfu.)
lu [LU] start grammatical quotation; quoted
text should be grammatical on its own.
lyndyn London
ly [BY2] letteral for l.
ma’agni x1 is a mahogany of species x2.
ma’arbakni b1 is a yak of species/type b2
ma’arbi’i j1 is a valley between mountains/hills
c1 = j2 in terrain c2. (Cf. ma’arfe’a, cmana, punli,
ma’arfe’a f1 is a canyon/ravine/chasm in
mountain f2 = c1 in terrain c2. (Cf. ma’arbi’i,
cmana, fenra, kevna)
ma’arjipci p1 is a Copper Pheasant / Syrmaticus
soemmerringii species of breed p2
ma’a [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s) & you the listener(s) &
others unspecified.
ma’ekla k1 = m2 drives to k2 from k3 via route
k4 = m3 by means m1. (Cf. marce, klama, litru.)
ma’ersrogau g1 parks vehicle m1 = s2 in/at s3.
ma’e [BAI] marji modal, 1st place material in
object/substance ...
ma’i [BAI] manri modal, 1st place (by standard
2) in reference frame ...
4 ma’oi [ZO] selma’o quote; quotes a word (a
cmavo) and uses it to name a selma’o. (Example:
ma’oi coi is equivalent to COI. See also ra’oi. )
ma’oste x1 = l1 is a list of structure words x2 =
l2 = c1 of class(es) x5 = c2 of language x6 = c3 in
order x3 = l3 in medium x4 = l4. (Cf. cmavo, liste,
vlaste, vlacku, gimste, jvoste)
ma’o [MAhO] convert letteral string or other
mathematical expression (mex) operand to mex
ma’u zei ionti x1 is an cation of radical/(atom
of element)x2 with x3 charges. (Cf. ionti, ni’u zei
ionti, lektoni, xumsle.
ma’urcu’e c1 is a college at c2 teaching subject
c3 to audience c4 = m1 operated by c5. (An institution for adult education at a basic or intermediate level (teaching those of any age). Cf. ckule,
ma’u [PA3] digit/number: plus sign; positive
number; default any positive.
mabla [mal] x1 is a derogative connotation/sense of x2 used by x3; x3 derogates/’curses
at’ x2 in form x1. (Bloody (British sense), fucking,
shit, goddamn. See also palci, dapma, xlali, zabna,
funca, ganti, ganxo, gletu, gutra, kalci, pinca, pinji,
plibu, vibna, vlagi, zargu.)
mabrnfuru x1 is a ferret. (Cf. mustlei, ermine.)
mabru [mab] x1 is a mammal/’animal’/beast
of species x2. (See also danlu, ladru, tatru, ractu,
xanto, xarju.)
macnu [cnu] x1 (event/action/process) is
manual [not automatic] in function x2 under conditions x3. (See also zmiku, jitro.)
93makyvelvei mamjipci
madinas Medina
madni’i n1 = m1 is the moral of story/situation
m3 and entails action/event/state n2. (Cf. marde,
madRID Madrid
madyske s1 (mass of facts) is the study of
conduct-governing standards s2 = m1 based on
methodology s3. (Major branches of ethics include ”meta-ethics” (ckaji zei madyske), ”normative ethics” (bilga zei madyske), ”applied ethics”
(pilno zei madyske), ”moral psychology” (menli
zei madyske), and ”descriptive ethics” (skicu zei
madyske). Cf. saske.)
madysku c1 = m2 moralizes expressing
c2 (sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) to audience c3
via expressive medium c4 using/based on
ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards
m1 (from marde cusku c.f. bitygau dragau)
mafcre c1 = m3 is a wizard/sorcerer of m1 = c1,
which is magical to m2, with standard of sorcery
c3. (Cf. makfa, certu)
magmiltre x1 is x2 millimeters of mercury by
standard x3. (synonym torceli)
magyxre x1 is an amalgam of composition including x2.
maisru x1 = s1 = m1 is the material environment/surrounding material (i.e. gaseous/liquid
atmosphere, vacuum, etc.) enclosing x2 = s2 in direction(s)/dimensions(s)/plane x3 = s3 = m3, of
type/composition including x4 = m2. (A vacuum
is arguably not ’material’, but the word is much
more convenient if that is included. Also, vacuum
is never completely empty. See also marji, sruri,
gapci, litki, kunti, sakci, kensa.)
mai [MAI] utterance ordinal suffix; converts a
number to an ordinal, such as an item or paragraph number.
makas Mecca
makcu [ma’u] x1 is mature/ripe/fullygrown/adult in development-quality x2 (ka). (See
also cifnu, ninmu, verba, banro, farvi, nanmu.)
makfartci x1 is a compass with magnet x2. (see
also maksi, terfarnilfrica, cukyxratci)
makfa [maf] x1 is
to x2, performed by person/force/deity x3. (See
also krici, manci.)
makpapi x1 is a poppy of species x2
maksi [mak] x1 is magnetic [adjective] producing magnetic field x2
makyvelvei v4 = m1 is a magnetic storage
medium storing v2 (data/facts/du’u) about v3
(object/event) in file(s) v1
maldja c1 is junk food for c2.
malfadni f1 = m1 is vulgar/uncouth in property f2 = m2 (ka) among members f3 (set). (Cf.
mabla, fadni, tolba’i.)
malfu’a f1 = m2 (event/property) is determined by the bad luck/fortune of f2. (Cf. mabla,
funca, malselfu’a, zanfu’a.)
malgaci x1 is Malagasy in aspect x2.
malgli g1 = m1 is an anglicism (in Lojban), inappropriate according to m3. (Refers to any kind of
reliance upon English in a Lojban expression, but
is most common for calques. Is sometimes even
extended to cover reliance upon cultural assumptions. “malglico” is a much more common form.)
malmakfa mak1 is black magic to mak2, performed by person/force/deity mak3. (Cf. mabla,
makfa, lijda, palci)
malminiata m1 is a black widow spider of variety m2. (cf. lartodektu)
malmliselgu’i ma1 = mi1 = g2 is ill-lit with
light g1 from light source g3
malmys Malmo (Malm ¨ o, in the southernmost ¨
province of Scania, is the third most populous city
in Sweden.)
malselfu’a f2 is unlucky/unfortunate in f1 =
m2 (event/property). (Cf. mabla, funca, zanselfu’a.)
malsi [mas] x1 is a temple/church/sanctuary/synagogue/shrine of
religion x2 at location/serving area x3. (x2 may
be event of form (... worships/pays/respect to ...),
hence (metaphorically extending to) monument
(= mojmalsi, si’armalsi). See also cevni, krici, lijda,
malsno mas1 is sluggish at doing/being/bringing about mas2 (event/state)
according to mab3. (Cf. masno)
malvi’e x1 is unwelcome by x2 to place/event
x3. (See also fi’inai; zanvi’e)
mamgle g1 has sex/copulates with the mother
of g2 = m2
mamjipci m1 = j1 is a hen of species/breed j2
with offspring x3 = m2.
94mantyzda marji
mamta [mam] x1 is a mother of x2; x1
bears/mothers/acts maternally toward x2; [not
necessarily biological]. (See also patfu, sovda,
rirni, rorci, tarbi, famti, bersa, jbena.)
mam Mom/Mum (The rafsi for mamta used as
a familiar name. See also paf, bes, tix, bun, mes.)
manbi’o b1 = m1 darkens under conditions
x2 = b3. (Cf. gusybi’o.)
manci [mac] x1 feels wonder/awe/marvels
about x2. (See also cinmo, makfa, kucli, spaji, cinri,
banli, sisku.)
mandala x1 is a mandala
mandioka x1 is manioc of species/variety x2
manfo x1 (object/event) is uniform/homogeneous in property x2 (ka
manfyta’u t1 = m1 is livery/[a uniform] for
wearing by t2 for purpose t3. (Cf. manfo, taxfu.)
4 mango x1 is a mango [fruit] of
species/variety x2. (ricrmango for mango
manku [man] x1 is dark/lacking in illumination. ((cf. blabi, gusni, ctino; use kandi or xekri
with colors, ctino))
manri [mar] x1 is a frame
of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x2, with/by rules
x3. ((x1 may be object or si’o idea); See also cmavo
list ma’i, ckilu, merli, pajni, cimde, jdice, marde.)
mansa x1 satisfies evaluator x2 in property
(ka)/state x3. (See also pajni.)
mansygei g1 = m2 is contently happy
about/with m1 with regard to g2 = m3
(event/state). (Cf. mansa, gleki, camgei,
mansytcu n1 needs n2 to be satisfied for reason
x3. (n2 must be a physical object, not an event; for
that, use djica. See also: mansa, nitcu)
manti x1 is an ant of species/breed x2. (See also
cinki, jalra.)
mantygapci x1 is carbon monoxide. (cf. mantyslami)
mantyjalra j1 is a termite of species j2.
mantymamta mam1 is an ant queen of ants
mam2 = man1 of species/breed man2. (Cf. manti,
mantyslami x1 is formic acid. (see also mantygapci)
mantyzda z1 is an anthill of ants z2 = m1. (Cf.
manti, zdani)
manze’a z1 becomes darker/darkens by
amount z3. (Cf. manku, zenba)
mapku [map] x1 is a cap/hat/crown/helmet/piece of headgear [headtop garment] of material x2

maprultricu x1 is eucalyptus of species/variety
mapti [mat] x1 fits/matches/suits/is compatible/appropriate/corresponds to/with x2 in property/aspect x3. (See also satci, tugni, sarxe, drani,
tarmi, ckini, mintu.)
mapypre p1 is a hatter/millner /[hat maker]
selling/making hats of material m2. (Cf. mapku,
marbela x1 is dodder of species/variety x2 parasitic on x3.
marbi [mra] x1 is a shelter/haven/refuge/retreat/harbor for/protecting
x2 from danger/threat x3. (See also bandu, ckape,
snura, drudi, sepli, bitmu, gacri.)
marce [ma’e] x1 is a vehicle/mode of transport carrying x2 in/on surface/medium x3, propelled by x4. (See also klama, matra, bevri, bloti,
carce, karce, sabnu, skiji.)
marde [mad] x1 are the ethics/morals/moral
standards/ethical standards of x2 (ind./mass)
about situation x3. (x1 will (typically) be an abstract, a rule or rules of behavior; also principles; also conscience (= sezmarde). See also palci,
vrude, lijda, manri, javni, tarti, zekri.)
mardikca d1 is positive electric charge in d2. (Cf.
dikca, manri, dutydikca)
margosa x1 is neem/margosa/azedarac of
species/variety x2. (See also zdiraxa, andiroba.
”Azedarach” and variants have referred to both
this tree and the zdiraxa.)
margu [mag] x1 is a quantity
of/contains/made of mercury/quicksilver;
[metaphor: fluid metal; temperature]. (See also
marji [maj mai] x1 is material/stuff/matter
of type/composition including x2 in shape/form
x3. (Also (adjective:) x1 is physical (one
sense)/material. See also morna, mucti, nejni,
tarmi, dacti.)
95matnyxrula me’a
markuja x1 is a passionfruit/passionflower of
species/variety x2.
marlari x1 is malaria caused by Plasmodium
species x2. (Cf. blusfani, paludizm.)
marmota x1 is a marmot/woodchuck/groundhog of species x2.
(see also ratcu, smacu)
marna x1 is a quantity of hemp/marijuana/jute
of species/strain x2. (See also skori, tanko, sigja,
marnybu’u b1 is canvas made of hemp. (Cf.
marna, bukpu)
marnyva’u v1 smokes cannabis of type m2.
(Cf. marna, vasxu. See also damva’u, tankyva’u,
marxa [max] x1 [force]
mashes/crushes/squashes/smashes x2 into
pulp/mash/crumbs/deformed mass x3. (See also
daspo, pesxu, zalvi, bapli.)
masKUAS Moscow (Cf. moskov. Lojbanized pronunciations of the Russian capital are:
’masKVA’(Russian, but KV combination is invalid
in lojban), ’mosiKY’ (Chinese Mandarin; there is
no ’v’ in Chinese and ’f’ is unusual except at the
beginning of a word) and ’mosko’ or ’moskau’ in
masno [sno] x1 is slow/sluggish at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state). (See
also sutra.)
masti [ma’i] x1 is x2 months in duration (default is 1 month) by month standard x3. (This
month (= cabma’i); next month (= bavla’ima’i); last
month (= prula’ima’i). See also detri, djedi, jeftu,
masyce’u c1 is a parish of parishioners c2.
matci x1 is a mat/pad/mattress/pallet [flat,
soft, dense form] of material x2. (Also mattress =
(kicymatci). See also kicne, tapla, karda, ckana.)
matli x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of
linen/flax [type of fabric/material]. (See also
matlyspa x1 is flax of species/variety x2. (see
also matli, matlytsi)
matlytsi x1 is flaxseed/linseed produced by
plant x2, capable of growing into x3. (see also
matli, matlyspa)
matne x1 is a quantity of/contains butter/oleo/margarine/shortening from source x2.
((adjective:) x1 is buttery; an edible fat, solid but
spreadable at normal temperatures; dairy butter (=
ladmatne). See also grasu, kruji.)
matnyxrula x1 is a/the buttercup flower of
plant/species x2. (Cf. matne, xrula, xrulnranunkulu.)
matpai p1 approves m1 for m2 in property aspect m3. (Cf. mapti, pajni, zanru)
matra x1 is a motor/engine, driving/propelling/providing power to x2. (See
also marce, minji, carce.)
matsi’uma’i x1 is June of year x2 in calendar x3.
(Cf. xavmasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
matybi’o b1 becomes fitting with m2 in property/aspect m3. (Cf. mapti, binxo)
matygau g1 assigns/appoints m1 to m2.
4 mau’i [CAI2] attitudinal: stronger intensity
attitudinal relativizer (Specifies a stronger intensity - relative to any previously specified intensity
of the same UI/cmavo. CAI2 after CAI specifies an
absolute intensity - but the CAI2 specifies the relative shift from the regular value. CAI after CAI2
specifies an relative value - and the CAI denotes
the relative amount interval size. See also me’ai,
dau’i, sai)
maudji d1 prefers d1 = m1 (event/state) to m2
for purpose d3 by amount/excess z4. (Cf. zmadu,
djica, zmanei)
mau [BAI] zmadu modal, 1st place (a greater)
exceeded by ... ; usually a sumti modifier.
mavji [mav] x1 is a quantity of oats [grain] of
species/strain x2. (See also gurni.)
maxri [xri] x1 is a quantity of wheat [grain]
of species/strain x2. (See also gurni.)
maxydzu c1 = m1 stomps on surface c2 using limbs c3 crushing m2 into pulp mass m3. (Cf.
marxa, cadzu.)
maxyvru s1 is a crash (sound) produced by m1
smashing into m2. (Cf. marxa, savru)
ma [KOhA7] pro-sumti: sumti question
(what/who/how/why/etc.); appropriately fill in
sumti blank.
4 me’ai [CAI2] attitudinal: weaker intensity
attitudinal relativizer (Specifies a stronger intensity - relative to any previously specified intensity
of the same UI/cmavo. See also mau’i, dau’i, ru’e)
me’andi x1 is henna of species/variety x2. (see
also larcu, cinta)
me’a [BAI] mleca modal, 1st place (a lesser) undercut by ... ; usually a sumti modifier.
96mecyxlarai memimoi
me’e ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a
name; who?; requires quoted name as an answer.
me’e [BAI] cmene modal, 1st place (requires
quote) with name ...; so-called ...
me’ispe s1 is a brother-inlaw (sister’s spouse) of m2 under
law/custom/tradition/system/convention sp3.
(Omit x4 = s2 = m1. Cf. speni, bunspe, tubyspe.)
me’i [PA3] digit/number: less than.
4 me’oi [MEhOI] non-Lojban brivla (Used as a
convenient way to borrow foreign predicates into
Lojban. For unary predicates, equivalent to me la’e
me’o [LI] the mathematical expression (unevaluated); convert unevaluated mathematical expression to sumti.
me’u [MEhU] elidable terminator: end sumti
that was converted to selbri; usually elidable.
mebmla ml1 is a temple belonging to me2 (from
mebri mlana)
mebri [meb] x1 is a/the brow/forehead [projecting flat/smooth head/body-part] of x2. (See
also stedu, flira.)
mecmlerai me1 = t1 is least beautiful among
set/range t3 to m2 in aspect me3 (ka) by aesthetic
standard me4. (Cf. mleca, melbi, traji, mlerai, mlemau, mleme’a.)
mecna’u m1 = n1 is a negative number relative to origo m2. (Cf. ni’u, nonmecna’u, fatna’u,
mecrai m1 = t1 is the least of m2 = t4 in property m3 (ka/ni) by amount m4. (Cf. mleca, traji)
mectolmlerai me1 = t1 is least ugly among
set/range t3 to me2 in aspect me3 (ka) by aesthetic
standard me4. (Cf. mleca, melbi, traji, tolmlerai,
tolmlemau, tolmleme’a.)
mecybrarai t1 = b1 is the smallest/[ least big]
among set/range t4 in property/dimension(s) b2
(ka). (Cf. mleca, barda, cmarai, bramau, brarai,
brame’a. )
mecycmarai t1 = c1 is the biggest/[ least small]
among set/range t4 in property/dimension(s) c2
(ka). (Cf. mleca, cmalu, traji, brarai, cmarai, cmamau, cmame’a.)
mecyjavdu’i x1 is less than or equal to x2 in
property/quantity x3 by amount x4. (See also
mecyxagrai t1 = x1 is the worst among
set/range t4 for x2 by standard x3. (Cf. mleca,
xamgu, traji, xagme’a, xauzma, xagrai, xlarai.)
mecyxlarai m1 = x1 is the best/[least bad]
among set/range t4 for x2 by standard x3. (Cf.
mleca, xlali, traji, xagrai, xlamau, xlarai, xlame’a,
medomoi x1 is yours among x2 by
rule/relationship x3; x1 is your x2 by
rule/relationship x3.
megdo [meg] x1 is a million [10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (# megdo #
# See also grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno,
molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu, litce, merli, centi,
decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, mikri,
milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso,
zepti, zetro)
megygra x1 is x2 tonne(s) [metric unit] in mass
(default is 1) by standard x3. (Cf. megdo, grake.)
mei [mem mei] [MOI] convert number to cardinality selbri; x1 is the mass formed from set x2
whose n member(s) are x3. ([x1 is a mass with N
components x3 composing set x2; x2 is an n-tuple
(x2 is completely specified) (= selmei for reordered
places); x1 forms an n-some; x3 (not necessarily a
complete enumeration) are among the members of
x2]; See also cmima, gunma, cmavo list moi.)
mekfancu x1 is an operator/mathematical
function/single-valued mapping from domain x2
to range x3 defined by mathematical expression/rule x4.
mekna’u x1 is the value of expression x2 in
base/convention x3. (See also ju’u)
mekso [mek me’o] x1 [quanti-
fier/expression] is a mathematical expression
interpreted under rules/convention x2. (See also
cmaci, dilcu, fancu, frinu, jalge, namcu, parbi,
meksu’i x1 is an operand of operator x2 filling
place x3 under rules/convention x4.
melbi [mel mle] x1 is beautiful/pleasant to
x2 in aspect x3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x4. (Also
handsome, pretty, gorgeous, cute, comely, graceful. See also pluka, xamgu.)

meljo [mej] x1 reflects Malaysian/Malay culture/nationality/language in aspect x2. (See also
baxso, bindo.)
melpsita x1 is a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of breed x2. (Cf. bajriga, cipni, sralo.)
memimoi x1 is mine among x2 by
rule/relationship x3; x1 is my x2 by
rule/relationship x3.
97merje’a mi’asna
mencre c1 = m2 (person) is intelligent/smart
by standard c3. (Cf. menli, certu, bebna, pensi,
mencti c1 reads/watches/listens to/mentally
consumes c2.
menli [men] x1 is a
of body x2. ((adjective:) x1 is mental/psychological/a mental phenomenon;
multiple personalities (= so’i menli). See also
besna, morji, mucti, pensi, sanji, xanri, sevzi,
menmikce m1 is a psychologist/psychiatrist/counsellor/mental health
practitioner of client m2 treating ailment m3 with
treatment m4. (Cf. menli, mikce, menske, jikske)
menmuvgau g1=me1 telekinetically / with its
mind moves mu1 to destination/receiver mu2
[away] from origin mu3 over path/route mu4
(Made from menli+muvgau. menli2 dropped on
account of irrelevancy. See also gasnu, klama,
litru, makfa, menli, muvdu.)
mensi [mes me’i] x1 is a sister of/sororal to
x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent(s) x3; [not necessarily biological]. (See also bruna, tunba, tamne,
menske s1 (mass of facts) is mental science/psychology about subject matter s2 based on
methodology s3. (Cf. menli, saske, bi’armenske,
mentapiperita x1 is a quantity of peppermint of
species/strain x2
mentu [met me’u] x1 is x2 minutes in duration (default is 1 minute) by standard x3. (See also
junla, cacra, snidu, tcika.)
menynunda’a n1 is psychological warfare on
the part of d1.
menytcaci t1 is the psychological disposition of
t2 = m2. (Cf. tcaci, seltra, selzu’e, selpre.)
merbau m1 = b1 is the American English used
by b2 to express/communicate b3 (si’o/du’u, not
quote). (Cf. bangu, merko, glico, bangenugu.)
merfei f1 is worth f2 = m1 US cents. (Cf. fepni,
merko, jdini)
merfiti x1 is a skunk of genus/species x2. (Cf.
ckankua, cribe, prokioni, mabru.)
mergu’e m1 = g1 is the United States of America. (Cf. merko, gugde, gugde’usu.)
merja’a m1 = j1 is a president of the United
States of America. (Cf. merko, jatna, nolraitru)
merje’a j1 = m1 is the United State of America
as a state. (A U.S. state, or any part of a federation
is referred to as gugypau. Cf. merko, jecta, bemro.)
merkadno m1 = k1 reflects angloamerican culture/nationality/geography/language in aspect
m1 = k1. (Pertaining to the United States and
Canada. Cf. merko, kadno, bemro, bemjoitco)
merklu k1 = m1 is US culture. (Cf. merko,
kulnu, bemro)
merko [mer] x1 pertains to USA/American
culture/nationality/dialect in aspect x2. (See also
brito, bemro, ketco, xispo, glico.)
merlanu x1 is a whiting of species x2. (Cf. finpe,
merluci, finprgado, sperlanu, labyfi’e.)
merli [mre] x1 (agent) measures/evaluates x2
[quantity] as x3 units on scale x4 (si’o), with accuracy x5
mernta x1 is a quantity of mint (member of the
genus Mentha) of species/strain x2
mertru t1 is a government of the United States
of America. (Cf. merko, turni, merja’a)
meryru’u r1 = m1 is r2 US dollars. (Cf. merko,
rupnu, jdini, merfei)
mes Sister (Cf. mensi, bun, mam, paf, bes, tix.)
mexno [mex] x1 reflects Mexican culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also xispo,
bemro, spano.)
mexybau m1 = b1 is the Mexican Spanish
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (from mexno bangu c.f.
mexygu’e m1 = g1 is Mexico (Cf. mexno,
gugde, gugdemuxu.)
me [ME] convert sumti to selbri/tanru element;
x1 is specific to [sumti] in aspect x2.
mi’afra f1 laughs at f3 under conditions f4. (Cf.
cisma, mlimi’a.)
mi’amli m1 = c1 titters/chuckles/giggles. (Cf.
cmila, milxe.)
mi’arpe’u p1 (agent) tickles p2 with p3 (a locus
on p1 or an instrument) at p4 (a locus on p2). (Cf.
mlisa’e, tikpa.)
mi’asna s1 is laughter emitted by s2 = c1 (c.f.
cmila, sance.)
98micyxu’i milgra
mi’a [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s) & others unspecified,
but not you, the listener.
mi’ecpe m1 = c1 demands/exacts c2 = m3 of
c3 = m2, with manner/form of demand c4. (Cf.
minde, cpedu, pikci, preti, ca’icpe, camcpe.)
mi’enai [COI*] self vocative: self-introduction -
denial of identity; denies identity of speaker.
mi’esku x1 = m1 = c1 expresses/states command x2 = c2 to recipient(s) x3 = m2 = c3 via
expressive medium x4 = c4. (m3 of minde (the
desired result) is presumably cointained in he expression of the command. x1 commands x3 with
expression x2.)
mi’e [COI] self vocative: self-introduction - denial of identity; identifies speaker.
mi’ircelxa’i x1 = c1 is a machine gun for use
against x2 by x3, launching projectile c2 propelled
by c3. (Cf. minji, cecla, xarci, xumjimcelxa’i, xilcelxa’i, clacelxa’i, celgunta. )
mi’ircikre c1 repairs/mends/fixes/maintains c2
for use m2 = c3 (from minji cikre)
mi’irlarfi’a c1 is technology-oriented science fiction about plot/theme/subject c2 by author c3,
based on technology l1. (Cf. mi’irlarcu, skefi’a,
minji, larcu, cfika)
mi’ispi s1 is a piece of machine m1 = s2. (Cf.
minji, spisa)
mi’i [BIhI] non-logical interval connective: ordered components: ... center, ... range surrounding center.
mi’o [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s) & you the listener(s).
mi’u [UI3b] discursive: ditto. (See also mintu.)
mianma x1 is Burmese in aspect x2.
mibma’o c1 is a first person pronoun in language c4. (Cf. mi, mi’a, ma’a, mi’e, cmavo,
donma’o, sevzi, se’a, se’i, se’o.)
mibypre m1 = p1 is me. (Used instead of mi
when a brivla is needed.)
micka’agau m1 = g1 uses surgical implement
k1 to operate on organ(s) k2 of patient m2, as a
treatment for ailment m3. (Cf. mikce, katna)
micka’aku’a k1 is an operating theatre in which
to perform surgery m4. (Cf. mikce, kumfa,
micka’agau, spita)
micydi’u d1 is a clinic/surgery/practice with
doctor(s) m1. (Cf. mikce, dinju, spita)
micyske x1 is medicine/medical science/medical treatment to x2 for ailmentx3
by treatment/cure x4. (Cf. mikce, bilma, kanro,
micyxu’i x1 is an instance/dose/quantity of
medication/medicine/drug x2 for treating ailment m3. (Cf. mikce, xukmi.)
mic Doctor (Cf. mikce.)
midju [mij] x1 is in/at the middle/center/midpoint/[is a focus] of x2; (adjective:) x1 is central. (See also lanxe, jbini, nutli,
snuji, milxe, denmi, ralju.)
midnoi n1 is an instruction for n2 = m3
(event/state) to occur, issued by n3 = m1 for intended recipient n4 = m2. (Cf. minde, notci)
midvla v1 is a command word/keyword ordering v2 = m3 (event/state) in language v3. (Cf.
minde, valsi)
mifra [mif] x1 is encoded/cipher text of plaintext x2 by code/coding system x3; x1 is in code; x3
is a code. (Code (= termifra). See also mipri, lerfu,
mijdorsai x1 is a meal with meal dish x2.
mijgresirji x1 is a diameter between x2 and x3
of x4.
mikce [mic] x1 doctors/treats/nurses/[cures]/is physician/midwife
to x2 for ailment x3 by treatment/cure x4. (Also
medic; (adjective:) x1, x4 is medical; x2 is a
patient of x1 (= selmikce for reordered places) ;
x2 is treated by x1 person/x4 treatment/method;
successfully cure transitive (= sadmikce, sadvelmikce), intransitive (= sadyselmikce, ka’orbi’o
to not imply an external agent/process, though
the x1 and x4 of mikce may be self/internal);
treatment (= velmikce). See also bilma, kanro,
mikri [mik] x1 is a millionth [10
] of x2 in
dimension/aspect x3 (default is units). (See also
grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo,
xampo, gradu, litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto,
femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, milti,
nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti,
miksini m1 is a hagfish of species m2.
miksnidu x1 is x2 microseconds in duration.
(mikri snidu; the default x2 is 1)
mikygra g1 is g2 micrograms in mass (default is
1) by standard g3. (Cf. mikri, grake)
milgra g1 is g2 milligrams in mass by standard

mipri misrygu’e
milsnidu x1 is x2 milliseconds in duration.
(milti snidu; the default x2 is 1)
milti [mil] x1 is a thousandth [1/1000; 10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default is units).
(See also grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro,
kelvo, xampo, gradu, litce, merli, centi, decti,
dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo,
mikri, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso,
zepti, zetro)
miltre mit1 = mil1 is mit2 = mil1 (one by default) millimeter(s) in length measured in direction
mit3 by standard mit4.
milxe [mli] x1 is mild/nonextreme/gentle/middling/somewhat in property
x2 (ka); x1 is not very x2. (See also mutce, traji,
kandi, ruble, midju, nutli, ralci, traji.)
mimpoi x1 is a sequence of members x2, x3, x4,
... in that order. (The ordering rule is simply the
order of the arguments, the unordered set is the
set with members x2, x3, x4, ...)
minde [mid mi’e] x1 issues commands/orders to x2 for result x3 (event/state)
to happen; x3 is commanded to occur. ([also: x1
orders/sets/Triggers. x2 to do/bring about x3;
x1 is a commander; commanded (= termi’e)]; See
also lacri, te bende, jatna, ralju, jitro, turni, tinbe.)
minji [mi’i] x1 is a machine for use/function
x2; [automated apparatus, without direct function
control]. (Also machinery/mechanism; a machine
is initiated/triggered by an agent/force, but thereafter performs its function automatically; if selfdirected, (a minji is an) entity (= zukte). See also
cabra, matra, tutci, zukte, pilno, skami.)
minli x1 is x2 (default 1) long local distance
unit(s) [non-metric], x3 subunits, standard x4.
((additional subunit places may be added as x5,
x6, ...)
minra [mir] x1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x2
[object/radiation] to observer/point x3 as x4; x2
bounces on x1. (Also: x1 is a mirror/reflector. x2
may be light, lu’e of an imaged object; x4 may be
image or echo or the same as x2 if physical object;
x3 may be a path for a bounced object; ka is reflection
mintu [mit mi’u] x1 is the same/identical
thing as x2 by standard x3; (x1 and x2 interchangeable)
mipri [mip] x1 keeps x2 secret/hidden from
x3 by method x4; x2 is a secret; x1 hides/conceals
x2. (Intransitive hidden/secret, without an agent
(= selcri or nalterju’o); secret (= selmipri). See also
stace, mifra, sivni, djuno, cirko, jarco.)
mipstu s1 (place) hides m2 = s2 from m3 by
method m4; s1 is a hiding place. (Cf. mipri, stuzi)
miptera x1 is a bug of species x2. (see also cinki,
ckacinki, moptera, miptinytci, cfila, fanza)
miptinytci tu1 = m2 is a bug used by ti1 = m1
to listen to ti2 without mi3 being aware
mipypro f1 = m1 secretly opposes f2 = m3 regarding f3 (abstract) with secrecy method m4
mipypu’i x1 = p1 = m1 hides/conceals x2 = p2
from x4 = m3 on/at surface/locus x3 = p3 = m1,
the location being kept secret by method x5 = m4.
mipyzga z1 spies/snoops on z2 using
senses/means z3 under conditions z4.
mircai x1 glitters/sparkles/glares, reflecting x2
to observer x3.
mirlanxe l1 is symmetrical about axis m1.
mirli x1 is a deer/elk/moose/[hart/stag/doe]
of species/breed x2. (See also mabru, danlu.)
mirsarxe s1 is symmetrical about axis m1.
mirsi’o s1 = m4 is a notion of s2 = m2 to cognizer s3 = m3. (A mental reflection of real objects
and phenomena in their essential features and relations. Cf. sidbo, selpei, selga’e, tarmi.)
mirsna s1 = m4 is an echo of sound m2 = s2,
reflected by m1 and heard by m3.
misno [mis mi’o] x1 (person/object/event)
is famous/renowned/is a celebrity among
community of persons x2 (mass). (Also
celebrated/well-known; (derogative meanings:)
notorious/infamous (= malmi’o; these could also
be expressed using the referenced words). See
also se sinma, banli.)
misro x1 reflects Egyptian culture/nationality
in aspect x2. (See also friko, muslo, xrabo.)
misrybau m1 = b1 is the Egyptian Arabic
language used by b2 to express/communicate b3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf. misro, bangu, rabybau, bangaru’a, bangarubu.)
misryfrinu x1 is an Egyptian fraction with denominators x2, x3, ... (see also porfrinu)
misrygu’e x1 is Egypt
mivylivla mlaselfa’a
misryplespa x1 is a papyrus plant of variety x2.
(see also misryple, stagrleoxari)
misryple x1 is papyrus from source x2. (see also
misryplespa, pelji)
misyselsi’a m1 = s2 is glorified by s1. (Cf.
sinma, censa.)
mitcinpa’i x1 is homosexual/gay/lesbian;.
mitcinse c1 is homosexual/bisexual in situation c2 by standard c4. (For strict homosexuality,
see pavmitcinse. Cf. relcinse, dutcinse, nakcinse,
mitfa’e m1 = f1 is palindromic by standard m3.
(Cf. valsi, mirsarxe.)
mitmlu s1 = m1 seems to be the same as m2 by
standard m3 to observer s3 under conditions s4.
(Cf. simlu, mitmlu.)
mitmo’a mo1 = mi1 follows the same pattern
as mi2 with respect to forms/events mo2 arranged
according to structure mo3. (Cf. mintu, morna)
mitre [tre] x1 is x2 meter(s) [metric unit] in
length (default 1) measured in direction x3 by
standard x4. (See also kilto, centi, decti, dekto,
femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, gutci, litce, megdo,
mikri, milti, minli, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi,
xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro.)
mitsmuvla v1 = m1 is a synonym of m2 by standard m3 in language v3. (Cf. mintu, smuni, valsi,
mityjutcti m1 = j1 = c1 cannibalizes c2. m1 =
j1 = c1 is a cannibal.
mivdalmuzga x1 = m1 is a zoo at x3 = m3 with
animals x2 = m2 = j1 = d1. (Cf. jmive, danlu,
mivgau g1 reincarnates/resurrects j1 by standard j2. (Cf. jmive, gasnu)
mivjdu jd1 = jm1 is a jelly fish. (Cf. jmive, jduli,
mivmu’e m1 is nature/the world of living
things m2 = j1, defined by rules m3. (Cf. jmive,
mivmu’i x1 = m1 is a life-goal of x3 = m3 = j1
motivating x2 = m2 . (Cf. jmive, mukti)
mivru’e p1 is the life of j1 through stages p4.
(This focuses on the process of x2’s life as a succession of stages (childhood, chrysalis, etc.), while
nunji’e more generally denotes the event of x2 being alive without a default terbri to specify the
stages x2 goes through during that event.)
mivylivla l1 is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
transporting energy within organism l2 = j1.
mivyselkra x1 is organic, originating in living
organism x2. (See also tabyselcmu, rarvelcange.)
mivyselna’a n2 (number) is the age (in years)
of living thing j1, alive by standard j2, with year
standard n3.
mivyske s1 is biology/Life Science based on
methodology s2. (Cf. mrodalmuzga.)
mivyxu’i xu1 is an instance of chemical substance xu2 derived from biological source j1. (Cf.
mixre [mix xre] x1 (mass) is a mixture/blend/colloid/commingling with
ingredients including x2. (x2 mingles/mixes/blends into x1; x2 is in x1, an
ingredient/part/component/element of x1 (=
selxre for reordered places). See also salta, te
runta, stasu, jicla, sanso.)
mi [mib] [KOhA3] pro-sumti: me/we the
speaker(s)/author(s); identified by self-vocative.
mlafi’e f1 is a flatfish of family/genus/species
f2, swimming with side m1 upward. (Cf. finpe,
polgosu, flundero, platesa.)
mlajukma’i x1 is July of year x2 in calendar x3.
(Cf. zelmasti, kanbyma’i, nanca.)
mlakla x1 = k1 = m4 dodges/sidesteps/skirts
x2 = m2 from x3 = k3 by route x4 = k4 by means
of transportation x5 = k5. (The lateral frame of reference is that of the one who sidesteps. Cf. mlana,
klama, koizva.)
mlaluka x1 is a paperbark/tea tree of
species/variety x2.
mlana [mla] x1 is to the side of/lateral to x2
and facing x3 from point of view/in-frame-ofreference x4. ((cf. crane, trixe, pritu, zunle which
differ in that the direction of facing is the front and
not the lateral side. The x4 of mlana may be either
the front, or back side of x2, korbi))
mlaparsince s1 = c1 is a sidewinder of subspecies/type s2
mlapau m1 = p1 is the side of / is a part and
on the side of m2 = p2 and is facing m3 from
point of view/in-frame-of-reference m4. (Made
from mlana + pagbu.)
mlaselfa’a f2 is sideways from f3 = m2 . (x3 =
f1, the exact direction, is unspecified. Cf. mlana,
101mlifanza mo’iga’u
mlatu [lat] x1 is a cat/[puss/pussy/kitten]
[feline animal] of species/breed x2; (adjective:) x1
is feline. (See also cinfo, tirxu, gerku.)
mlaxelbo’a m1 is a sideband of signal b1 = m2.
mleba’i m1 = b1 is splendid/glorious/magnificent to m2 in aspect m3
(ka) by aesthetic standard m4, and by greatness
standard b4.
mleca [mec me’a] x1 is less than x2 in property/quantity x3 (ka/ni) by amount x4. (Also negative (= nonme’a). See also cmavo list me’a, cmavo
list su’o, jdika, zmadu, traji.)
mledi [led] x1 is a
mold/fungus/mushrooms/truffles of
species/strain x2 parasitic/growing on x3.
(See also clika.)
mlegaumai ma1 = g1 is a cosmetic/makeup for
beautifying me1 in aspect me3, made up of material ma2 in form ma3 (me2, me4 dropped g2 is lo
nu me1 melbi zi’o me3 )
mlejgi j1 is vain. (Cf. melbi, jgira)
mlemau z1 = m1 is more beautiful than z2 to
m2 in aspect m3 (ka) by amount z4. (Cf. melbi,
zmadu, mlerai, mecmlerai, mleme’a.)
mleme’a ml1 = me1 is less beautiful than ml2 to
me2 in aspect me3 (ka) by amount ml4. (Cf. melbi,
mleca, mlemau, mlerai, mecmlerai.)
mlenicygau g1 grooms/spruces up c1 = m1 in
property/aspect c2 = m3. (Cf. melbi, cnici, gasnu,
jisygau, lumci.)
mlerai m1 = t1 is most beautiful among
set/range t3 to m2 in aspect m3 (ka) by aesthetic
standard m4. (Cf. melbi, traji, mlemau, mecmlerai,
mletritra ta1 = tr1 = m1 is coquettish/flirtatious with tr2 = m2 in aspect m3 (from
melbi trina tarti)
mliba’u x1 = m1 = b1 whispers/mumbles/murmurs/coos utterance x2 = b2;
x1 = m1 = b1 speaks softly. (Cf. milxe, bacru,
smasku, laurblesku.)
mlibdena x1 is molybdenum.
mlibi’e b1 = m1 is breeze/zephyr from direction
b2 with speed b3. (Cf. milxe, brife)
mlibra b1 = m1 is somewhat big in dimension
b2 by standard b3. (Cf. milxe, barda)
mliburna b1 is mildly embarrassed/disconcerted about/under conditions
b2 (abstraction). (Cf. milxe, burna)
mlifanza f1 (event) slightly annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts f2.
mlifegba’u m1 = f1 = b1 grumbles with sound
b2 at f2 because of f3 (action/state/property). (jvajvo definition; Gismu deep structure is ”milxe gi’e
fengu gi’e bacru”)
mligla g1 = m1 is warm by standard g2. (Cf.
mlilenku l1 = m1 is cool (mildly cold) by standard l2. (Cf. lenku.)
mlimi’a c1 chuckles. (Cf. cisma, mi’afra,
mliri’a r1 (event/state)
mildens/allays/alleviates effect r2 (event/state)
under conditions r3. (Cf. mliri’agau for a person
as x1.)
mlisa’e s1 (agent) pets/gently strokes s2 with
s3. (Cf. pencu, mi’arpe’u, tikpa, tunta.)
mlongena x1 is eggplant of variety x2. (see also
patlu, tamca, kapsiku, labnyjba)
mluni [lun] x1 is a satellite/moon orbiting x2
with characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4. (See
also plini, solri, lunra.)
mo’aroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: too few
times; objective tense; defaults as time tense.
mo’a [mob] [PA4] digit/number: too few;
mo’e [MOhE] convert sumti to mex operand;
sample use in story arithmetic: [3 apples] + [3 apples] = what.
mo’ibe’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: northwardly; to the north directional space motion.
mo’ibu’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
to coincide directional space motion.
mo’ica’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: forward
directional space motion.
mo’icli c1 = m1 memorizes/commits to memory c2 = m2 (du’u) about subject c3 =
m3 from source c4 (obj./event) by method c5
(event/process)) (This word is different from cilre
in that it doesn’t include actual understanding of
the memorized data but merely the storage of it in
one’s memory.)
mo’idu’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: eastwardly; to the east directional space motion.
mo’ifa’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: arriving
at; arriving at a point directional space motion.
mo’iga’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: upwardly; upwards directional space motion.
102moi molmla
mo’ine’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: approximating; moving around the neighborhood of ...
space motion.
mo’ine’i [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
into directional space motion.
mo’ine’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: southwardly; to the south directional space motion.
mo’ini’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: downwardly; downwards directional space motion.
mo’ipa’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: passing
through directional space motion.
mo’ire’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: along;
along a path directional space motion.
mo’iri’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: rightwardly; to the right directional space motion.
mo’iru’u [FAhA*] space motion tense: orbiting;
surrounding/annular directional space motion.
mo’isro s1 is a memory/storage/anamnesis
containing facts/data/recollection s2 = m2 within
medium/substrate/containment s3, said facts related to subject m3. (Cf. morji, sorcu, mojrango.)
mo’isti s1 = m1 forgets fact/memory m2 about
subject m3. (Cf. morji, sisti, tolmo’i.)
mo’ite’e [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
along the border directional space motion.
mo’iti’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: rearwardsly; rearwards directional space motion.
mo’ito’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: moving
away from a point directional space motion.
mo’ivu’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: westwardly; to the west directional space motion.
mo’ize’o [FAhA*] space motion tense: outwardsly; outward directional space motion.
mo’izo’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: passing
by a site directional space motion.
mo’izo’i [FAhA*] space motion tense: approaching directional space motion.
mo’izu’a [FAhA*] space motion tense: leftwardsly; to the left directional space motion.
mo’i [mov] [MOhI] mark motions in spacetime.
mo’o [MAI] higher-order utterance ordinal suf-
fix; converts a number to ordinal, usually a section/chapter.
mo’u [ZAhO] interval event contour: at the natural ending point of ...; completive ― ¿―¡.
mobdu’a d1 is stingy about giving d2 to d3. (Cf.
mo’a, dunda.)
moi [mom moi] [MOI] convert number to ordinal selbri; x1 is (n)th member of set x2 ordered
by rule x3.
mojgaunoi x1 = n1 is a message reminding
facts x2 = m2 about x3 = m3 = n2 from author
x4 = n3 = g1 to intended audience x5 = n4 = m1.
(Cf. selmojnoi, mojgau, notci’a, gasnu, notci.)
mojgau g1 reminds m1 of facts m2 about m3.
(Cf. morji, mojgaunoi, mojri’a.)
mojmau z1 has a better memory than z2
with regards to facts m2 about subject m3 by
amount/excess z4.
mojrango r1 is the memory faculty of
body/species r2. (Cf. morji, rango, mo’isro.)
mojri’a r1 (event) reminds m1 of facts m2 about
subject m3 under conditions r3. (Cf. morji, rinka,
mojypei p1 = m1 remembers/thinks
back/reminisces about p2 = m3, recalling
facts m2. (Cf. morji, pensi.)
mojysu’a s1 is a structure of parts s2 as a monument/memorial to m3. (Cf. mrostu.)
mokca [moc] x1 is a point/instant/moment
[0-dimensional shape/form] in/on/at time/place
x2. (x1 is dimensionless. See also jipno, jganu, linji,
stuzi, tcika.)
moklu [mol mo’u] x1 is a/the mouth/oral
cavity [body-part] of x2; (metaphor: entrance/intake for consumption). ((adjective:)
x1 is oral. See also ctebi, denci, tance.)
molgai g1 is a muzzle on m2 (from moklu gacri)
molgapru g1 is the palate of m2. (Cf. moklu.)
molgle g1 = m2 performs oral sex on g2. (Cf.
gletu, vibgle, gaxygle. le gletu is taken as the ’active’ partner.)
molja’u m1 = j1 is the mandible of arthropod
m2 = j2 (This is a mandible of a insect/other
arthropod. This is not to be confused with the
mandible of vertrabrates which is xedja or dzixe’a)
molki [mlo] x1 is a mill/foundry/industrial
plant/[assembly line] performing process x2.
((unlike fanri,) need not produce a product; grain
mill (= grumlo), grinding mill (= zalmlo, zalmlotci,
zalmloca’a). See also gasta, gurni, tirse, fanri, zalvi.)
molku’o m1 = s1 is a philtrum (infranasal depression) of m2 = s2. (Cf. skuro, moklu, nazbi,
molmla x1 is the cheek of x2 (person/animal)
103mosyjgita mrori’a
molro [mo’o] x1 is x2 mole(s) [metric unit] in
substance (default is 1) by standard x3. (See also
centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto,
megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi,
xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro.)
molselpu’u x1 = s2 is
saliva/sput/sputum/spittle of x2 = s1. (Cf.
moltenva’u x1 = v1 yawns/[breathes while
stretching mouth] (Cf. vasxu, moklu, tcena, sipfru,
moltu’u t1 is a mouthpiece/embouchure of material t2 conveying fluid t3. (Cf. tubnu, zgica’a.)
momlai x1 is the x2nd member of set x3 ordered
by rule x4 .
monfu’igau x1 = g1 (agent) emulates x3 =
f2 resulting in emulation/imitation x2 = f1 in
medium x4 = f3 by method x5 = f4 exhibiting
pattern x6 = m1. (Cf. monfu’i.)
monfu’i f1 is an emulation/imitation of f2 in
medium f3, emulated by method f4 and exhibiting pattern m1. (Cf. morna, fukpi, monfu’igau.)
morji [moj mo’i] x1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact(s)/memory x2 (du’u)
about subject x3. (See also cmavo list ba’anai,
menli, pensi, sanji, djuno, notci.)
morko [mor] x1 reflects Moroccan culture/nationality in aspect x2. (See also friko,
xrabo, muslo.)
morna [mon mo’a] x1 is/reflects/represents
a pattern of forms/events x2 arranged according
to structure x3. ([x3 is a model for x1 (= termontai, or the more abstract = termonsi’o); image (= gusmo’a, nenmo’a, dairmo’a, selylenmo’a,
selmirmo’a, velmirmo’a, but also all of these -
tai instead of -mo’a for the ideal)]; See also ciste,
ganzu, marji, slilu, stura, tarmi, boxna, cimde,
gidva, jimpe, rilti.)
morsi [mro] x1 is dead/has ceased to be alive.
(Die/mortal (= mrobi’o, co’urji’e). See also jmive,
catra, betri.)
mors Morse; Morse code, telegraphy.
mosra [mos] x1 is friction [force opposing motion] due to contact/rubbing between x2 and x3;
(fe) x2 rubs x3. (Also x2 scrubs/wipes/brushes
(against) x3 (= seltermosra); non-agentive rub (=
termosra). See also sakli, sraku, jabre, satre, guska,
pencu, spali.)
mosycpu l1 drags/hauls l2 = m2 by handle/at
locus l3 along surface m3. (Cf. mosra, lacpu.)
mosyjgita j1 is a bowed string instrument using
bow m2. (Cf. mosra, jgita, jgitrviolino, jgitrxu.)
mosyvi’u v1 = m2 rubs off v2 from v3 = m3
leaving remainder v4. (Cf. mosra, vimcu.)
mo [GOhA] pro-bridi: bridi/selbri/brivla
mraigo m1 is Welsh in aspect m2.
mraji x1 is a quantity of rye [grain] of
species/strain x2. (See also gurni.)
mrajymledi ml1 is ergot of species ml2. (A fungus that grows on rye and other cereals; it contains
the alkaloid ergotamine, which has hallucinogenic
effects on humans and animals, and from which
LSD!en is synthesized.)
mrena’u n1 is a real number. (Cf. namcu,
mulna’u, xarna’u.)
mreske s1 is metrology based on methodology
mrilu [mri] x1 mails/posts [transfer via intermediary service] x2 to recipient address x3 from
mailbox/post office/sender address x4 by carrier/network/system x5. (Also x4 post office,
mailbox. (cf. benji In which the medium need
not be a 3rd party service/system, and x2 need not
consist of discrete units. notci, xatra, tcana))
mriste l1 is a mailing list with subscribers/recipients l2 = m3. (Cf. mrilu, ve
mrobi’o b1 dies under conditions b3.
mrocticpi cip1 = cit1 is a vulture of species cip2.
(Cf. morsi, citka, cipni.)
mrodalmuzga mu1 is a natural history museum
for preserving [and possibly exhibiting] animals of
kind mu2 = d2 = mo1 at location mu3. (Cf. mivdalmuzga, mivyske.)
mrodimna x1 is mortal/subject to death. (See
also morsi, dimna, mroka’e)
mrodri b1 mourns/grieves over the death of
m1 = b2
mrofoi f1 is a cemetery/graveyard/burial
ground for dead person(s)/animal(s) m1. (Cf.
morsi, mrobi’o, derse’a.)
mroka’e m1 = k1 is mortal/capable of dying
under conditions k3. (Used in Theodore Reed’s
translation of ”A Princess of Mars”.)
mroke’a k1 is a grave in ground k2 for m1. (Cf.
morsi, mrostu, mrofoi, derse’a.)
mrori’a x1 is the cause of x2’s death under conditions x3; x1 kills x2.
104muclai mulfa’o
mrospe x1=s1 is widowed from x2=m1=s2 by
law/convention x3=s3 (See also: speni, nu’ospe,
mrostu s1 is the grave/tomb of m1 = s2. (Cf.
morsi, mrofoi, derse’a.)
mrotolkakpa k1 buries/inters corpse/[entomb]
k2 = m1 at grave/cemetery/[mausoleum/crypt]
k3 (k4 dropped because of little use in this application.)
mrovau v1 is a coffin containing v2 = m1. (Cf.
morsi, mrostu, mrofoi.)
mrubo’u x1 is the hammer/malleus in ear x2 in
body x3
mruli [mru] x1 [tool] is a hammer
for/hammers x2 [target] consisting of
weight/head x3 propelled by x4. (See also
mu’acu’i [UI*3] discursive: for example - omitting - end examples.
mu’anai [UI*3] discursive: for example - omitting - end examples.
mu’a [UI3] discursive: for example - omitting -
end examples. (See also mupli.)
4 mu’ei [ROI] Converts PA into tense;
in [number (usually nonspecific)] possible
worlds/alternate histories where [sumti (du’u)] is
true (Includes what ”may have happened” if the
past were different from the actual past. See ba’oi)
mu’erkraske x1 is cosmology (in astronomy)
based on methodology x2 (Cf. mu’eske, kesyske,
kensa, munje, krasi, saske)
mu’eske s1 is cosmology based on methodology s3. (Cf. munje, saske, tarske, termu’eske.)
mu’etru t1 is a lord of universe t2 = m1.
mu’e [muf] [NU1] abstractor: achievement (event) abstractor; x1 is the event-as-apoint/achievement of [bridi].
mu’i ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a motive; why?.
mu’inai [BAI*] mukti modal, 1st place despite
motive ...
mu’i [BAI] mukti modal, 1st place because of
motive ...
mu’onai [COI*] vocative: over (response OK) -
more to come.
mu’o [COI] vocative: over (response OK) -
more to come.
mu’u [BAI] mupli modal, 1st place exemplified
by ...
muclai k1 is k2 (quantifier, default: one) spoonfuls/scoopfuls in quantity. (Cf. smuci, klani.)
mucti [mut] x1 is immaterial/not physical/without material form. (See also marji, menli,
pruxi, sidbo.)
mudbli x1 is a block of wood x2 with surfaces
mudri [mud] x1 is a quantity of/is made
of/contains wood/lumber from tree(s) of
type/species x2. (See also tricu, stani.)
mudyctijalra j1 is a termite of species j2. (Cf.
mudydei x1 is Thursday of week x2 on calendar
mudyfagri f1 is a wood fire burning in/reacting
with oxidizer f3. (Omit x3 = f2 = m1. Cf. fagri,
jelca, mudri.)
mudyka’apre p1 is a woodcutter/lumberjack
using tool k1 to cut trees of species m2. (Cf. mudri,
mudypu’o p1 = m1 is sawdust of wood type
p2 = m2. (Cf. cmamudyspi, tricu.)
mudyxultci t1 is an adze
mufspe m1 is the marriage of s1 and s2 under
convention s3. (Probably a misnomer for nunspe)
mujyku’e k1 is universal in domain m2 defined
by rules m3 (from munje kuspe c.f. kampu)
mujysamseltcana t2 is the internet/cyberspace
that includes nodes/computers t1 = s1 whose
function/purpose is s2. (Cf. munje, skami, tcana,
samseltcana, kagysamseltcana, internet.)
muki’o [PA*] number/quantity: 5,000 expressed with comma.
mukti [muk mu’i] x1 (action/event/state)
motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event
x2, per volition of x3. (Also; x3 is motivated to
bring about result/goal/objective x2 by x1 (=
termu’i for reordered places); (note that ’under
conditions’ BAI may apply and be appropriately
added to the main predicate level or within the x2
action level). (cf. cmavo list mu’i, nibli, te zukte
- generally better for ’goal’, se jalge, krinu, rinka,
ciksi, djica, xlura))
mulbi’o x1 is completed in property x2 according to standard x3
mulcabna x1 (event) is after x2 (event) concludes. x1 is in the future when x2 finishes
mulfa’o f1 is the end/finish/completion of
completed thing/process f2 = m1.
105mumoi murta
mulgau g1 makes m1 complete in property m2
by standard m4. (Cf. mulno, gasnu, tolcfari’i.)
mulgri g1 = m1 is a complete set showing common property (ka) g2, complete by standard m3.
(Cf. mulno, girzu)
mulgunma g1 = m1 is a
mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed solely/completely/wholly of components
x2, considered jointly, by standard m3. (From
mulno + gunma. Just gunma with a complete
specification of members. m2 dropped since the
property is always ”membership in the mass in
question”. m3 left in since it seems to do no harm,
although its meaning seems a bit unclear here.)
muljbi x1 is almost/nearly
done/complete/finished/whole in property
x2 by standard x3. (See also so’a)
mulkla k1 = m1 arrives at k2 from k3 via route
k4 by means k5. (k1 = m1 is complete in coming/going to k2.)
mulna’usle s1 = mn1 is an indivisible /
prime number in integer domain s2. (Made from
mulna’u + selci.;)
mulna’u n1 is an integer.
mulno [mul mu’o] x1 (event) is complete/done/finished; x1 (object) has become
whole in property x2 by standard x3. (Also perfected, entirety; (adverb/adjective:) entire, total,
integral, fully, totally, wholly, completely, entirely.
See also fanmo, culno, pagbu, xadba, prane, jalge,
sumji, munje, sisti, xadni.)
mulpi’i p1 is the integer result of multiplying integer p2 by integer p3. (Made from mulno + pilji.
See also mulna’u, mulna’usle.)
mulslemijyji’e x1 is a eukaryote of species x2.
(An eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain
complex structures enclosed within membranes.
All species of large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals (=danlu), plants (=spati)
and fungi (=mledi, although most species of eukaryote are protist microorganisms (=jurmi).)
multertu’i m1 = t3 (du’u) is unanimous / based
on complete agreement among t1 = t2.
mumbais Mumbai.
mumbircurnu x1 is a starfish of species x2. (Cf.
mu, birka, curnu.)
mumdei x1 is a Friday of week x2 in calendar
mumei [MOI*] quantifier selbri: convert 5 to
cardinal selbri; x1 is a set with the quintet of members x2.
mumoi [MOI*] quantified selbri: convert 5 to
ordinal selbri; x1 is fifth among x2 ordered by rule
mumplini p1 is the fifth closest planet (default
is Jupiter if p2 is the Sun) revolving around p2
(default is the Sun), with planetary characteristics
p3, orbital parameters p4. (Cf. mumplin, pavyplini, relplini etc.; see also terdi, solri, mluni, lunra,
plinycma, tarci’e.)
mumplin Jupiter. (Cf. mumplini.)
mumymasti x1 is May/the fifth month of year
x2 in calendar x3. (Cf. pavmasti, nanca.)
mumymast May. (Cf. bakma’i, mumymasti.)
mumymoija’a j1 has the rank of
Colonel/Captain/Group Captain (equivalent
of NATO OF-5) in military unit /organization j2.
(Cf. mu, moi, jatna, jemja’a, vairsoi, xavmoija’a,
vonmoija’a. Based on STANAG 2116: NATO
Codes for Grades of Military Personnel.)
mumymomdegji m1 = d1 is the little finger of
d2. (Cf. degji.)

munje [muj mu’e] x1 is a universe/cosmos
[complete and ordered entirety] of domain/sphere
x2 defined by rules x3. (Also world; a universe is
a kind of system, one which comprehensively encompasses its domain; e.g. ’universe of discourse’,
or ’world of birds’; x3 are the rules/defining principles which distinguish the universe from other
universes, or from non-universe. See also ciste,
plini, kensa, mulno.)
munono [PA*] number/quantity: 500 [five
muno [PA*] number/quantity: 50 [fifty].
mupcpa c1 takes a sample of c2 = m2 from
source/set c3 = m3. (Cf. cpacu.)
mupli [mup] x1 is an example/sample/specimen/instance/case/illustration
of common property(s) x2 of set x3. (See also
cmavo list mu’u, pixra.)
murse x1 is the [astronomical]
of day x2 at location x3. (Morning twilight,
dawn (= cermurse); evening twilight, dusk (=
vacmurse). See also cerni, kandi, vanci.)
murta [mur mu’a] x1 is a curtain/blinds/drapes for covering/obscuring
aperture x2, and made of material x3. (See also
canko, vorme.)
106na’a nacnilbra
muslo [mus] x1 pertains to the Islamic/Moslem/Koranic [Quranic] culture/religion/nation in aspect x2. (Also Muslim.
See also jegvo, lijda.)
mustlei x1 is a weasel of species/variety x2. (Cf.
mabrnfuru, ermine.)
mutce [tce] x1 is much/extreme in property
x2 (ka), towards x3 extreme/direction; x1 is, in
x2, very x3. (Also very, pretty, a lot, immoderate/immoderately, intense, quite, extremely. See
also milxe, traji, banli, carmi, nutli, traji.)
mutmi’i mi1 = mu1 is an algorithm for
use/function mu2.
mutpapri p1 = m1 is a web page containing
hyperlinks in website / collection of hyperlinking
documents p2. (Cf. mucti, papri, samci’ejudri. Not
tied specifically to the HTTP or other communications protocol.)
muvdu [muv mu’u] x1 (object) moves to destination/receiver x2 [away] from origin x3 over
path/route x4. (Also mobile (= comymu’u, for
the non-specific opposite of immobile); after a muvdu, object is alienated from/no longer at origin (unless physically returned there, per litru
or slilu); agentive move (= muvgau, muvzu’e),
non-agentive transitive move (= muvri’a), selfpropelled (= sezmuvgau), motion of a part of
the object (= pagmu’u), having a moving part
(= muvypau, muvyselpau); apparent motion (=
mlumu’u). (cf. rinci, klama (which differs in that
the means of motion is explicit), litru, cliva, fatri;
dunda, benji for agentive movement that does not
necessarily imply alienation from origin, preja for
similar movement with no agent implied, bevri,
muvgau g1 moves m1 to destination m2 from
origin m3 over path/route m4. (c.f. muvdu,
muzga [muz] x1 is a museum for preserving
[and possibly exhibiting] x2 at location x3. (See
also citri.)
mu [mum] [PA1] digit/number: 5 (digit)
my [BY2] letteral for m.
na’acto x1 is x2 centuries in duration by standard x3. (nanca xecto; the default x2 is 1)
na’arkagnoi n1 is the annual report of company/corporation/organization k1. (Cf. nanca,
kagni, notci, kagyselpo’e, kagyseldejni, prali.)
na’a [BY1] cancel all letteral shifts.
na’ebo [NAhE+BO] negation sumti qualifier:
something other than. (Cf. na’e, bo, je’abo, no’ebo,
na’efa’a [FAhA*] space direction: not towards specified point, contrary negation; direction
na’epu’i [CAhA*] modal aspect: has never, and
perhaps cannot; other-than-demonstrated-ability.
na’e [nal] [NAhE] contrary scalar negator:
other than ...; not ...; a scale or set is implied.
na’itsi x1 is a samara of x2 for producing offspring x3. (see also a’orne, ulmu)
na’i [UI3a] discursive: metalinguistic negator.
(See also naldra, nalmapti.)
na’onai [TAhE*] tense interval modifier: atypically; subjective tense/modal; defaults as time
na’o [TAhE] tense interval modifier: characteristically/typically; tense/modal; defaults as time
na’u [NAhU] convert selbri to mex operator;
used to create less-used operators using le’avla, lujvo, etc.
na.a [A*] logical connective: sumti afterthought conditional/only if.
nabmi [nam] x1 (event/state) is a problem
to/encountered by x2 in situation/task/inquiry
x3. (Also: x1 requires consideration by x2. See also
preti, danfu, ciksi, jijnu, jinvi, nandu, pensi, sidbo,
nabypalne n1 = p1 is a
with topping/ingredients p2 and bread of type
n2 = p3. (Cf. snuji, pitnanba, iptsa, cidjrpitsa,
nabysko x1 is a quantity of noodles.
nabyspi s1 is a crumb of bread n1 made from
grains n2. (Cf. nanba, spisa.)
nabzba z1 bakes bread/cake/pastry z2 = n1
from ingredients z3.
nacle’u l1 is a numeral in system l2 representing
l3=n1. (If not specified l2 defaults to the Arabic
numerals in Western scripts.)
nacmei x1 is a vector of dimension x2 with coordinates x3, x4, x5, ... (See also relnacmei, cibnacmei, pinynacmei, rajnacmei, nacmemsu’a)
nacnilbra x1 is the absolute value/norm of x2.
(See also cu’a)
107nakspe nalra’u
nacpoiba’u b1 counts numbers n1 = p1 out
nadycai c1 = n1 is a big problem/crisis for n2
in situation/task/inquiry n3. (Cf. nabmi, carmi.)
nafselte’i x1 is an exception/the only one without property x2 among x3 (See also natfe, selte’i,
nagi’a [GIhA*] logical connective: bridi-tail afterthought conditional/only if.
nago’i [GOhA*] selbri: repeats preceding bridi
while denying it as false; pro-assign values are unchanged.
naijgi j1 = n2 is a patriot of nation n1. (Cf.
natmi, jgira, natpa’i.)
naizgi z1 is folk music performed at/by z2
(event), originating in group of people n2.
(Cf. natmi, zgike, nolzgi, sopselneizgi, dja’aza,
nai [NAI] attached to cmavo to negate them;
various negation-related meanings.
naja [JA*] logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought conditional/only if.
najgenja g1 is a carrot of variety g2. (Cf. gejrdauko, stagi, spati.)
najnimre x1 is an orange of variety x2. (see also
nimre, pelnimre, branimre, ri’ornimre, skorbuti,
najycutcpi ci1 = cu2 is an American robin of
variety ci2 (Turdus migratorius. This is not the European robin.)
nakcinse c1 is androphilous/bisexual/straight
female/gay male in situation c2 by standard c4.
(This word is only about sexual interest in males;
other sexuals interest are irrelevant. See also
fetcinse, naknakcinse, mitcinse, dutcinse.)
naknakcinse c1 = f1 is male and androphilous/gay/bisexual in situation c2 by standard c4 (This word is about male homosexuality and bisexuality. See also nakcinse, fetfetcinse,
mitcinse, relcinse.)
naknalspe f1 = n1 is an unmarried man under
law/custom/tradition s3. (Cf. nalspe, naknalspe,
specfari’i, bavyspe, pruspe.)
nakni [nak] x1 is a male/buck of species x2
evidencing masculine trait(s) x3 (ka); x1 is masculine. (See also fetsi, bersa.)
nakpinji p1 is a/the penis of p2 = n1. (Cf. fetpinji, pinji.)
naksmifetsi’o si1 is feminism, the idea that
females and males are alike in quality sm3, as
thought by si2.
nakspe x1 is a husband of x2 (spouse) according
to marriage law/custom/tradition x3.
nakybakni n1 = b1 is a bull/steer/ox/male
bovine of species/breed n2 = b2. (nakni+bakni)
nakydzetru t1 is a patriarch of people/territory/domain/subjects t2. (Cf. fetydzetru.)
nalbolbi’o bi1 unrolls under condition bi3. (Cf.
na’e, bolci, binxo.)
nalbro b1 = n1 is gentile.
nalceikri k1 is an atheist. (Cf. ceikri, seljda,
nalci’i x1 is uninteresting to x2. (See also
nalci’o x1 is senior/older/other than young by
standard x2. (na’e citno; see also makcu, tolci’o)
nalci [na’i] x1 is a/the wing [body-part] of
x2; [metaphor: lateral supporting surface]. (See
also cipni, pimlu, rebla.)
nalcre c1 is lay (non-professional) in
event/activity c2 by standard c3. (Cf. certu.)
nalcti c1 abstains from eating c2; c1 fasts. (Cf.
naldjica x1 does not want/desire x2
(event/state) for purpose x3. (Cf. na’e, djica)
nalfadni f1 [member] is uncommon/atypical/unusual in property f2 (ka)
among members of f3 (set). (Cf. na’e, fadni, rirci.)
nalgundei x1 = d1 is a period of x2 = d2 nonworking days/vacation days/holidays for worker
x3 = g1 at job x4 = g2 (Removed djedi3 as being
unneeded. )
nalju’i x1 is inattentive towards/distracted/inadvertent of object/affair
x2. (See also a’acu’i)
naljundi j1 is inattentive towards/distracted
from object/affair j2. (Cf. na’e, jundi.)
nalmo’i m1 forgets fact/memory m2 about subject m3. (Cf. na’e, morji, tolmo’i. Assumes that
morji refers to a state i.e. ’remember’= ’retain in
nalmu’o x1 is incomplete/unfinished in property x2 by standard x3 . (See also uonai)
nalpro p1 gives consent/agreement/sanction to
p2 (person/force ind./mass) about p3 (abstract).
(Cf. na’e, fapro, tugni, ie, e’a.)
nalra’ugei g1 = r2 is tranquil/happy about g2 =
r1. (Cf. na’e, raktu, gleki, mansygei, camgei.)
nalra’u r1 leaves r2 alone/in peace. (Cf. raktu.)
108nandu nargrkaria
nalre’ucti c1 does not eat meat c2 = r1; c1 is a
nalri’i r1 (NU) is casual, not formal/ceremonial.
(Cf. surla, xalbo, kalsa, cunso.)
nalselci’i x1 = c2 is uninterested in x2 = c1. (Cf.
cinri, selci’i, norselci’i, tolselci’i, a’ucu’i.)
nalseljukpa j2 is uncooked/raw. (Cf. na’e,
nalselna’i x1 is wingless/has no wings.
nalselnalci x1 is wingless/has no wings. (Cf.
nalci, cipni)
nalselra’u r2 is calm/untroubled about r1 with
result r3. (Cf. na’e, raktu, nalra’ugei.)
nalspe f1 = n1 is unmarried under
law/custom/tradition s3. (Cf. fetnalspe, naknalspe, specfari’i, bavyspe, pruspe.)
nalstace s1 is dishonest/disingenuous to s2
about s3. (Cf. stace, tcica.)
nalsti s1 (agent) is relentless/unceasing in activity/process/state s2.
nalta’acni c1 = t1 is withdrawn, feeling emotion c2 about c3 = t3 from t2. (Cf. na’e, tavla,
nalxe’u x1 is unrepentant of x2. (See also
nalzungi, u’ucu’i)
nalzungi x1 is unremorseful of x2. (See also
nalxe’u, u’unai)
nalzva x1 is absent from x2.
namcrgogolo x1 is a googol [10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default units).
namcrgogolplexu x1 is a googolplex [10
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 (default units).
namcu [nac na’u] x1 (li) is a number/quantifier/digit/value/figure (noun); refers
to the value and not the symbol. (See also lerfu,
mekso, klani.)
namkei x1 = k1 = n2 [agent] tries to solve
puzzle/enigma/riddle/charade x2 = k2 = n1 in
game/contest x3 = n3
nanba [nab] x1 is a quantity of/contains
bread [leavened or unleavened] made from grains
x2. (See also gurni, panlo, toknu.)
nanbe’o x1 reflects Central American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2. (From
snanu, bemro.)
nanbrmatsa x1 is a matzo made from grain x2.
(see fomcau, nanba, fomymledi)
nanca [na’a] x1 is x2 years in duration (default is 1 year) by standard x3; (adjective:) x1
is annual. (This year (= cabna’a); next year (=
bavlamna’a); last year (= prulamna’a). See also detri, djedi, jeftu, masti.)
nandu [nad] x1 is difficult/hard/challenging
for x2 under conditions x3; x1 challenges (nonagentive) x2. (See also frili, nabmi, jdari, talsa,
nanfi’oglibau x1 is the South African English
language used by x2 to express/communicate x3
(si’o/du’u, not quote). (Cf. snanu, friko, glico,
bangu, glibau, bangenugu.)
nanfi’ogu’e x1 is South Africa. (Cf. snanu,
friko, gugde, gugdezu’a.)
nanla x1 is a boy/lad [young male person] of
age x2 immature by standard x3. (Word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use verba).
See also nixli, verba, nanmu, bersa.)
nanl Master (Cf. nanla, nix, naun, nim.)
nanmu [nau] x1 is a man/men; x1 is a male
humanoid person [not necessarily adult]. (Word
dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use
remna or prenu). See also ninmu, remna, prenu,
makcu, nanla, bersa.)
nansicnansnanu x1 is south by west of x2 in
reference frame x3.
nanslovo x1 is South Slavic/Yugoslavian in aspect x2. (South Slavic if the aspect is language,
else Yugoslavian; see also slovino, bolgaro, slovo,
serbo (experimental))
nanstici x1 is southwest of x2 in frame of reference x3.
nanstuna x1 is southeast of x2 in frame of reference x3.
nansunsunsnanu x1 is southeast by east of x2
in frame of reference x3.
nanvi [nav] x1 is a billionth/thousandmillionth [10
] of x2 in dimension/aspect x3
(default is units). (See also grake, mitre, snidu,
stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu, litce,
merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro,
kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, petso, picti, terto, xatsi,
xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro)
narge [nag] x1 is a nut [body-part: hardshelled fruit] from plant/species x2 with shell x3
and kernel x4. (Also x4 nucleus, center (= velnarge
for place reordering). See also grute, stagi, jbari,
nargile x1 is a nargileh/hookah for smoking x2.
nargrkaju x1 is a cashew of species x2.
nargrkaria x1 is pecan/hickory of
species/variety x2.
na nelrai
nargrpistaco x1 is a pistachio of species x2.
narjista’u x1 is dirty laundry worn by x2 for
purpose x3, dirty with x4.
narju [naj] x1 is orange [color adjective]. (See
also skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, pelxu,
narpanra p1 is unique/unequaled/unparalleled/unmatched
/ the only one of its kind.
naru’e [NA*] weak bridi negation; almost, but
not quite.
natfe [naf na’e] x1 (du’u) contradicts/denies/refutes/negates x2 (du’u) under
rules/logic x3. (Also exception (= nafmupli);
agentive contradict/deny (= nafxu’a or tolxu’a).
See also nibli, tugni, zanru, xusra.)
natmi [nat nai] x1 is a nation/ethnic group
of peoples x2; [people sharing a history/culture].
(See also jecta, kulnu, lanzu, gugde, bangu,
natpa’i p1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards the nation/ethnic group n2; p1 is
a patriot/nationalist. (Cf. natmi, prami, natpamtrusi’o, naijgi.)
natpamtrusi’o s1 is a nationalist political ideology as applied by t1 = p1 among/in people/territory/domain t2 based on the works of
thinker s3 (From natmi, prami, turni, sidbo.
Cf. natpa’i, trudjigri, ka’irtrusi’o, dzejdasratrusi’o, vricykricrutrusi’o, fairpaltrusi’o, guntrusi’o, tsarainaitrusi’o.)
naun Mr./Mister (Cf. nanmu, nix, nanl, nim.)
nau [CUhE] tense: refers to current space/time
reference absolutely.
navni x1 is a quantity of/contains/is
made of inert gas of type x2
[neon/argon/radon/xenon/krypton]. (Default
neon. See also xukmi, gapci.)
navytre m1 = n1 is m2 = n2 nanometer(s) /
billionth(s) of a meter [metric unit] in length (default 1) measured in direction m3 = n3 by standard x4 = m3. (See also centre. Made from nanvi
+ mitre.)
navzmi z1 is a nanobot performing function z2
under conditions z3.
naxle [nax xle] x1 is a canal/channel to x2
from x3 with route x4. (x2/x3 may be unordered.
See also pluta, rirxe, klaji, dargu.)
nazbi [naz zbi] x1 is the nose [body-part] of
x2 with nostril(s)/nasal passage(s) x3; [metaphor:
protrusion]. (Also (adjective:) nasal. See also
degji, panci, sumne, tance.)
na [nar] [NA] bridi contradictory negator;
scope is an entire bridi; logically negates in some
cmavo compounds.
ne’a [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
approximating/next to ...
ne’i [FAhA3] location tense relation/direction;
within/inside of/into ...
ne’o [VUhU3] unary mathematical operator:
factorial; a!.
ne’u [FAhA1] location tense relation/direction;
south of.
nebdadycreka cr1 = d1 is a halter top of
material cr2. (A subtype of ”tube top” (jancaucreka), with a single strap around the back of the
neck. Suggested shortest fu’ivla form: ebdrka. Cf.
nebgunse x1 is a swan (genus Cygnus) of
species/strain x2
nebjendu j1 is the axis (cervical vertebra) of c2
nebnipcreka cr1 = s1 is a polo-neck garment
of material cr2. (Usually a sweater (nivycreka),
with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that
folds over and covers the neck. Suggested shortest fu’ivla form: epcrka. Cf. creka.)
nebyka’a k1 is a guillotine/executioner’s axe
for beheading k2.
nebyplovoicpi ci1 = cn2 = v1 is a
heron/egret/bittern of species ci2 (Members of
family Ardeidae are noted for flying with their
necks folded.)
nebysrijge j1 is a necktie made of material d2
worn by c2. (Cf. dadne’ota’u.)
nederland Holland/The Netherlands.
neizma x1 = n1 = z1 likes x3 = n2 more than
x2 = z2 does, by margin x4 = z4. (Contrast with
zmanei for ”prefer”.)
nei [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats the current bridi.
nejni [nen] x1 is energy of type x2 in form
x3. (Ray/beam (= nenli’i). See also marji, tarmi,
kantu, lazni, livla.)
nelci [nel nei] x1 is fond of/likes/has a
taste for x2 (object/state). (See also cinmo, djica,
pluka, prami, rigni, sinma, trina, xebni, cuxna,
nelrai n1 is most fond of n2 = t1 (object/state)
from set t4, due to extreme t3 (ka; default ka
zmadu). (Cf. nelci, traji, plicu’a. Also: n1
likes/prefers n2 = t1 the most out of set t4. )
110nibli nimbau
nelti’i s1 = n1 recommends s2 = n2 to audience
s3. (Cf. stidi.)
nenri [ner ne’i] x1 is in/inside/within x2;
x1 is on the inside/interior of x2 [totally within the
bounds of x2]. (Indicates total containment. (cf.
se vasru (for containment that need not be total),
jbini, zvati, cpana, sruri, senta, snuji, bartu, diklo,
jibni, jinru, setca))
nerbei x1 imports x2 to x3 from x4 via x5 .
nercreka c1 is a singlet/undershirt/vest of material c2.
nerfopi x1 is a lobster of species x2. (Cf. xasyjukni, cakyjukni. From linnaean Nephropidae.)
nerkalri x1 is an entrance/entry/entryway/inlet/way in to x2
for x3 . (See also nerkla)
nerklaji k1 = n1 is a hallway / indoor street
within k2 = n2 accessing k3. (Made from nenri
+ klaji.)
nerkla n1 = k1 enters n2 = k2 from origin k3 via
route k4 using means/vehicle k5.
nerta’u x1=t1=n1 is underwear, worn by/on
x2=t2, for purpose x3=t3, worn under x4=n2
ne [GOI] non-restrictive relative phrase
marker: which incidentally is associated with
ni’ablo x1 is a submarine for carrying x2, propelled by x3. (Cf. cnita, bloti, beiblo, preblo, jamblo, bratcejamblo, brajamblo, cmajamblo, badjamblo, vijblo.)
ni’a [FAhA2] location tense relation/direction;
downwards/down from ...
ni’e [NIhE] convert selbri to mex operand; used
to create new non-numerical quantifiers; e.g.
”herd” of oxen.
ni’i ma [BAI*] sumti question asking for a logical proof; why?.
ni’inai [BAI*] nibli modal, 1st place despite
logic ...
ni’i [BAI] nibli modal, 1st place logically; logically because ...
ni’o [NIhO] discursive: paragraph break; introduce new topic.
ni’u zei ionti x1 is an anion of radical/(atom of
element)x2 with x3 charges. (Cf. ionti, ma’u zei
ionti, lektoni, xumsle.)
ni’u [PA3] digit/number: minus sign; negative
number); default any negative.
nibji’i j1 concludes that n1 (du’u) logically implies n2 under rules n3. (Cf. nibli, jinvi, lojycpa,
nibli [nib ni’i] x1 logically necessitates/entails/implies action/event/state x2
under rules/logic system x3. (See also natfe,
rinka, mukti, krinu, cmavo list ni’i, jalge, logji.)
nibyti’i x1 = n1 (idea/fact/du’u) suggests/intimates that x2 = n2 = s2
(idea/fact/du’u) is true as it appears to x3 = s3
(From nibli stidi. Unlike stidi, it refers to person’s
internal logical reasoning about facts, not external
nicte [cte] x1 is a nighttime of day x2 at location x3; (adjective:) x1 is at night/nocturnal.
(Tonight (= cabycte); tomorrow night (= bavlamcte, even when tonight is still in the future); last
night (= prulamcte). See also donri, djedi, tcika.)
nicygau g1 (agent) tidies/cleans
up/neatens/straightens c1 in property/quantity
c2 (ka/ni). (Cf. cnici, gasnu, ganzu)
niengatu x1 is Nheengatu/Tupi/Lingua Geral
in aspect x2. (see also brazo, abniena)
nikle [nik] x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of nickel/other metal resistant to oxidation.
(See also jinme.)
nilbra x1 is the size of x2 in property/dimension
x3 on scale x4.
nilce [ni’e] x1 [furniture items] furnishes x2
[location] serving purpose/function x3. (See also
ckana, jubme, sfofa, stizu, dacru.)
nilcla n1 is the length of c1 in dimension c2 measured on scale n3 = c3. (Cf. cisni, clani.)
nilgla n1 is the temperature of g1 measured on
scale n2. (Cf. glare, lenku, kelvo.)
nilji’a n1 is a number of points / score / indication of an attempt to win a competition won by j1
over opponent(s) j3 in competition j4, points measured on scale n2. (n2 moved to the end due to
apparent uselessness. Made from ni and jinga.)
nilnalci’o ni1 is the age [elapsed duration] of c1
by standard c2
nilsutra n1 is the speed / amount of fast-ness
measured on scale n2 of thing / agent s1 in / at
doing / being / bringing about s2 (event / state).
(Cf. ni, sutra, kamsutra.)
nilxa’ugri n1 (number) is the population of inhabitant group g1 in area x2 measured on scale n2.
(Cf. xabju, cecmu, tcadu, jarbu, nurma.)
nimbau b1 is Laadan. (A constructed language ´
by Suzette Haden Elgin)
111nitkla nobli
nimfaia x1 is a water-lily (Nymphaea) of
species/strain x2
nimre x1 is a quantity of citrus [fruit/tree, etc.]
of species/strain x2. (See also grute, slari, slami,
nimryjdu j1 is a quantity of citrus jelly made
from n1. (Cf. nimre, jduli.)
nim Ms. (Cf. ninmu, nix, nanl, naun.)
nincu’upre p1 is an intrepreneur involved in
business cu1 = cn1 (from cnino cuntu prenu c.f.
cu’upre nincu’u)
nincu’u cu1 = cn1 is a new business involving
persons cu2 (from cnino cuntu c.f. nincu’upre)
ninga’igau gas1 resets/changes gal1 to a new
value/content. (Cf. cnino, galfi, gasnu,
ninmu [nim ni’u] x1 is a woman/women;
x1 is a female humanoid person [not necessarily
adult]. (Word dispreferred in metaphor/example
as sexist; (use remna or prenu). See also nanmu,
remna, prenu, makcu, nixli.)
ninpre c1 = p1 is a stranger to c2 in aspect c3 by
standard c4 (since ninpre in the sense of ”novice”
seems to be deprecated in favor of nintadni, this
seems to be a better definition.)
nintadni c2 = t1 is a beginner in subject c1 = t2
by standard c4
ninyna’adetri d1 is New Year’s Day of d2 =
n1 = c1 at location d3 in calendar d4. (Cf.
ninyna’anunsla nu1 is the celebration of the
New Year as celebrated by s1 at the beginning of
year na1 = c1 according to standard na3; nu1 is
the New Year. (Cf. ninyna’adetri.)
nipmapku m1 = s1 is a beanie hat of material
m2. (Cf. mapku.)
nipsri d1 = s1 is an adhesive
tape/cellotape/Scotch Tape/duct tape of material d2, which sticks to s2. (Cf. bofsnipa.)
nipypalku p1 = s1 is a legging of material p2.
(Cf. palku.)
nircadyxu’i xu1 is an instance of anesthetic
blocking impulses from nerve group/system n1 =
c1 of n2. (Cf. nirna, xukmi, cortu, ganse.)
nirna [nir] x1 is a nerve/neuron [body-part]
of x2; [metaphor: information/control network
connection]. (Also (adjective:) x1 is neural. See
also ve benji.)
nitcu [tcu] x1 needs/requires/is dependent
on/[wants] necessity x2 for purpose/action/stage
of process x3. (No implication of lack. See also
banzu, cidja, claxu, pindi, xebni, sarcu, lacri, djica,
taske, xagji.)
nitkla k1 descends/goes down to k2 = c1 from
k3 = c2 via k4 using means k5. (Cf. cnita, klama.)
nitmau z1 = c1 is lower than z2 beneath c2 in
frame of reference c3 by amount/excess z4. (Cf.
cnita, zmadu, nitrai.)
nitrai t1 = c1 is the lowest among set/range t4
beneath c2 in frame of reference c3. (Cf. cnita, traji,
nitsalpo s1 dips at an angle of s2 to reference
frame s3, to beneath c2. (Cf. cnita, salpo, sa’orgau.)
nitytse z1 sits on surface z2 = c1 that is below c2
in frame of refernce c3. (Cf. cnita, zutse, cfatse.)
niutni g1 is g2 newton (s) of force (default
is 1) by standard g3. (Cf. klanrniut,ni,
nivji [niv] x1 (agent) knits x2 [cloth/object]
from yarn/thread x3. (See also cilta, fenso, jivbu,
nivycreka c1 = n2 is a sweater of material
c2 = n3. (A knitted jacket or jersey, usually of thick
wool. Cf. creka, tafrkardiga.)
nixli [nix xli] x1 is a girl [young female person] of age x2 immature by standard x3. (Word
dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; (use
verba). See also nanla, verba, ninmu.)
nix Miss (Cf. nixli, nanl, naun, nim.)
ni [nil] [NU] abstractor: quantity/amount
abstractor; x1 is quantity/amount of [bridi] measured on scale x2.
no’a [GOhA] pro-bridi: repeats the bridi in
which this one is embedded.
no’ebo [NAhE+BO ] negation sumti qualifier:
the neutral form/value of. (Cf. no’e, bo, na’ebo,
je’abo, to’ebo. Midpoint between je’abo and
no’e [nor no’e] [NAhE] midpoint scalar
negator: neutral point between je’a and to’e; ”not
no’i [NIhO] discursive: paragraph break; resume previous topic.
no’o [PA5] digit/number: typical/average
no’u [GOI] non-restrictive appositive phrase
marker: which incidentally is the same thing as ...
nobli [nol no’i] x1 is
in/under culture/society/standard x2. (Also
112noltroni’u normano
upper-class; high/low, upper/lower are poor
Lojban metaphors; note x2 standard applies when
the title/nobility is not recognized culture/society
wide; this would include self-assumed titles. See
also banli.)
noda [KOhA*] logically quantified sumti: nothing at all (unless restricted).
noisku c1 announces/proclaims c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience c3 = n4
via expressive medium c4. (Cf. notci, cusku.)
noi [NOI] non-restrictive relative clause; attaches subordinate bridi with incidental information.
nolba’i b1 = n1 is titled with high aristocratic/noble/elite status in/under culture/society
b3 = n2. (Cf. nobli, banli, kamba’i. ’Your Highness’ or ’Your Majesty’ is doi nolba’i).)
nolboi x1 is an orb made of b2 used by n1. (Cf.
nobli, bolci, nolga’a, trumapku.)
nolga’a g1 is a sceptre made of g2 used by n1.
(Cf. nobli, grana, nolboi, ri’irga’a, trumapku.)
noljedai x1 is a Jedi of power / level / rank x2
nolkansa k1 is a courtier to
sovereign/aristocrat/noble k2 in culture/country
n2 = k3. (Cf. nobli, kansa, nolse’u, nolraitru,
noltronau, noltruni’u, balnoltru.)
nolmapku m1 is a crown made of m2. (Cf. nobli,
mapku, trumapku, nolboi, nolga’a.)
nolmle m1 = n1 is elegant to m2 = n2. (Cf.
nolnaum Sir (Cf. nobli, nanmu, nol, nolnim.)
nolni’u ni1 = no1 is a lady, considered noble in
culture/society/standard no2. (Cf. nobli.)
nolnim Madam (Cf. nobli, ninmu, nol, nolnaum.)
nolraitru t1 = n1 is a regent/monarch
of t2 by standard n2. (Cf. nobli, traji,
turni, balnoltru, noltruni’u, noltrunau, noltroni’u,
noltronau, nolse’u, nolkansa, gugja’a, truralju.)
nolse’u s1 is a servant of
sovereign/aristocrat/noble s2 = n1 in culture/country n2 with responsibilities s3. (Cf.
nobli, selfu, nolkansa, nolraitru, balnoltru.)
nolstizu s1 is a throne/ceremonial chair used
by noble/aristocratic/elite/high-born/titled
in/under culture/society/standard n2. (Cf. nobli,
stizu, trustizu.)
noltronau ni1 = j1 = no1 is a
Duke/Baron/Count/Earl/Marquess/ [titled
noble of middle rank] ruling j2 under culture/standard no2. (Cf. nobli, jitro, nanmu,
noltroni’u, noltruni’u, nolraitru, balnoltru.)
noltroni’u ni1 = j1 = no1 is a
[titled noble of middle rank] ruling j2 under
culture/standard no2.. (Cf. nobli, jitro, ninmu,
noltronau, noltruni’u, nolraitru, balnoltru.)
noltrunau x1 is the king of x2 by standard x3.
(see also noltruni’u, nolraitru)
noltruni’u x1 is the queen of x2 by standard x3.
(see also noltrunau, nolraitru)
nolzda z1 is a palace of/for noble person(s) n1 =
z2. (Cf. badydi’u.)
nolzgi z1 = n1 the classical music performed
at/by z2 (event) originating in culture n1. (Cf.
nobli, zgike, dzeklu, ronri’izgi, naizgi, sopselneizgi, dja’aza, te’ekno.)
nol Sir/Madam (Cf. nobli, nilnim, nolnaum.)
nomo’o [MAI*] discursive utterance ordinal:
zeroth section/chapter ordinal; foreword.
nondei x1 is a Sunday of week x2 in calendar x3.
(Sunday is either day seven or day zero, depending on your perspective.)
nonjdi x1 is undecided/makes no decision
about x2. (See also aicu’i)
nonkansa x1 is alone/lonely/lonesome in
state/condition/enterprise x2. (Cf. kansa, seicni.)
nonselcei c2 disbelieves in god/deity c1 with
dominion over c3; c2 is an atheist. (Cf. cevni,
ceikri, nalceikri, selcei, pavyselcei, sorselcei,
nonseldi’a x1 is available for free/without cost
to x2 from provider x3.
nonselji’u x1 is invisible from point-of-view x2.
nonseljmi j2 (du’u) is a mystery for j1, the subject being j3. (Cf. jimpe, mipri.)
nonselsmu x1 is nonsense/nonsensical to x2.
(See also no smuni)
nonselsumji x1 is the additive inverse of x2.
(See also va’a)
norcpa c1 neither gets c2 from c3 nor puts c2 at
c3 (see also tolcpa)
noreg Norway.
4 norgo x1 reflects Norwegian culture/nationality in aspect x2 (Experimental
normano x1 reflects Norman culture/nationality/language in aspect x2.
113nu’o nunflapai
noroi [ROI*] tense interval modifier: never; objectively quantified tense; defaults as time tense.
norpa’a x1 is indifferent/neutral/apathetic
about event x2, expected likelihood x3. (Cf. no’e,
pacna, tolpa’a, norzau.)
norpa’i x1 is indifferent/apathetic/dispassionate/uninvolved/unmoved
towards/with/by x2. (See also iunai)
norselci’i x1 = c2 is disinterested in x2 = c1.
(Cf. cinri, selci’i, nalselci’i, tolselci’i, a’ucu’i.)
norvaismu s1 = v1 is an interpretation of s2
recognized by s3 but judged unimportant by v2.
norzau x1 is indifferent towards x2. (Cf. no’e,
zanru, norpa’a.)
notci’a c1 notes down c2 on display/storage
medium c3 with writing implement c4. (Cf. notci,
ciska, selmojnoi.)
notci [not noi] x1 is a message/notice/memorandum about subject x2
from author x3 to intended audience x4. (Emphasis on brevity, single or identifiable subject
(contrast with xatra: the emphasis in notci is on
the single or cohesively focused subject, while
the audience is less defined - indeed only an
’intended’ audience. xatra need not have a single
or focussed subject - its corresponding place is for
’content’); reminder/memo/note (= mojnoi). See
also xatra, nuzba, mrilu, morji.)
notsku c1 announces/proclaims c2
(sedu’u/text/lu’e concept) for audience c3 = n4
via expressive medium c4. (Cf. notci, cusku.)
no [non] [PA1] digit/number: 0 (digit)
nu’a [NUhA] convert mathematical expression
(mex) operator to a selbri/tanru component.
nu’ecu’i [COI*] vocative: promise - promise release - un-promise.
nu’enai [COI*] vocative: promise - promise release - un-promise.
nu’e [COI] vocative: promise - promise release
- un-promise.
nu’i [NUhI] start forethought termset construct;
marks start of place structure set with logical connection.
nu’ogle g1 is virgin/sexually inexperienced
nu’ospe x1=s1 is single (never been married)
by law/convention x2=s3 (See also: speni, spesti,
mrospe, spenu’e)
nu’o [nu’o] [CAhA] modal aspect: can but
has not; unrealized potential.
nu’u [NUhU] elidable terminator: end forethought termset; usually elidable except with following sumti.
nu,IORK New York
nukni [nuk] x1 is magenta/fuchsia/purplishred [color adjective]. (See also skari, blabi, xekri,
kandi, carmi, xunre, zirpu.)
nunbebna n1 is an event of b1 being foolish/silly/stupid in event/action /property (ka)
b2. (Cf. nu, bebna, kambebna.)
nuncasnu n1 is a conversation involving c1(s)
(mass normally, but 1 individual/jo’u possible)
about topic/subject c2. (Cf. nu, casnu.)
nuncatra n1 is the killing by c1 of c2 by action/method c3. (Cf. nu, catra.)
nunci’o n1 is the youth of c1. (Cf. nu, citno.)
nuncne x1 = n1 is a change in property/quantity x2 = c2 (ka/ni) of amount/degree
x3 = c3 under conditions x4 = c4. (Cf. nu, cenba,
galfi, stika.)
nuncnici n1 is order (state of being well arranged) of c1 with orderliness c2. (Cf. cnici, kalsa,
nuncti n1 is an event at which c1 eat(s) c2. (Cf.
nu, citka, sanmi, ctisla, balsai.)
nunda’a n1 is a fight/battle in which d1 fights
d2 over issue d3 (abstract). (Cf. nu, damba, nundamba, terjvi.)
nundamba n1 is a fight/battle in which d1 fights
d2 over issue d3 (abstract). (Cf. nu, damba,
nunda’a, terjvi.)
nundansu n1 is a dance with dancer(s) d1 (individual, mass) to music/rhythm d2. (Cf. dansu,
nunde’a n1 is a pause by d1 for/until d2
at state d3 before starting/continuing d4 (activity/process). (Cf. nu, denpa.)
nundenpa n1 is a pause by d1 for/until d2
at state d3 before starting/continuing d4 (activity/process). (Cf. nu, denpa, nunde’a.)
nundunkrali n1 is the equality of rights k1 = d3
entitled to k2 = d1 = d2.
nunfirsku n1 is a facial expression (countenance) of agent f2 = c1 expressing f1 = c2. (Cf.
flira, cusku.)
nunflapai n1 is a trial of dispute j2 involving
people f3. (Cf. nu, pajni, tavla, fapro, nunpai, flapaizda. x3 includes not only the disputing parties
114nunseltickri nutli
but also the judge and juries, which may be connected with ”jo’u”. )
nunfusra n1 is the decay/fermentation (recycling of matter/energy/electrons) of f1 by chemical agent f2.
nunjacycrepu n1 is fishery (fish industry) of
product c2 (aquatic animals) from source/area
c3 = t1 (ocean/sea/coast/lake/river) by fishermen c1. (x2 can be any harvestable aquatic animals, including mollusks and crustaceans. Cf.
nunji’e n1 is the life of j1.
nunjmaji x1 is a gathering/meeting/assembly/conclave/conference/
congregation/congress/convention/encounter/gettogether/reunion of participants x2 at location x3
from locations x4. (Cf. nu, jmaji, jdijmaji, nunpe’i
for a meeting between two parties.)
nunjo’e n1 is an established connection between
j1 and j2 at common locus j3. (n1 or j1 may be a
mass formed with ”joi”, as is the case in a computer network between a server and clients. Cf.
jorne, srana.)
nunka’oku’i n1 is a condition of ku1 managing
the health of ka1. (Usually the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through
the services offered by the medical, nursing, and
allied health professions. x2 and x3 may the same
or different. Cf. kamnu’a.)
nunkei n1 is a game played by k1 playing with
plaything/toy k2 (Cf. nu, kelci, terjvi, ci’erkei.)
nunlerci n1 is the lateness of l1 (event) by standard l2. (Cf. nu, lerci.)
nunmi’a n1 is the laugh/laughter of/by c1
(from nu cmila)
nunmikce n1 is medical, involving doctor/nurse m1, patient m2, ailment m3, and
treatment/cure m4. (Cf. mikce, kurji, sidju.)
nunmro n1 is the death (state of being dead) of
m1 (person).
nunmu’i n1 is the event of m1 motivating action
m2 per volition m3.
nunpai n1 is a trial/judgement/arbitration
with judge/arbitrator/referee p1 determining/deciding matter p2. (Cf. nu, pajni, nunflapai,
nunpe’i x1 is a meeting between x2 and x3 at/in
location x4. (Cf. nu, penmi, nunjmaji, jdijmaji.)
nunseltickri x1 is a believe-deceived with
deceive-belief subject x2 with deception subject x3.
nunsezyfanta n1 is self-restraint shown by f1 =
s2 (from nu sevzi fanta c.f. sezyfanta)
nunsimbi’o n1 is an event of integration between s1 = b1
nunskezu’e n1 is engineering in branch s2
based on methodology s3 (from nu saske zukte)
nunspe n1 is the marriage of s1 and s2 according to tradition s3.








Author:je_luo d'hishwards